Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Karel Frana

12 Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD

Authors: Jan Barak, Karel Frana, Joerg Stiller


This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and post processing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

Keywords: condensation, exchanger, experiment, validation

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11 Air Flows along Perforated Metal Plates with the Heat Transfer

Authors: Karel Frana, Sylvio Simon


The objective of the paper is a numerical study of heat transfer between perforated metal plates and the surrounding air flows. Different perforation structures can nowadays be found in various industrial products. Besides improving the mechanical properties, the perforations can intensify the heat transfer as well. The heat transfer coefficient depends on a wide range of parameters such as type of perforation, size, shape, flow properties of the surrounding air etc. The paper was focused on three different perforation structures which have been investigated from the point of the view of the production in the previous studies. To determine the heat coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, the numerical simulation approach was adopted. The calculations were performed using the OpenFOAM software. The three-dimensional, unstable, turbulent and incompressible air flow around the perforated surface metal plate was considered.

Keywords: perforations, convective heat transfers, turbulent flows, numerical simulations

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10 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller


A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

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9 Support of Knowledge Sharing in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study

Authors: Zuzana Crhová, Karel Kolman, Drahomíra Pavelková


Knowledge is considered as an important asset which can help organizations to create competitive advantage. The necessity of taking care of these assets is more important in these days – in days of turbulent changes in business environment. Knowledge could facilitate adaption to constant changes. The aim of this paper is to describe how the knowledge sharing can be supported in the manufacturing companies. The methods of case studies and grounded theory were used to present information gained by carrying out semi-structured interviews. Results show that knowledge sharing is supported in very similar ways in respondent companies.

Keywords: case study, human resource management, knowledge, knowledge sharing

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8 Tests and Comparison of Two Mobile Industrial Analytical Systems for Mercury Speciation in Flue Gas

Authors: Karel Borovec, Jerzy Gorecki, Tadeas Ochodek


Combustion of solid fuels is one of the main sources of mercury in the environment. To reduce the amount of mercury emitted to the atmosphere, it is necessary to modify or optimize old purification technologies or introduce the new ones. Effective reduction of mercury level in the flue gas requires the use of speciation systems for mercury form determination. This paper describes tests and provides comparison of two industrial portable and continuous systems for mercury speciation in the flue gas: Durag HM-1400 TRX with a speciation module and the Portable Continuous Mercury Speciation System based on the SGM-8 mercury speciation set, made by Nippon Instruments Corporation. Additionally, the paper describes a few analytical problems that were encountered during a two-year period of using the systems.

Keywords: continuous measurement, flue gas, mercury determination, speciation

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7 Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater with Advance Treatment Methods

Authors: Seval Yilmaz, Filiz Bayrakci Karel, Ali Savas Koparal


Textile products produced by leather have been indispensable for human consumption. Various chemicals are used to enhance the durability of end-products in the processing of leather products. The wastewaters from the leather industry which contain these chemicals exhibit toxic effects on the receiving environment and threaten the natural ecosystem. In this study, leather industry wastewater (LIW), which has high loads of contaminants, was treated using advanced treatment techniques instead of conventional methods. During the experiments, the performance of electrochemical methods was investigated. During the electrochemical experiments, the performance of batch electrooxidation (EO) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with monopolar configuration for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from LIW were investigated. The influences of electrolysis time, current density (which varies as 5 mA/cm², 10 mA/cm², 20 mA/cm², 30 mA/cm², 50 mA/cm²) and initial pH (which varies as 3,80 (natural pH of LIW), 7, 9) on removal efficiency were investigated in a batch stirred cell to determine the best treatment conditions. The current density applied to the electrochemical reactors is directly proportional to the consumption of electric energy, so electrical energy consumption was monitored during the experiment. The best experimental conditions obtained in electrochemical studies were as follows: electrolysis time = 60 min, current density = 30.0 mA/cm², pH 7. Using these parameters, 53.59% COD removal rates for LIW was achieved and total energy consumption was obtained as 13.03 kWh/m³. It is concluded that electrooxidation process constitutes a plausible and developable method for the treatment of LIW.

Keywords: BDD electrodes, COD removal, electrochemical treatment, leather industry wastewater

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6 Exploring the Process of Change in the Identity Constructs of Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

Authors: Charlene Petersen, Herman Grobler, Karel Botha


Exposure to family violence has an impact on adolescent development, more specifically the identity process. This article explores the process of change in identity constructs of adolescents’ exposed to family violence in a Cape Town community in South Africa. In order to understand the process of identity formation the article explores and describes how the meaning that these adolescents give to family violence can contribute to change in their identity constructs. A mixed method approached was used in the study. A psycho-education strategy was implemented as the intervention and pretest-post-test scales were used to assess for change after the intervention process. Twelve participants were purposely selected for the study and included both male and female adolescents with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years from three secondary schools. The research data for this article were mainly extracted from the pre-test post-test design and the psycho-education strategy of the overall research study. The research results of the psycho-education strategy were thematically analyzed and a statistical procedure was used to measure for significant change within pre-test-post-test scales. The research merely refers to the outcome of psycho-education strategy and how it correlates with the outcome of the pre-test post-test design. Adolescents’ exposure to a psycho-education strategy, as well the pre-test post-test findings reveal a change within identity construct in terms of how they perceive themselves and interaction with others in the context of family violence.

Keywords: process of change in adolescent identity, family violence, psycho-education strategy, pre and post assessment

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5 A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Eileen K. Africa, Karel J. van Deventer


Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, children, gross motor skills, group intervention programme

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4 Expression Profiling and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck (Tumor, Transition Zone, Normal) by Whole Genome Scale Sequencing

Authors: Veronika Zivicova, Petr Broz, Zdenek Fik, Alzbeta Mifkova, Jan Plzak, Zdenek Cada, Herbert Kaltner, Jana Fialova Kucerova, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Karel Smetana Jr.


The possibility to determine genome-wide expression profiles of cells and tissues opens a new level of analysis in the quest to define dysregulation in malignancy and thus identify new tumor markers. Toward this long-term aim, we here address two issues on this level for head and neck cancer specimen: i) defining profiles in different regions, i.e. the tumor, the transition zone and normal control and ii) comparing complete data sets for seven individual patients. Special focus in the flanking immunohistochemical part is given to adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins that upregulate chemo- and cytokine expression in an NF-κB-dependent manner, to these regulators and to markers of differentiation, i.e. keratins. The detailed listing of up- and down-regulations, also available in printed form (1), not only served to unveil new candidates for testing as marker but also let the impact of the tumor in the transition zone become apparent. The extent of interindividual variation raises a strong cautionary note on assuming uniformity of regulatory events, to be noted when considering therapeutic implications. Thus, a combination of test targets (and a network analysis for galectins and their downstream effectors) is (are) advised prior to reaching conclusions on further perspectives.

Keywords: galectins, genome scale sequencing, squamous cell carcinoma, transition zone

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3 Inhibitory Activity of Podospermum canum and Its Active Components on Collagenase, Elastase and Hyaluronidase Enzymes

Authors: Ozlem Bahadir Acikara, Mert Ilhan, Ekin Kurtul, Karel Smejkal, Esra Kupeli Akkol


Present study is aimed to investigate in vitro inhibitory effects of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Podospermum canum (Asteraceae) on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase enzymes using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of the extract, sub-extracts, fractions obtained by column chromatography, and isolated compounds on collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase were performed by using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assays based on spectrophotometric evaluation. The ethyl acetate and remaining water extracts prepared from the plant displayed significant inhibitory activities on collagenase and elastase, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts did not show any inhibitory activity. Eleven known compounds: arbutin, 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin, cichoriin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, procatechuic acid, and compound 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid 4-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranosyl) benzyl ester have been obtained from ethyl acetate sub-extract of the plant through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Results of the present study have revealed that among the isolated compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside and isoorientin showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities. However, methanolic extract of P. canum displayed a greater inhibitory activity than fractions and isolated compounds both on collagenase and elastase.

Keywords: Asteraceae, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, Podospermum canum

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2 A Psycho-Education Strategy as a Method for Reconstructing Identity in the Context of Family Violence

Authors: Charlene Petersen, Herman Grobler, Karel Botha


Restorative intervention with adolescents from a family violence context is a much needed resource given the limited access to mental health services in South Africa. In this research article the qualitative component which formed part of a mixed methods design of an overall research study, is discussed. A qualitative case study design was used. This article explores a psycho-education strategy, using a visual creative medium as a method for reconstructing identity in the context of family violence. The aim of this psycho-education strategy was to move away from interventions based on the biomedical model, but focused more on meaning-making about violent traumatic events adolescents have experienced, and to develop more positive, adaptive views about themselves in the present, and experience hope about the future. The research question that was asked was how the meaning, that adolescents from a specific community in South Africa give to family violence, contribute to defining their identity? Twelve participants were purposively selected for the study and included both male and female adolescents with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years from three secondary schools. The strategy was applied over five sessions with the intention to bring about awareness of different selves, identifying and naming the selves, and becoming aware of the configuration of identity that could lead to a redefined identity. The data were thematically and visually analyzed. Through the process of tailoring which forms the basis for reconstruction process, participants could identify the different selves, become aware of how they configure in the field. Through the process of tailoring the different self-parts, the sense of self became more self-cohesive and allowed the individual to become aware of the role of certain. Through identifying and naming the future self and resilient self the participants were able to accomplish some order and meaning in their lives. It provided them with a sense of predictability and an optimistic and hopefulness towards the future. The research findings indicated that this strategy can be used as a method for reconstructing identity in the context of family violence.

Keywords: identity, family violence, self-configuration, reconstructing identity, psycho-education strategy

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1 Bundling of Transport Flows: Adoption Barriers and Opportunities

Authors: Vandenbroucke Karel, Georges Annabel, Schuurman Dimitri


In the past years, bundling of transport flows, whether or not implemented in an intermodal process, has popped up as a promising concept in the logistics sector. Bundling of transport flows is a process where two or more shippers decide to synergize their shipped goods over a common transport lane. Promoted by the European Commission, several programs have been set up and have shown their benefits. Bundling promises both shippers and logistics service providers economic, societal and ecological benefits. By bundling transport flows and thus reducing truck (or other carrier) capacity, the problems of driver shortage, increased fuel prices, mileage charges and restricted hours of service on the road are solved. In theory, the advantages of bundled transport exceed the drawbacks, however, in practice adoption among shippers remains low. In fact, bundling is mentioned as a disruptive process in the rather traditional logistics sector. In this context, a Belgian company asked iMinds Living Labs to set up a Living Lab research project with the goal to investigate how the uptake of bundling transport flows can be accelerated and to check whether an online data sharing platform can overcome the adoption barriers. The Living Lab research was conducted in 2016 and combined quantitative and qualitative end-user and market research. Concretely, extensive desk research was conducted and combined with insights from expert interviews with four consultants active in the Belgian logistics sector and in-depth interviews with logistics professionals working for shippers (N=10) and LSP’s (N=3). In the article, we present findings which show that there are several factors slowing down the uptake of bundling transport flows. Shippers are hesitant to change how they currently work and they are hesitant to work together with other shippers. Moreover, several practical challenges impede shippers to work together. We also present some opportunities that can accelerate the adoption of bundling of transport flows. First, it seems that there is not enough support coming from governmental and commercial organizations. Secondly, there is the chicken and the egg problem: too few interested parties will lead to no or very few matching lanes. Shippers are therefore reluctant to partake in these projects because the benefits have not yet been proven. Thirdly, the incentive is not big enough for shippers. Road transport organized by the shipper individually is still seen as the easiest and cheapest solution. A solution for the abovementioned challenges might be found in the online data sharing platform of the Belgian company. The added value of this platform is showing shippers possible matching lanes, without the shippers having to invest time in negotiating and networking with other shippers and running the risk of not finding a match. The interviewed shippers and experts indicated that the online data sharing platform is a very promising concept which could accelerate the uptake of bundling of transport flows.

Keywords: adoption barriers, bundling of transport, shippers, transport optimization

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