Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Jan Barak

7 Reduplication in Dhiyan: An Indo-Aryan Language of Assam

Authors: S. Sulochana Singha


Dhiyan or Dehan is the name of the community and language spoken by the Koch-Rajbangshi people of Barak Valley of Assam. Ethnically, they are Mongoloids, and their language belongs to the Indo-Aryan language family. However, Dhiyan is absent in any classification of Indo-Aryan languages. So the classification of Dhiyan language under the Indo-Aryan language family is completely based on the shared typological features of the other Indo-Aryan languages. Typologically, Dhiyan is an agglutinating language, and it shares many features of Indo-Aryan languages like presence of aspirated voiced stops, non-tonal, verb-person agreement, adjectives as different word class, prominent tense and subject object verb word order. Reduplication is a productive word-formation process in Dhiyan. Besides it also expresses plurality, intensification, and distributive. Generally, reduplication in Dhiyan can be at the morphological or lexical level. Morphological reduplication in Dhiyan involves expressives which includes onomatopoeias, sound symbolism, idiophones, and imitatives. Lexical reduplication in the language can be formed by echo formations and word reduplication. Echo formation in Dhiyan is formed by partial repetition from the base word which can be either consonant alternation or vowel alternation. The consonant alternation is basically found in onset position while the alternation of vowel is basically found in open syllable particularly in final syllable. Word reduplication involves reduplication of nouns, interrogatives, adjectives, and numerals which further can be class changing or class maintaining reduplication. The process of reduplication can be partial or complete whether it is lexical or morphological. The present paper is an attempt to describe some aspects of the formation, function, and usage of reduplications in Dhiyan which is mainly spoken in ten villages in the Eastern part of Barak River in the Cachar District of Assam.

Keywords: Barak-Valley, Dhiyan, Indo-Aryan, reduplication

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6 Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD

Authors: Jan Barak, Karel Frana, Joerg Stiller


This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and post processing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

Keywords: condensation, exchanger, experiment, validation

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5 A Semantic Analysis of Modal Verbs in Barak Obama’s 2012 Presidential Campaign Speech

Authors: Kais A. Kadhim


This paper is a semantic analysis of the English modals in Obama’s speech. The main objective of this study is to analyze selected modal auxiliaries identified in selected speeches of Obama’s campaign based on Coates’ (1983) semantic clusters. A total of fifteen speeches of Obama’s campaign were selected as the primary data and the modal auxiliaries selected for analysis include will, would, can, could, should, must, ought, shall, may and might. All the modal auxiliaries taken from the speeches of Barack Obama were analyzed based on the framework of Coates’ semantic clusters. Such analytical framework was carried out to examine how modal auxiliaries are used in the context of persuading people in Obama’s campaign speeches. The findings reveal that modals of intention, prediction, futurity and modals of possibility, ability, permission are mostly used in Obama’s campaign speeches.

Keywords: modals, meaning, persuasion, speech

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4 Perception of Violence through the Drawing: A Research with Mexican University Students

Authors: Yessica Martinez Soto, Cesar E. Jimenez Yanez, Margarita Barak Velasquez, Yaralin Aceves Villanueva


The presence of violent behavior in society is growing rapidly, which causes people to live in an environment of constant tension due to fear of becoming victims of violent acts. It is up to social scientists to be able to carry out analyzes in this regard to identify the different ways in which violence is normalized among people. The interest of this research work focuses on investigating the perception of violence in Mexican University students through the technique of drawing. To carry out this research, we worked with 67 university students from the Autonomous University of Baja California in Mexico, who drew an image of how they understood the concept of violence. His works showed us a variety of emotions, actions, and elements that relate and link with violence. One of the methodological tools to recognize and establish the link between the knowledge of a concept between discourse and practice is through graphic representations, that is, drawings. Although the drawing gives us a personal interpretation of the reality of each artist, the repetition of elements and the representation of similar situations allowed us to identify the degrees of incidence of the different types of violence and the areas in which it manifests itself.

Keywords: college students, Mexico, social representations, violence

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3 Multilayer Thermal Screens for Greenhouse Insulation

Authors: Clara Shenderey, Helena Vitoshkin, Mordechai Barak, Avraham Arbel


Greenhouse cultivation is an energy-intensive process due to the high demands on cooling or heating according to external climatic conditions, which could be extreme in the summer or winter seasons. The thermal radiation rate inside a greenhouse depends mainly on the type of covering material and greenhouse construction. Using additional thermal screens under a greenhouse covering combined with a dehumidification system improves the insulation and could be cost-effective. Greenhouse covering material usually contains protective ultraviolet (UV) radiation additives to prevent the film wear, insect harm, and crop diseases. This paper investigates the overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, for greenhouse polyethylene covering contains UV-additives and glass covering with or without a thermal screen supplement. The hot-box method was employed to evaluate overall heat transfer coefficients experimentally as a function of the type and number of the thermal screens. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing the number of thermal screens as a hyperbolic function. The overall heat transfer coefficient highly depends on the ability of the material to reflect thermal radiation. Using a greenhouse covering, i.e., polyethylene films or glass, in combination with high reflective thermal screens, i.e., containing about 98% of aluminum stripes or aluminum foil, the U-value reduces by 61%-89% in the first case, whereas by 70%-92% in the second case, depending on the number of the thermal screen. Using thermal screens made from low reflective materials may reduce the U-value by 30%-57%. The heat transfer coefficient is an indicator of the thermal insulation properties of the materials, which allows farmers to make decisions on the use of appropriate thermal screens depending on the external and internal climate conditions in a greenhouse.

Keywords: energy-saving thermal screen, greenhouse cover material, heat transfer coefficient, hot box

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2 Naked Machismo: Uncovered Masculinity in an Israeli Home Design Campaign

Authors: Gilad Padva, Sigal Barak Brandes


This research centers on an unexpected Israeli advertising campaign for Elemento, a local furniture company, which eroticizes male nudity. The discussed campaign includes a series of printed ads that depict naked male models in effeminate positions. This campaign included a series of ads published in Haaretz, a small-scaled yet highly prestigious daily newspaper which is typically read by urban middle-upper-class left-winged Israelis. Apparently, this campaign embodies an alternative masculinity that challenges the prevalent machismo in Israeli society and advertising. Although some of the ads focus on young men in effeminate positions, they never expose their genitals and anuses, and their bodies are never permeable. The 2010s Elemento male models are seemingly contrasted to conventional representation of manhood in contemporary mainstream advertising. They display a somewhat inactive, passive and self-indulgent masculinity which involves 'conspicuous leisure'. In the process of commodity fetishism, the advertised furniture are emptied of the original meaning of their production, and then filled with new meanings in ways that both mystify the product and turn it into a fetish object. Yet, our research critically reconsiders this sensational campaign as sophisticated patriarchal parody that does not subvert but rather reconfirms and even fetishizes patriarchal premises; it parodizes effeminacy rather than the prevalent (Israeli) machismo. Following Pierre Bourdieu's politics of cultural taste, our research reconsiders and criticizes the male models' domesticated masculinity in a fantasized and cosmopolitan hedonistic habitus. Notwithstanding, we suggest that the Elemento campaign, despite its conformity, does question some Israeli and global axioms about gender roles, corporeal ideologies, idealized bodies, and domesticated phalluses and anuses. Although the naked truth is uncovered by this campaign, it does erect a vibrant discussion of contemporary masculinities and their exploitation in current mass consumption.

Keywords: male body, campaign, advertising, gender studies, men's studies, Israeli culture, masculinity, parody, effeminacy

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1 Microbial Dark Matter Analysis Using 16S rRNA Gene Metagenomics Sequences

Authors: Hana Barak, Alex Sivan, Ariel Kushmaro


Microorganisms are the most diverse and abundant life forms on Earth and account for a large portion of the Earth’s biomass and biodiversity. To date though, our knowledge regarding microbial life is lacking, as it is based mainly on information from cultivated organisms. Indeed, microbiologists have borrowed from astrophysics and termed the ‘uncultured microbial majority’ as ‘microbial dark matter’. The realization of how diverse and unexplored microorganisms are, actually stems from recent advances in molecular biology, and in particular from novel methods for sequencing microbial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes directly from environmental samples termed next-generation sequencing (NGS). This has led us to use NGS that generates several gigabases of sequencing data in a single experimental run, to identify and classify environmental samples of microorganisms. In metagenomics sequencing analysis (both 16S and shotgun), sequences are compared to reference databases that contain only small part of the existing microorganisms and therefore their taxonomy assignment may reveal groups of unknown microorganisms or origins. These unknowns, or the ‘microbial sequences dark matter’, are usually ignored in spite of their great importance. The goal of this work was to develop an improved bioinformatics method that enables more complete analyses of the microbial communities in numerous environments. Therefore, NGS was used to identify previously unknown microorganisms from three different environments (industrials wastewater, Negev Desert’s rocks and water wells at the Arava valley). 16S rRNA gene metagenome analysis of the microorganisms from those three environments produce about ~4 million reads for 75 samples. Between 0.1-12% of the sequences in each sample were tagged as ‘Unassigned’. Employing relatively simple methodology for resequencing of original gDNA samples through Sanger or MiSeq Illumina with specific primers, this study demonstrates that the mysterious ‘Unassigned’ group apparently contains sequences of candidate phyla. Those unknown sequences can be located on a phylogenetic tree and thus provide a better understanding of the ‘sequences dark matter’ and its role in the research of microbial communities and diversity. Studying this ‘dark matter’ will extend the existing databases and could reveal the hidden potential of the ‘microbial dark matter’.

Keywords: bacteria, bioinformatics, dark matter, Next Generation Sequencing, unknown

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