Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: refrigerants

38 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of Alternative Refrigerants as Retrofit for Freon 12

Authors: Mutalubi Aremu Akintunde, John Isa


The negative impact on the atmosphere, of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFC) radical changes and measures were put in place to replace them. This has led to search for alternative refrigerants over the past decades. This paper presents thermal conductivity, diffusivity and performance of two alternative refrigerants as replacement to R12, which has been a versatile refrigerant which had turned the refrigeration industries around for decades, but one of the offensive refrigerants. The new refrigerants were coded RA1 (50%R600a/50%R134a;) and RA2 (70%R600a/30%R134a). The diffusivities for RA1 and RA2 were estimated to be, 2.76384 X 10-8 m2/s and 2.74386 X 10-8 m2/s respectively, while that of R12 under the same experimental condition is 2.43772 X 10-8 m2/s. The performances of the two refrigerants in a refrigerator initially designed for R12, were very close to that of R12. Other thermodynamic parameters showed that R12 can be replaced with both RA1 and RA2.

Keywords: alternative refrigerants, conductivity, diffusivity, performance, refrigerants

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37 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain


In present paper, the performance of various alternative refrigerants is compared to find the substitute of R22, the widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant in developing countries. These include the environmentally friendly hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants such as R134A, R410A, R407C and M20. In the present study, a steady state thermodynamic model (includes both first and second law analysis) which simulates the working of an actual vapor-compression system is developed. The model predicts the performance of system with alternative refrigerants. Considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, R407C is found to be potential candidate to replace R22 refrigerant in the present study.

Keywords: refrigeration, compression system, performance study, modeling, R407C

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36 Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System with Alternate Refrigerants

Authors: K. Parthiban, P. Pradeep, I. Pon Surya Prakash, S. Vinoth, A. Murugan


The main aim of this project is to analyze the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system with alternate refrigerants. Currently we are using R134a as refrigerant. It is used in both household and industrial appliances as refrigerant. It has an advantage that the ozone depletion potential is zero i.e. R134a does not affects ozone layer. But its Global warming potential is considerably high. Also the compressor failure occurs frequently. Hence this project deals with how the performance of R134a varies with blended refrigerants such as R416a and R407c. This analysis is based on how much the Co-efficient of Performance (COP) varies with different refrigerants.

Keywords: compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator

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35 Performance Study of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain, S. S. Kachhwaha


Cascade refrigeration systems employ series of single stage vapor compression units which are thermally coupled with evaporator/condenser cascades. Different refrigerants are used in each of the circuit depending on the optimum characteristics shown by the refrigerant for a particular application. In the present research study, a steady state thermodynamic model is developed which simulates the working of an actual cascade system. The model provides COP and all other system parameters like total compressor work, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy at different state points. The working fluid in Low Temperature Circuit (LTC) is CO2 (R744) while ammonia (R717), propane (R290), propylene (R1270), R404A and R12 are the refrigerants in High Temperature Circuit (HTC). The performance curves of ammonia, propane, propylene, and R404A are compared with R12 to find its nearest substitute. Results show that ammonia is the best substitute of R12.

Keywords: cascade system, refrigerants, thermodynamic model, production engineering

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34 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh


This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

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33 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis


This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, Exergy, Refrigeration, thermodynamic, vapour

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32 Theoretical Evaluation of Minimum Superheat, Energy and Exergy in a High-Temperature Heat Pump System Operating with Low GWP Refrigerants

Authors: Adam Y. Sulaiman, Donal F. Cotter, Ming J. Huang, Neil J. Hewitt


Suitable low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants that conform to F-gas regulations are required to extend the operational envelope of high-temperature heat pumps (HTHPs) used for industrial waste heat recovery processes. The thermophysical properties and characteristics of these working fluids need to be assessed to provide a comprehensive understanding of operational effectiveness in HTHP applications. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation to investigate a range of low-GWP refrigerants and their suitability to supersede refrigerants HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc. A steady-state thermodynamic model of a single-stage HTHP with an internal heat exchanger (IHX) was developed to assess system cycle characteristics at temperature ranges between 50 to 80 °C heat source and 90 to 150 °C heat sink. A practical approach to maximize the operational efficiency was examined to determine the effects of regulating minimum superheat within the process and subsequent influence on energetic and exergetic efficiencies. A comprehensive map of minimum superheat across the HTHP operating variables were used to assess specific tipping points in performance at 30 and 70 K temperature lifts. Based on initial results, the refrigerants HCFO-1233zd(E) and HFO-1336mzz(Z) were found to be closely aligned matches for refrigerants HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc. The overall results show effective performance for HCFO-1233zd(E) occurs between 5-7 K minimum superheat, and HFO-1336mzz(Z) between 18-21 K dependant on temperature lift. This work provides a method to optimize refrigerant selection based on operational indicators to maximize overall HTHPs system performance.

Keywords: high-temperature heat pump, minimum superheat, energy & exergy efficiency, low GWP refrigerants

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31 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz


This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

Keywords: absorption system, diesel engine, ejector refrigeration, energy recovery, organic Rankine cycle

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30 Density Measurement of Mixed Refrigerants R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 from 0°C to 100°C and at Pressures up to 10 MPa

Authors: Xiaoci Li, Yonghua Huang, Hui Lin


Optimization of the concentration of components in mixed refrigerants leads to potential improvement of either thermodynamic cycle performance or safety performance of heat pumps and refrigerators. R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 are two promising binary mixed refrigerants for the application of heat pumps working in the cold areas. The p-ρ-T data of these mixtures are one of the fundamental and necessary properties for design and evaluation of the performance of the heat pumps. Although the property data of mixtures can be predicted by the mixing models based on the pure substances incorporated in programs such as the NIST database Refprop, direct property measurement will still be helpful to reveal the true state behaviors and verify the models. Densities of the mixtures of R32+R1234yf an d R125+R290 are measured by an Anton Paar U shape oscillating tube digital densimeter DMA-4500 in the range of temperatures from 0°C to 100 °C and pressures up to 10 MPa. The accuracy of the measurement reaches 0.00005 g/cm³. The experimental data are compared with the predictions by Refprop in the corresponding range of pressure and temperature.

Keywords: mixed refrigerant, density measurement, densimeter, thermodynamic property

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29 Experimental Study of Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde, B. O. Bolaji, S. O. Ismaila


Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. The experiments were carried out using 40, 60, 80,100g charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increased with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, LPG, R134a

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28 Evaluation of Advanced Architectures for Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

Authors: Fabrizio Codella, Chris Parker, Samer Saab


The Kigali Amendment is driving the adoption of low Global Warming Potential refrigerants in commercial refrigeration systems in over a hundred countries. Several refrigeration systems for the small and large retail stores at mild and hot ambient temperature climates have been compared for hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), hydrofluoroolefins (HFO), transcritical CO₂ and propane, in typical and advanced system architectures. The results of system performance, emissions and lifetime cost have been compared. The greatest benefits were found to be obtained by low global warming potential HFO advanced systems.

Keywords: commercial refrigeration, CO₂, emissions, HFO, lifetime cost, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
27 Experimental Study of a Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde


Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. Four sets of experiments were carried out using different charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for refrigerator was achieved using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increases with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R290/R600, R134a

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26 Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Natural Refrigerant within a Vortex Tube

Authors: Mirza Popovac


This paper investigates the application of the vortex tubes towards increasing the efficiency of high temperature heat pumps based on natural refrigerants, by recovering a part of the expansion work within the refrigerant cycle. To this purpose the 3D Navier-Stokes solver is used to perform a set of numerical simulations, investigating the vortex tube performance. Firstly, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for standard configurations of vortex tubes, and the obtained results are validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. Subsequently, different geometry specifications are analyzed, as well as the interplay between relevant heat pump operating conditions and the properties of natural refrigerants. Finally, the characteristic curve of performance will be derived for investigated vortex tubes specifications when used within high temperature heat pumps.

Keywords: heat pump, vortex tube, CFD, natural refrigerant

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25 A Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of a Solar-Powered Off-Grid Air Conditioning System for Residential Buildings

Authors: Adam Y. Sulaiman, Gerard I.Obasi, Roma Chang, Hussein Sayed Moghaieb, Ming J. Huang, Neil J. Hewitt


Residential air-conditioning units are essential for quality indoor comfort in hot climate countries. Nevertheless, because of their non-renewable energy sources and the contribution of ecologically unfriendly working fluids, these units are a major source of CO2 emissions in these countries. The utilisation of sustainable technologies nowadays is essential to reduce the adverse effects of CO2 emissions by replacing conventional technologies. This paper investigates the feasibility of running an off-grid solar-powered air-conditioning bed unit using three low GWP refrigerants (R32, R290, and R600a) to supersede conventional refrigerants.A prototype air conditioning unit was built to supply cold air to a canopy that was connected to it. The assembled unit was designed to distribute cold air to a canopy connected to it. This system is powered by two 400 W photovoltaic panels, with battery storage supplying power to the unit at night-time. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is used to mathematically model the vapor compression cycle (VCC) and predict the unit's energetic and exergetic performance. The TRNSYS software was used to simulate the electricity storage performance of the batteries, whereas the IES-VE was used to determine the amount of solar energy required to power the unit. The article provides an analytical design guideline, as well as a comprehensible process system. Combining a renewable energy source to power an AC based-VCC provides an excellent solution to the real problems of high-energy consumption in warm-climate countries.

Keywords: air-conditioning, refrigerants, PV panel, energy storages, VCC, exergy

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24 Suitable Operating Conditions of Hot Water Generators Combined with Central Air Package Units: A Case Study of Tipco Building Group

Authors: Chalermporn Jindapeng


The main objective of the study of the suitable operating conditions of hot water generators combined with central air package units: a case study of Tipco Building Group was to analyze the suitable operating conditions and energy-related costs in each operating condition of hot water generators combined with central air package units which resulted in water-cooled packages. Thermal energy from vapor form refrigerants at high pressures and temperatures was exchanged with thermal energy of the water in the swimming pool that required suitable temperature control for users with the use of plate heat exchangers before refrigerants could enter the condenser in its function to change the status of vapor form refrigerants at high pressures and temperatures to liquid form at high pressures and temperatures. Thus, if this was used to replace heat pumps it could reduce the electrical energy that was used to make hot water and reduce the cost of the electrical energy of air package units including the increased efficacy of air package units. Of the analyses of the suitable operating conditions by means of the study of the elements involved with actual measurements from the system that had been installed at the Tipco Building Group hot water generators were combined with air package units which resulted in water-cooled packages with a cooling capacity of 75 tonnes. Plate heat exchangers were used in the transfer of thermal energy from refrigerants to one set of water with a heat exchanger area of 1.5 m² which was used to increase the temperature of swimming pool water that has a capacity of 240 m³. From experimental results, it was discovered after continuous temperature measurements in the swimming pool every 15 minutes that swimming pool water temperature increased by 0.78 ⁰C 0.75 ⁰C 0.74 ⁰C and 0.71 ⁰C. The rates of flow of hot water through the heat exchangers were equal to 14, 16, 18 and 20 litres per minute respectively where the swimming pool water temperature was at a constant value and when the rate of flow of hot water increased this caused hot water temperatures to decrease and the coefficient of performance of the air package units to increase from 5.9 to 6.3, 6.7, 6.9 and 7.6 while the rates of flow of hot water were equal to 14, 16, 18 and 20 litres per minute, respectively. As for the cooling systems, there were no changes and the system cooling functions were normal as the cooling systems were able to continuously transfer incoming heat for the swimming pool water which resulted in a constant pressure in the cooling system that allowed its cooling functions to work normally.

Keywords: central air package units, heat exchange, hot water generators, swimming pool

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23 Molecular Dynamics Studies of Homogeneous Condensation and Thermophysical Properties of HFC-1336mzz(Z)

Authors: Misbah Khan, Jian Wen, Muhammad Asif Shakoori


The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) plays an important role in converting low-temperature heat sources into electrical power by using refrigerants as working fluids. The thermophysical properties of working fluids are essential for designing ORC. HFO-1336mzz(Z) (cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene) considered as working fluid and have almost 99% low GWP and relatively same thermophysical properties used as a replacement of HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoro-propane). The environmental, safety, healthy and thermophysical properties of HFO-1336mzz(Z) are needed to use it in a practical system. In this paper, Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the Homogeneous condensation, thermophysical and structural properties of HFO-1336mzz(Z) and HFC-245fa. The effect of various temperatures and pressures on thermophysical properties and condensation was extensively investigated. The liquid densities and isobaric heat capacities of this refrigerant was simulated at 273.15K to 353.15K temperatures and pressure0.5-4.0MPa. The simulation outcomes were compared with experimental data to validate our simulation method. The mean square displacement for different temperatures was investigated for dynamical analysis. The variations in potential energies and condensation rate were simulated to get insight into the condensation process. The radial distribution function was simulated at the micro level for structural analysis and revealed that the phase transition of HFO-1336mzz(Z) did not affect the intramolecular structure.

Keywords: homogenous condensation, refrigerants, molecular dynamics simulations, organic rankine cycle

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22 Thermal Analysis of Adsorption Refrigeration System Using Silicagel–Methanol Pair

Authors: Palash Soni, Vivek Kumar Gaba, Shubhankar Bhowmick, Bidyut Mazumdar


Refrigeration technology is a fast developing field at the present era since it has very wide application in both domestic and industrial areas. It started from the usage of simple ice coolers to store food stuffs to the present sophisticated cold storages along with other air conditioning system. A variety of techniques are used to bring down the temperature below the ambient. Adsorption refrigeration technology is a novel, advanced and promising technique developed in the past few decades. It gained attention due to its attractive property of exploiting unlimited natural sources like solar energy, geothermal energy or even waste heat recovery from plants or from the exhaust of locomotives to fulfill its energy need. This will reduce the exploitation of non-renewable resources and hence reduce pollution too. This work is aimed to develop a model for a solar adsorption refrigeration system and to simulate the same for different operating conditions. In this system, the mechanical compressor is replaced by a thermal compressor. The thermal compressor uses renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy which makes it useful for those areas where electricity is not available. Refrigerants normally in use like chlorofluorocarbon/perfluorocarbon have harmful effects like ozone depletion and greenhouse warming. It is another advantage of adsorption systems that it can replace these refrigerants with less harmful natural refrigerants like water, methanol, ammonia, etc. Thus the double benefit of reduction in energy consumption and pollution can be achieved. A thermodynamic model was developed for the proposed adsorber, and a universal MATLAB code was used to simulate the model. Simulations were carried out for a different operating condition for the silicagel-methanol working pair. Various graphs are plotted between regeneration temperature, adsorption capacities, the coefficient of performance, desorption rate, specific cooling power, adsorption/desorption times and mass. The results proved that adsorption system could be installed successfully for refrigeration purpose as it has saving in terms of power and reduction in carbon emission even though the efficiency is comparatively less as compared to conventional systems. The model was tested for its compliance in a cold storage refrigeration with a cooling load of 12 TR.

Keywords: adsorption, refrigeration, renewable energy, silicagel-methanol

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21 Convective Boiling of CO₂/R744 in Macro and Micro-Channels

Authors: Adonis Menezes, J. C. Passos


The current panorama of technology in heat transfer and the scarcity of information about the convective boiling of CO₂ and hydrocarbon in small diameter channels motivated the development of this work. Among non-halogenated refrigerants, CO₂/ R744 has distinct thermodynamic properties compared to other fluids. The R744 presents significant differences in operating pressures and temperatures, operating at higher values compared to other refrigerants, and this represents a challenge for the design of new evaporators, as the original systems must normally be resized to meet the specific characteristics of the R744, which creates the need for a new design and optimization criteria. To carry out the convective boiling tests of CO₂, an experimental apparatus capable of storing (m= 10kg) of saturated CO₂ at (T = -30 ° C) in an accumulator tank was used, later this fluid was pumped using a positive displacement pump with three pistons, and the outlet pressure was controlled and could reach up to (P = 110bar). This high-pressure saturated fluid passed through a Coriolis type flow meter, and the mass velocities varied between (G = 20 kg/m².s) up to (G = 1000 kg/m².s). After that, the fluid was sent to the first test section of circular cross-section in diameter (D = 4.57mm), where the inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, were controlled and the heating was promoted by the Joule effect using a source of direct current with a maximum heat flow of (q = 100 kW/m²). The second test section used a cross-section with multi-channels (seven parallel channels) with a square cross-section of (D = 2mm) each; this second test section has also control of temperature and pressure at the inlet and outlet as well as for heating a direct current source was used, with a maximum heat flow of (q = 20 kW/m²). The fluid in a biphasic situation was directed to a parallel plate heat exchanger so that it returns to the liquid state, thus being able to return to the accumulator tank, continuing the cycle. The multi-channel test section has a viewing section; a high-speed CMOS camera was used for image acquisition, where it was possible to view the flow patterns. The experiments carried out and presented in this report were conducted in a rigorous manner, enabling the development of a database on the convective boiling of the R744 in macro and micro channels. The analysis prioritized the processes from the beginning of the convective boiling until the drying of the wall in a subcritical regime. The R744 resurfaces as an excellent alternative to chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants due to its negligible ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) rates, among other advantages. The results found in the experimental tests were very promising for the use of CO₂ in micro-channels in convective boiling and served as a basis for determining the flow pattern map and correlation for determining the heat transfer coefficient in the convective boiling of CO₂.

Keywords: convective boiling, CO₂/R744, macro-channels, micro-channels

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20 Exergy Analysis of a Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

Authors: Samsher Gautam, Apoorva Roy, Bhuvan Aggarwal


Vapor absorption refrigeration systems can replace vapor compression systems in many applications as they can operate on a low-grade heat source and are environment-friendly. Widely used refrigerants such as CFCs and HFCs cause significant global warming. Natural refrigerants can be an alternative to them, among which carbon dioxide is promising for use in automotive air conditioning systems. Its inherent safety, ability to withstand high pressure and high heat transfer coefficient coupled with easy availability make it a likely choice for refrigerant. Various properties of the ionic liquid [bmim][PF₆], such as non-toxicity, stability over a wide temperature range and ability to dissolve gases like carbon dioxide, make it a suitable absorbent for a vapor absorption refrigeration system. In this paper, an absorption chiller consisting of a generator, condenser, evaporator and absorber was studied at an operating temperature of 70⁰C. A thermodynamic model was set up using the Peng-Robinson equations of state to predict the behavior of the refrigerant and absorbent pair at different points in the system. A MATLAB code was used to obtain the values of enthalpy and entropy at selected points in the system. The exergy destruction in each component and exergetic coefficient of performance (ECOP) of the system were calculated by performing an exergy analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics. Graphs were plotted between varying operating conditions and the ECOP obtained in each case. The effect of every component on the ECOP was examined. The exergetic coefficient of performance was found to be lesser than the coefficient of performance based on the first law of thermodynamics.

Keywords: [bmim][PF₆] as absorbent, carbon dioxide as refrigerant, exergy analysis, Peng-Robinson equations of state, vapor absorption refrigeration

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19 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath


Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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18 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Joining Processes for Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: M.St. Węglowski, D. Miara, S. Błacha, J. Dworak, J. Rykała, K. Kwieciński, J. Pikuła, G. Ziobro, A. Szafron, P. Zimierska-Nowak, M. Richert, P. Noga


In the paper the results of welding of car’s air-conditioning elements are presented. These systems based on, mainly, the environmental unfriendly refrigerants. Thus, the producers of cars will have to stop using traditional refrigerant and to change it to carbon dioxide (R744). This refrigerant is environmental friendly. However, it should be noted that the air condition system working with R744 refrigerant operates at high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high pressure (up to 130 bar). These two parameters are much higher than for other refrigerants. Thus new materials, design as well as joining technologies are strongly needed for these systems. AISI 304 and 316L steels as well as aluminium alloys 5xxx are ranked among the prospective materials. As a joining process laser welding, plasma welding, electron beam welding as well as high rotary friction welding can be applied. In the study, the metallographic examination based on light microscopy as well as SEM was applied to estimate the quality of welded joints. The analysis of welding was supported by numerical modelling based on Sysweld software. The results indicated that using laser, plasma and electron beam welding, it is possible to obtain proper quality of welds in stainless steel. Moreover, high rotary friction welding allows to guarantee the metallic continuity in the aluminium welded area. The metallographic examination revealed that the grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser and electron beam welded joints were not observed. It is due to low heat input and short welding time. The grain growth and subgrains can be observed at room temperature when the solidification mode is austenitic. This caused low microstructural changes during solidification. The columnar grain structure was found in the weld metal. Meanwhile, the equiaxed grains were detected in the interface. The numerical modelling of laser welding process allowed to estimate the temperature profile in the welded joint as well as predicts the dimensions of welds. The agreement between FEM analysis and experimental data was achieved.  

Keywords: car’s air–conditioning, microstructure, numerical modelling, welding

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17 Experimental Investigation of R600a as a Retrofit for R134a in a Household Refrigerator

Authors: T. O Babarinde, F. A Oyawale, O. S Ohunakin, R. O Ohunakin, R. O Leramo D.S Adelekan


This paper presents an experimental study of R600a, environment-friendly refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP), zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), as a substitute for R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, the capillary for this experiment was not varied at anytime during the experiment. 40, 60, 80g, charge of R600a were tested against 100 g of R134a under the designed capillary length of the refrigerator, and the performance using R600a was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator was achieved using both 80g of R600a and 100g of R134a but R134a has earlier pulled down time than using R600a. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R600a is 17.7% higher than that of R134a while the average power consumption is 42.5 % lower than R134a, which shows that R600a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator without necessarily need to modified the capillary.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R600a, R134a

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16 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-23

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor


The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

Keywords: thermodynamic analysis, cascade refrigeration system, COP, exergetic efficiency

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15 Optimization of a Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems with R134a

Authors: Ilhem Ouelhazi, Mouna Elakhdar, Lakdar Kairouani


A computer simulation model for a combined ejector-vapor compression cycle that uses working fluid R134a. A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed using the equations governing the flow and thermodynamics based on the constant area ejector flow model. The effects of the operating parameters on the cooling capacity, the performance coefficient, and the entrainment ratio are studied. The current model is based on the NIST-REFPROP database for refrigerants properties calculations. The simulated performance is compared with the available experimental data from the literature for validation.

Keywords: combined refrigeration cycle, constant area ejector, R134a, ejector-cooling cycle, performance, mathematical simulation, vapor compression cycle

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14 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: M. I. Abdelhamid, A. O. Ghallab, R. S. Ettouney, M. A. El-Rifai


An optimization scheme based on COM server is suggested for communication between Genetic Algorithm (GA) toolbox of MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS. The structure and details of the proposed framework are discussed. The power of the developed scheme is illustrated by its application to the optimization of a recently developed natural gas liquefaction process in which Aspen HYSYS was used for minimization of the power consumption by optimizing the values of five operating variables. In this work, optimization by coupling between the GA in MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS model of the same process using the same five decision variables enabled improvements in power consumption by 3.3%, when 77% of the natural gas feed is liquefied. Also on inclusion of the flow rates of both nitrogen and carbon dioxide refrigerants as two additional decision variables, the power consumption decreased by 6.5% for a 78% liquefaction of the natural gas feed.

Keywords: stranded gas liquefaction, genetic algorithm, COM server, single nitrogen expansion, carbon dioxide pre-cooling

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13 Excel-VBA as Modelling Platform for Thermodynamic Optimisation of an R290/R600a Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: M. M. El-Awad


The availability of computers and educational software nowadays helps engineering students acquire better understanding of engineering principles and their applications. With these facilities, students can perform sensitivity and optimisation analyses which were not possible in the past by using slide-rules and hand calculators. Standard textbooks in engineering thermodynamics also use software such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Interactive Thermodynamics (IT) for solving calculation-intensive and design problems. Unfortunately, engineering students in most developing countries do not have access to such applications which are protected by intellectual-property rights. This paper shows how Microsoft ExcelTM and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), which are normally distributed with personal computers and laptops, can be used as an alternative modelling platform for thermodynamic analyses and optimisation. The paper describes the VBA user-defined-functions developed for determining the refrigerants properties with Excel. For illustration, the combination is used to model and optimise the intermediate temperature for a propane/iso-butane cascade refrigeration system.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimisation, engineering education, excel, VBA, cascade refrigeration system

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12 Investigating Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube

Authors: Kaggwa Abdul, Chi-Chuan Wang


This research is based on R-1234ze that is considered to substitute R-134a due to its low global warming potential in a microfin tube with outer diameter 9.52 mm, number of fins 70, and fin height 0.17 mm. In comparison, a smooth tube with similar geometries was used to study pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients related to the two fluids. The microfin tube was brazed inside a stainless steel tube and heated electrically. T-type thermocouples used to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. The experimental saturation temperatures and refrigerant mass velocities varied from 10 – 20°C and 50 – 300 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux ranged from 5 – 11kW/m2. The results showed that heat transfer performance of R-134a in both microfin and smooth tube was better than R-1234ze especially at mass velocities above G = 50 kg/m2s. However, at low mass velocities below G = 100 kg/m2s R-1234ze yield better heat transfer coefficients than R-134a. The pressure gradient of R-1234ze was markedly higher than that of R-134a at all mass flow rates.

Keywords: R-1234ze and R-134a, horizontal flow boiling, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, micro-fin and smooth tubes

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11 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez


Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

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10 Design and Analysis of Electric Power Production Unit for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoir Applications

Authors: Ildar Akhmadullin, Mayank Tyagi


The subject of this paper is the design analysis of a single well power production unit from low enthalpy geothermal resources. A complexity of the project is defined by a low temperature heat source that usually makes such projects economically disadvantageous using the conventional binary power plant approach. A proposed new compact design is numerically analyzed. This paper describes a thermodynamic analysis, a working fluid choice, downhole heat exchanger (DHE) and turbine calculation results. The unit is able to produce 321 kW of electric power from a low enthalpy underground heat source utilizing n-Pentane as a working fluid. A geo-pressured reservoir located in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, USA is selected as a prototype for the field application. With a brine temperature of 126℃, the optimal length of DHE is determined as 304.8 m (1000ft). All units (pipes, turbine, and pumps) are chosen from commercially available parts to bring this project closer to the industry requirements. Numerical calculations are based on petroleum industry standards. The project is sponsored by the Department of Energy of the US.

Keywords: downhole heat exchangers, geothermal power generation, organic rankine cycle, refrigerants, working fluids

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9 Efficient HVAC System in Green Building Design

Authors: Omid Khabiri, Maryam Ghavami


Buildings designed and built as high performance, sustainable or green are the vanguard in a movement to make buildings more energy efficient and less environmentally harmful. Although Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems offer many opportunities for recovery and re-use of thermal energy; however, the amount of energy used annually by these systems typically ranges from 40 to 60 percent of the overall energy consumption in a building, depending on the building design, function, condition, climate, and the use of renewable energy strategies. HVAC systems may also damage the environment by unnecessary use of non-renewable energy sources, which contribute to environmental pollution, and by creating noise and discharge of contaminated water and air containing chemicals, lubricating oils, refrigerants, heat transfer fluids, and particulate (gases matter). In fact, HVAC systems will significantly impact how “green” a building is, where an efficient HVAC system design can result in considerable energy, emissions and cost savings as well as providing increased user thermal comfort. This paper presents the basic concepts of green building design and discusses the role of efficient HVAC system and practical strategies for ensuring high performance sustainable buildings in design and operation.

Keywords: green building, hvac system, design strategies, high-performance equipment, efficient technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 452