Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1843

Search results for: hybrid combustion

1843 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan


Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1842 Development of a Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain System with Double Continuously Variable Transmissions

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Chi-Shiun Chiou


This study developed a plug-in hybrid powertrain system which consisted of two continuous variable transmissions. By matching between the engine, motor, generator, and dual continuous variable transmissions, this integrated power system can take advantages of the components. The hybrid vehicle can be driven by the internal combustion engine, or electric motor alone, or by these two power sources together when the vehicle is driven in hard acceleration or high load. The energy management of this integrated hybrid system controls the power systems based on rule-based control strategy to achieve better fuel economy. When the vehicle driving power demand is low, the internal combustion engine is operating in the low efficiency region, so the internal combustion engine is shut down, and the vehicle is driven by motor only. When the vehicle driving power demand is high, internal combustion engine would operate in the high efficiency region; then the vehicle could be driven by internal combustion engine. This strategy would operate internal combustion engine only in optimal efficiency region to improve the fuel economy. In this research, the vehicle simulation model was built in MATLAB/ Simulink environment. The analysis results showed that the power coupled efficiency of the hybrid powertrain system with dual continuous variable transmissions was better than that of the Honda hybrid system on the market.

Keywords: plug-in hybrid power system, fuel economy, performance, continuously variable transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1841 Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scaled down Hybrid Rocket Engine

Authors: Pawthawala Nancy Manish, Syed Alay Hashim


A hybrid rocket is a rocket engine which uses propellants in two different states of matter- one is in solid and the other either gas or liquid. A hybrid rocket exhibit advantages over both liquid rockets and solid rockets especially in terms of simplicity, stop-start-restart capabilities, safety and cost. This paper deals the design and development of a hybrid rocket having paraffin wax as solid fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Due to variation of pressure in combustion chamber there is significantly change in mass flow rate, burning rate and uneven regression along the length of the grain. This project describes the working model of a hybrid propellant rocket motor. We have designed a hybrid rocket thrust chamber based on the predetermined combustion chamber pressure and the properties of hybrid propellant. This project is all ready in working condition with normal oxygen injector. Now we have planned to modify the injector design to improve the combustion property. We will use spray type injector for injecting the oxidizer. This idea will increase the performance followed by the regression rate of the solid fuel. By employing mass conservation law, oxygen mass flux, oxidizer/fuel ratio and regression rate the thrust coefficient can be obtained for our current design. CATIA V5 R20 is our design software for the complete setup. This project is fully based on experimental evaluation and the collection of combustion and flow parameters. The thrust chamber is made of stainless steel and the duration of test is around 15-20 seconds (Maximum). These experiments indicates that paraffin based fuel provides the opportunity to satisfy a broad range of mission requirements for the next generation of the hybrid rocket system.

Keywords: burning rate, liquid oxygen, mass flow rate, paraffin wax and sugar

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1840 Hybrid Rocket Motor Performance Parameters: Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi


A mathematical model to predict the performance parameters (thrusts, chamber pressures, fuel mass flow rates, mixture ratios, and regression rates during firing time) of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) is evaluated. The internal ballistic (IB) hybrid combustion model assumes that the solid fuel surface regression rate is controlled only by heat transfer (convective and radiative) from flame zone to solid fuel burning surface. A laboratory HRM is designed, manufactured, and tested for low thrust profile space missions (10-15 N) and for validating the mathematical model (computer program). The polymer material and gaseous oxidizer which are selected for this experimental work are polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene (PE) as solid fuel grain and gaseous oxygen (GO2) as oxidizer. The variation of various operational parameters with time is determined systematically and experimentally in firing of up to 20 seconds, and an average combustion efficiency of 95% of theory is achieved, which was the goal of these experiments. The comparison between recording fire data and predicting analytical parameters shows good agreement with the error that does not exceed 4.5% during all firing time. The current mathematical (computer) code can be used as a powerful tool for HRM analytical design parameters.

Keywords: hybrid combustion, internal ballistics, hybrid rocket motor, performance parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
1839 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
1838 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar


This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1837 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang


Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1836 Performance Evaluation of Karanja Oil Based Biodiesel Engine Using Modified Genetic Algorithm

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. Dhingra, K. K. Dubey


This paper presents the evaluation of performance (BSFC and BTE), combustion (Pmax) and emission (CO, NOx, HC and smoke opacity) parameters of karanja biodiesel in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine by considering significant engine input parameters (blending ratio, compression ratio and load torque). Multi-objective optimization of performance, combustion and emission parameters is also carried out in a karanja biodiesel engine using hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. The pareto optimum solutions are predicted by running the hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. Each pareto optimal solution is having its own importance. Confirmation tests are also conducted at randomly selected few pareto solutions to check the authenticity of the results.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, rsm, biodiesel, karanja

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1835 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1834 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh


Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1833 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins


Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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1832 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando


Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, fluidized bed

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1831 The Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) on Homogeneous Change Compression Ignition (HCCI)

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablus, Osama Ab. M. Shafah


The goal of this work is to understand how the thermal influence of combustion chamber deposits can be utilized to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion. In order to do this, two main objectives must first be met; tracking deposit formation trends in an HCCI engine and determining the sensitivity of HCCI combustion to CCD. This requires testing that demonstrates the differences in combustion between a clean engine and one with deposits coating the chamber. This will involve a long-term test that tracks the effects of CCD on combustion. The test will start with a clean engine. One baseline HCCI operating point is maintained for the duration of the test during which gradual combustion chamber deposit formation will occur. Combustion parameters, including heat release rates and emissions will be tracked for the duration and compared to the case of a clean engine. This work will begin by detailing the specifics of the test procedure and measurements taken throughout the test. Then a review of the effects of the gradual formation of deposits in the engine will be given.

Keywords: fuels, fuel atomization, pattern factor, alternate fuels combustion, efficiency gas turbine combustion, lean blow out, exhaust and liner wall temperature

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1830 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe


Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: analysis, combustion, droplet, sodium

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1829 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, methane, BOP, MCFC power generation system, inlet temperature, excess air ratio, space velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1828 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López


In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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1827 Analysis of Syngas Combustion Characteristics in Can-Type Combustor using CFD

Authors: Norhaslina Mat Zian, Hasril Hasini, Nur Irmawati Om


This study focuses on the flow and combustion behavior inside gas turbine combustor used in thermal power plant. The combustion process takes place using synthetic gas and the baseline solution was made on gas turbine combustor firing natural gas (100% Methane) as the main source of fuel. Attention is given to the effect of the H2/CO ratio on the variation of the flame profile, temperature distribution, and emissions. The H2/CO ratio varies in the range of 10-80 % and the CH4 values are fixed 10% for each case. While keeping constant the mass flow rate and operating pressure, the preliminary result shows that the flow inside the can-combustor is highly swirling which indicates good mixing of fuel and air prior to the entrance of the mixture to the main combustion zone.

Keywords: cfd, combustion, flame, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1826 Developing NAND Flash-Memory SSD-Based File System Design

Authors: Jaechun No


This paper focuses on I/O optimizations of N-hybrid (New-Form of hybrid), which provides a hybrid file system space constructed on SSD and HDD. Although the promising potentials of SSD, such as the absence of mechanical moving overhead and high random I/O throughput, have drawn a lot of attentions from IT enterprises, its high ratio of cost/capacity makes it less desirable to build a large-scale data storage subsystem composed of only SSDs. In this paper, we present N-hybrid that attempts to integrate the strengths of SSD and HDD, to offer a single, large hybrid file system space. Several experiments were conducted to verify the performance of N-hybrid.

Keywords: SSD, data section, I/O optimizations, hybrid system

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1825 The Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coated Piston Crown on Engine Characteristics in a Spark Ignited Engine

Authors: A.Velavan, C. G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran


In present investigation, experiments were carried out to compare the effect of the ceramic coated piston crown and uncoated piston on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port injected Spark Ignited engine. The piston crown was coated with aluminium alloy in the form ceramic oxide layer of thickness 500 µm using micro-arc oxidation technique. This ceramic coating will act as a thermal barrier which reduces in-cylinder heat rejection and increases the durability of the piston by withstanding high temperature and pressure produced during combustion. Flame visualization inside the combustion chamber was carried out using AVL Visioscope combustion analyzer to predict the type of combustion occurs at different load condition. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the coated piston shows an improved thermal efficiency when compared to uncoated piston. This is because more heat presents in the combustion chamber which helps efficient combustion of the fuel. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced due to better combustion of the fuel whereas NOx emission was increased due to increase in combustion temperature for ceramic coated piston.

Keywords: coated piston, micro-arc oxidation, thermal barrier, thermal efficiency, visioscope

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1824 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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1823 The Properties of Na2CO3 and Ti Hybrid Modified LM 6 Alloy Using Ladle Metallurgy

Authors: M. N. Ervina Efzan, H. J. Kong, C. K. Kok


The present work deals with a study on the influences of hybrid modifier on LM 6 added through ladle metallurgy. In this study, LM 6 served as the reference alloy while Na2CO3 and Ti powders were used as the hybrid modifier. The effects of hybrid modifier on the micro structural enhancement of LM 6 were investigated using optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed fragmented Si-rich needles and strength enhanced petal/ globular-like structures without obvious formation of soft primary α-Al and β-Fe-rich inter metallic compound (IMC) after the hybrid modification. Hardness test was conducted to examine the mechanical improvement of hybrid modified LM 6. 10% of hardness improvement was recorded in the hybrid modified LM 6 through ladle metallurgy.

Keywords: Al-Si, hybrid modifier, ladle metallurgy, hardness

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1822 Microwave Production of Geopolymers Using Fluidized Bed Combustion Bottom Ash

Authors: Osholana Tobi Stephen, Rotimi Emmanuel Sadiku, Bilainu Oboirien.o


Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a clean coal technology used in the combustion of low-grade coals for power generation. The production of large solid wastes such as bottom ashes from this process is a problem. The bottom ash contains some toxic elements which can leach out soils and contaminate surface and ground water; for this reason, they can neither be disposed in landfills nor lagoons anymore. The production of geopolymers from bottom ash for structural and concrete applications is an option for their disposal. In this study, the waste bottom ash obtained from the combustion of three low grade South African coals in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor was used to produce geopolymers. The geopolymers were cured in a household microwave. The results showed that the microwave curing enhanced the reactivity and strength of the geopolymers.

Keywords: bottom ash, coal, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) geopolymer, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1821 Kinetic Evaluation of Sterically Hindered Amines under Partial Oxy-Combustion Conditions

Authors: Sara Camino, Fernando Vega, Mercedes Cano, Benito Navarrete, José A. Camino


Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies should play a relevant role towards low-carbon systems in the European Union by 2030. Partial oxy-combustion emerges as a promising CCS approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. Its advantages respect to other CCS technologies rely on the production of a higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas than these provided by conventional air-firing processes. The presence of more CO₂ in the flue gas increases the driving force in the separation process and hence it might lead to further reductions of the energy requirements of the overall CO₂ capture process. A higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas should enhance the CO₂ capture by chemical absorption in solvent kinetic and CO₂ cyclic capacity. They have impact on the performance of the overall CO₂ absorption process by reducing the solvent flow-rate required for a specific CO₂ removal efficiency. Lower solvent flow-rates decreases the reboiler duty during the regeneration stage and also reduces the equipment size and pumping costs. Moreover, R&D activities in this field are focused on novel solvents and blends that provide lower CO₂ absorption enthalpies and therefore lower energy penalties associated to the solvent regeneration. In this respect, sterically hindered amines are considered potential solvents for CO₂ capture. They provide a low energy requirement during the regeneration process due to its molecular structure. However, its absorption kinetics are slow and they must be promoted by blending with faster solvents such as monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ). In this work, the kinetic behavior of two sterically hindered amines were studied under partial oxy-combustion conditions and compared with MEA. A lab-scale semi-batch reactor was used. The CO₂ composition of the synthetic flue gas varied from 15%v/v – conventional coal combustion – to 60%v/v – maximum CO₂ concentration allowable for an optimal partial oxy-combustion operation. Firstly, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) showed a hybrid behavior with fast kinetics and a low enthalpy of CO₂ absorption. The second solvent was Isophrondiamine (IF), which has a steric hindrance in one of the amino groups. Its free amino group increases its cyclic capacity. In general, the presence of higher CO₂ concentration in the flue gas accelerated the CO₂ absorption phenomena, producing higher CO₂ absorption rates. In addition, the evolution of the CO2 loading also exhibited higher values in the experiments using higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas. The steric hindrance causes a hybrid behavior in this solvent, between both fast and slow kinetic solvents. The kinetics rates observed in all the experiments carried out using AMP were higher than MEA, but lower than the IF. The kinetic enhancement experienced by AMP at a high CO2 concentration is slightly over 60%, instead of 70% – 80% for IF. AMP also improved its CO₂ absorption capacity by 24.7%, from 15%v/v to 60%v/v, almost double the improvements achieved by MEA. In IF experiments, the CO₂ loading increased around 10% from 15%v/v to 60%v/v CO₂ and it changed from 1.10 to 1.34 mole CO₂ per mole solvent, more than 20% of increase. This hybrid kinetic behavior makes AMP and IF promising solvents for partial oxy–combustion applications.

Keywords: absorption, carbon capture, partial oxy-combustion, solvent

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1820 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

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1819 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas


Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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1818 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab


Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Sr-ferrite, sol-gel, magnetic properties, calcination

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
1817 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim


Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: nanoparticles, thermite reaction, combustion wave, numerical modeling

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1816 Effects of Diluent Gas Velocity on Formation of Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution Combustion with Fuel Spray for Gas Turbine

Authors: ChunLoon Cha, HoYeon Lee, SangSoon Hwang


Mild combustion is characterized with its distinguished features, such as suppressed pollutant emission, homogeneous temperature distribution, reduced noise and thermal stress. However, most studies for MILD combustion have been focused on gas phase fuel. Therefore further study on MILD combustion using liquid fuel is needed for the application to liquid fueled gas turbine especially. In this work, we will focus on numerical simulation of the effects of diluent gas velocity on the formation of liquid fuel MILD combustion used in gas turbine area. A series of numerical simulations using Ansys fluent 18.2 have been carried out in order to investigate the detail effect of the flow field in the furnace on the formation of MILD combustion. The operating conditions were fixed at relatively lower heat intensity of 1.28 MW/m³ atm and various global equivalence ratios were changed. The results show that the local high temperature region was decreased and the flame temperature was uniformly distributed due to high velocity of diluted burnt gas. The increasing of diluted burnt gas velocity can be controlled by open ratio of adapter size. It was found that the maximum temperature became lower than 1800K and the average temperature was lower than 1500K that thermal NO formation was suppressed.

Keywords: MILD combustion, spray combustion, liquid fuel, diluent gas velocity, low NOx emission

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1815 Radial Fuel Injection Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Engine

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska


Designing a new engine requires a large number of different cases to be considered. Especially different injector parameters and combustion chamber geometries. This is essential when developing an engine with unconventional build – compression ignition, two-stroke operating with direct side injection. Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling allows to test those different conditions and seek for the best conditions with correct combustion. This research presents the combustion results for different injector and combustion chamber cases. The shape of combustion chamber is different than for conventional engines as it requires side injection. This completely changes the optimal shape for the given condition compared to standard automotive heart shaped combustion chamber. Because the injection is not symmetrical there is a strong influence of cylinder swirl and piston motion on the injected fuel stream. The results present the fuel injection phenomena allowing to predict the right injection parameters for a maximum combustion efficiency and minimum piston heat loads. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, injection, opposed piston

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1814 Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Palm Kernel Shell Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Kanit Manatura


The combustion and pyrolysis behavior of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A 10 mg sample of each biomass was heated from 30 °C to 800 °C at four heating rates (within 5, 10, 15 and 30 °C/min) in nitrogen and dry air flow of 20 ml/min instead of pyrolysis and combustion process respectively. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition occurred on three different stages include dehydration, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin decomposition on each temperature range. The TG/DTG curves showed the degradation behavior and the pyrolysis/combustion characteristics of the PKS samples which led to apply in thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetic factors including activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined by the Coats-Redfern method. The obtained kinetic factors are used to simulate the thermal decomposition and compare with experimental data. Rising heating rate leads to shift the mass loss towards higher temperature.

Keywords: combustion, palm kernel shell, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analyzer

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