Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: M. V. Rane

9 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

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8 Identification of Synthetic Hybrids of 4-Thiazolidinone-Bromopyrrole Alkaloid as HIV-1 RT Inhibitors

Authors: Rajesh A. Rane, Shital S. Naphade, Rajshekhar Karpoormath


Thiozolidin-4-one, a mimic of thiazolobenzimidazole (TBZ) has drawn many attentions due to its potent and selective inhibition against the HIV-1 and low toxicity by binding to the allosteric site of the reverse transcriptase (RT) as a non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI). Similarly, marine bromopyrrole alkaloids are well known for their diverse array of anti-infective properties. Hence, we have reported synthesis and in vitro HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of a series of 4-thiazolidinone-bromopyrrole alkaloid hybrids tethered with amide linker. The results of in vitro HIV-1 RT kit assay showed that some of the compounds, such as 4c, 4d, and 4i could effectively inhibit RT activity. Among them, compounds 4c having 4-chlorophenyl substituted 4-thiazolidione ring was the best one with the IC50 value of 0.26 µM. The sturdy emerges with key structure-activity relationship that pyrrole-NH-free core benefited inhibition against HIV-1 RT inhibition. This study identified conjugate 4c with potent activity and selectivity as promising compound for further drug development to HIV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, bromopyrrole alkaloids, HIV-1 RT inhibition, 4-thiazolidinone

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7 Efficient Liquid Desiccant Regeneration for Fresh Air Dehumidification Application

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Fresh Air Dehumidifier having a capacity of 1 TR has been developed by Heat Pump Laboratory at IITB. This fresh air dehumidifier is based on potassium formate liquid desiccant. The regeneration of the liquid desiccant can be done in two stages. The first stage of liquid desiccant regeneration involves the boiling of liquid desiccant inside the evacuated glass type solar thermal collectors. Further regeneration of liquid desiccant can be achieved using Low Temperature Regenerator, LTR. The coefficient of performance of the fresh air dehumidifier greatly depends on the performance of the major components such as high temperature regenerator, low temperature regenerator, fresh air dehumidifier, and solution heat exchangers. High effectiveness solution heat exchanger has been developed and tested. The solution heat exchanger is based on a patented aluminium extrusion with special passage geometry to enhance the heat transfer rate. Effectiveness up to 90% was achieved. Before final testing of the dehumidifier, major components have been tested individually. Testing of the solar thermal collector as hot water and steam generator reveals that efficiency up to 55% can be achieved. In this paper, the development of 1 TR fresh air dehumidifier with special focus on solution heat exchangers and solar thermal collector performance is presented.

Keywords: solar, liquid desiccant, dehumidification, air conditioning, regeneration, coefficient of performance

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6 Phytobeds with Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for Treatment of Real Textile Effluent: An in situ Treatment, Anatomical Studies and Toxicity Evaluation

Authors: Suhas Kadam, Vishal Chandanshive, Niraj Rane, Sanjay Govindwar


Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and their co-plantation consortium FA were found to degrade methyl orange, simulated dye mixture, and real textile effluent. Wild plants of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera with equal biomass showed 91 and 89% decolorization of methyl orange within 60 h at a concentration of 50 ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48 h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79, 72, 77, 66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolve solid and total suspended solid of textile effluent, respectively. High performance thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Visible spectroscopy and enzymatic assays confirmed the phytotransformation of parent dye in the new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of methyl orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage in the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed normal banding pattern in treated methyl orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.

Keywords: constructed wetland, phyto-bed, textile effluent, phytoremediation

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5 Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent

Authors: V. P. Borker, K. S. Rane, A. J. Bhobe, R. S. Karmali


Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.

Keywords: cadmium doped zinc oxide, dye degradation, dye effluent degradation, N doped zinc oxide, zinc oxide

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4 Multi-Functional Metal Oxides as Gas Sensors, Photo-Catalysts and Bactericides

Authors: Koyar Rane


Nano- to submicron size particles of narrow particle size distribution of semi-conducting TiO₂, ZnO, NiO, CuO, Fe₂O₃ have been synthesized by novel hydrazine method and tested for their gas sensing, photocatalytic and bactericidal activities and the behavior found to be enhanced when the oxides in the thin film forms, that obtained in a specially built spray pyrolysis reactor. Hydrazine method is novel in the sense, say, the UV absorption edge of the white pigment grade wide band gap (~3.2eV) TiO₂ and ZnO shifted to the visible region turning into yellowish particles, indicating modification occurring the band structure. The absorption in the visible region makes these oxides visible light sensitive photocatalysis in degrading pollutants, especially the organic dyes which otherwise increase the chemical oxygen demand of the drinking water, enabling the process feasible not under the harsh energetic UV radiation regime. The electromagnetic radiations on irradiation produce electron-hole pairs Semiconductor + hν → e⁻ + h⁺ The electron-hole pairs thus produced form Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, on the surface of the semiconductors, O₂(adsorbed)+e⁻ → O₂• - superoxide ion OH-(surface)+h⁺ →•OH - Hydroxyl radical The ROS attack the organic material and micro-organisms. Our antibacterial studies indicate the metal oxides control the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of drinking water which had beyond the safe level normally found in the municipal supply. Metal oxides in the thin film form show overall enhanced properties and the films are reusable. The results of the photodegradation and antibactericidal studies are discussed. Gas sensing studies too have been done to find the versatility of the multifunctional metal oxides.

Keywords: hydrazine method, visible light sensitive, photo-degradation of dyes, water/airborne pollutant

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3 Investigation of the IL23R Psoriasis/PsA Susceptibility Locus

Authors: Shraddha Rane, Richard Warren, Stephen Eyre


L-23 is a pro-inflammatory molecule that signals T cells to release cytokines such as IL-17A and IL-22. Psoriasis is driven by a dysregulated immune response, within which IL-23 is now thought to play a key role. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic risk loci that support the involvement of IL-23 signalling in psoriasis; in particular a robust susceptibility locus at a gene encoding a subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL23R) (Stuart et al., 2015; Tsoi et al., 2012). The lead psoriasis-associated SNP rs9988642 is located approximately 500 bp downstream of IL23R but is in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a missense SNP rs11209026 (R381Q) within IL23R (r2 = 0.85). The minor (G) allele of rs11209026 is present in approximately 7% of the population and is protective for psoriasis and several other autoimmune diseases including IBD, ankylosing spondylitis, RA and asthma. The psoriasis-associated missense SNP R381Q causes an arginine to glutamine substitution in a region of the IL23R protein between the transmembrane domain and the putative JAK2 binding site in the cytoplasmic portion. This substitution is expected to affect the receptor’s surface localisation or signalling ability, rather than IL23R expression. Recent studies have also identified a psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-specific signal at IL23R; thought to be independent from the psoriasis association (Bowes et al., 2015; Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). The lead PsA-associated SNP rs12044149 is intronic to IL23R and is in LD with likely causal SNPs intersecting promoter and enhancer marks in memory CD8+ T cells (Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). It is therefore likely that the PsA-specific SNPs affect IL23R function via a different mechanism compared with the psoriasis-specific SNPs. It could be hypothesised that the risk allele for PsA located within the IL23R promoter causes an increase IL23R expression, relative to the protective allele. An increased expression of IL23R might then lead to an exaggerated immune response. The independent genetic signals identified for psoriasis and PsA in this locus indicate that different mechanisms underlie these two conditions; although likely both affecting the function of IL23R. It is very important to further characterise these mechanisms in order to better understand how the IL-23 receptor and its downstream signalling is affected in both diseases. This will help to determine how psoriasis and PsA patients might differentially respond to therapies, particularly IL-23 biologics. To investigate this further we have developed an in vitro model using CD4 T cells which express either wild type IL23R and IL12Rβ1 or mutant IL23R (R381Q) and IL12Rβ1. Model expressing different isotypes of IL23R is also underway to investigate the effects on IL23R expression. We propose to further investigate the variants for Ps and PsA and characterise key intracellular processes related to the variants.

Keywords: IL23R, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, SNP

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2 Solar Liquid Desiccant Regenerator for Two Stage KCOOH Based Fresh Air Dehumidifier

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Liquid desiccant based fresh air dehumidifiers can be gainfully deployed for air-conditioning, agro-produce drying and in many industrial processes. Regeneration of liquid desiccant can be done using direct firing, high temperature waste heat or solar energy. Solar energy is clean and available in abundance; however, it is costly to collect. A two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidification system can offer Coefficient of Performance (COP), in the range of 1.6 to 2 for comfort air conditioning applications. High COP helps reduce the size and cost of collectors required. Performance tests on high temperature regenerator of a two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidifier coupled with seasonally tracked flat plate like solar collector will be presented in this paper. The two stage fresh air dehumidifier has four major components: High Temperature Regenerator (HTR), Low Temperature Regenerator (LTR), High and Low Temperature Solution Heat Exchangers and Fresh Air Dehumidifier (FAD). This open system can operate at near atmospheric pressure in all the components. These systems can be simple, maintenance-free and scalable. Environmentally benign, non-corrosive, moderately priced Potassium Formate, KCOOH, is used as a liquid desiccant. Typical KCOOH concentration in the system is expected to vary between 65 and 75%. Dilute liquid desiccant at 65% concentration exiting the fresh air dehumidifier will be pumped and preheated in solution heat exchangers before entering the high temperature solar regenerator. In the solar collector, solution will be regenerated to intermediate concentration of 70%. Steam and saturated solution exiting the solar collector array will be separated. Steam at near atmospheric pressure will then be used to regenerate the intermediate concentration solution up to a concentration of 75% in a low temperature regenerator where moisture vaporized be released in to atmosphere. Condensed steam can be used as potable water after adding a pinch of salt and some nutrient. Warm concentrated liquid desiccant will be routed to solution heat exchanger to recycle its heat to preheat the weak liquid desiccant solution. Evacuated glass tube based seasonally tracked solar collector is used for regeneration of liquid desiccant at high temperature. Temperature of regeneration for KCOOH is 133°C at 70% concentration. The medium temperature collector was designed for temperature range of 100 to 150°C. Double wall polycarbonate top cover helps reduce top losses. Absorber integrated heat storage helps stabilize the temperature of liquid desiccant exiting the collectors during intermittent cloudy conditions, and extends the operation of the system by couple of hours beyond the sunshine hours. This solar collector is light in weight, 12 kg/m2 without absorber integrated heat storage material, and 27 kg/m2 with heat storage material. Cost of the collector is estimated to be 10,000 INR/m2. Theoretical modeling of the collector has shown that the optical efficiency is 62%. Performance test of regeneration of KCOOH will be reported.

Keywords: solar, liquid desiccant, dehumidification, air conditioning, regeneration

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1 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Metastatic Effect of Aqueous Fraction from Euchelus Asper Methanolic Extract

Authors: Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Gargi Rane, Shashank More, Madhavi Indap


Angiogenesis and metastasis are two of the most important hallmarks of cancer. Hence, most of the cancer therapies nowadays are multi-targeted so as to reduce resistance and have better efficacy. As synthetic molecules arise with a burden of their toxicities and side-effects, more and more research is being focussed on exploiting the vast natural resources of drugs, in the form of plants and animals. Although, the idea of using marine organisms as a source of pharmaceuticals is not new, the pace at which marine drugs are being discovered, has definitely up surged! In the present study, we have assessed the anti-angiogenic and in vitro anti-metastatic activity of aqueous fraction from the extract of marine gastropod Euchelus asper. The soft body of Euchelus Asper was extracted with methanol and named EAME. Partition chromatography of EAME gave three fractions EAME I, II and III. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of proteins in EAME III. Preliminary analysis had revealed the anti-angiogenic activity was exhibited by EAME III out of the three fractions. Hereafter, EAME III (concentration 25µg/ml-400µg/ml) was tested on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model for the detailed analysis of its potential anti-angiogenic effect. In vitro testing of the fraction (concentration 0.25µg/ml - 1µg/ml), involved cytotoxicity by SRB assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and anti-proliferative effect by scratch wound healing assay on A549 lung carcinoma cells. Apart from this, a portion of treated CAM as well as conditioned medium from treated A549 were subjected to gelatin zymography for assessment of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Our results revealed that EAME III exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity on CAM which was also supported by histological observations. During histological studies of CAM, it was found that EAME III caused reduction in angiogenesis by altering the extracellular matrix of the CAM membrane. In vitro analysis disclosed that EAME III exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect on A549 cells and its effect was not dose-dependent. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that EAME III caused cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line as almost all of the treated cells were found in G1 phase. Further, the migration and proliferation of A549 was significantly reduced by EAME III as observed from the scratch wound assay. Moreover, Gelatin zymography analysis revealed that EAME III caused suppression of MMP-2 in CAM membrane and reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression in A549 cells. This verified that the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of EAME III were correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 and -9. To conclude, EAME III shows dual anti-tumour action by reducing angiogenesis and exerting anti-metastatic effect on lung cancer cells, thus it has the potential to be used as an anti-cancer agent against lung carcinoma.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cancer, marine drugs, matrix metalloproteinases

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