Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Joerg Stiller

10 Condensation of Moist Air in Heat Exchanger Using CFD

Authors: Jan Barak, Karel Frana, Joerg Stiller

Abstract:

This work presents results of moist air condensation in heat exchanger. It describes theoretical knowledge and definition of moist air. Model with geometry of square canal was created for better understanding and post processing of condensation phenomena. Different approaches were examined on this model to find suitable software and model. Obtained knowledge was applied to geometry of real heat exchanger and results from experiment were compared with numerical results. One of the goals is to solve this issue without creating any user defined function in the applied code. It also contains summary of knowledge and outlook for future work.

Keywords: condensation, exchanger, experiment, validation

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9 Effect of Varying Scaffold Architecture and Porosity of Calcium Alkali Orthophosphate Based-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: D. Adel, F. Giacomini, R. Gildenhaar, G. Berger, C. Gomes, U. Linow, M. Hardt, B. Peleskae, J. Günster, A. Houshmand, M. Stiller, A. Rack, K. Ghaffar, A. Gamal, M. El Mofty, C. Knabe

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to develop 3D scaffolds from a silica containing calcium alkali orthophosphate utilizing two different fabrication processes, first a replica technique namely the Schwartzwalder Somers method (SSM), and second 3D printing, i.e. Rapid prototyping (RP). First, the mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds (porosity, compressive strength, and solubility) was assessed and second their potential to facilitate homogenous colonization with osteogenic cells and extracellular bone matrix formation throughout the porous scaffold architecture. To this end murine and rat calavarie osteoblastic cells were dynamically seeded on both scaffold types under perfusion with concentrations of 3 million cells. The amount of cells and extracellular matrix as well as osteogenic marker expression was evaluated using hard tissue histology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis. Total porosities of both scaffolds were 86.9 % and 50% for SSM and RP respectively, Compressive strength values were 0.46 ± 0.2 MPa for SSM and 6.6± 0.8 MPa for RP. Regarding the cellular behavior, RP scaffolds displayed a higher cell and matrix percentage of 24.45%. Immunoscoring yielded strong osteocalcin expression of cells and matrix in RP scaffolds and a moderate expression in SSM scaffolds. 3D printed RP scaffolds displayed superior mechanical and biological properties compared to SSM. 3D printed scaffolds represent excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: calcium alkali orthophosphate, extracellular matrix mineralization, osteoblast differentiation, rapid prototyping, scaffold

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8 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz

Abstract:

Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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7 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: esters, latent heat storage, phase change materials, thermal properties

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6 When Worlds Collide: Clashes of Communication between Italian and Anglophone Cultures in Movies Set in Venice

Authors: Angela Fabris, Joerg Helbig

Abstract:

Our paper deals with feature films set in Venice which focus on the influence of Italian life style on anglophone characters. Usually, these films emphasize the different cultures and mentalities of Italian and British (or American) people. More often than not, these encounters result in a profound change of the anglophone characters' attitude towards romance and sensuality. A case in point is David Lean's Summer Madness (UK 1955). This film recounts the love affair between the American tourist Jane Hudson (Katherine Hepburn) and the Venetian antique shop owner Renato de Rossi (Rossano Brazzi). Jane is a spinster in her mid-forties who longs for love and romance. The chance arrives when she meets Renato who feels attracted to her. Jane's immediate reaction, however, is to reject Renato's advances. What follows is a struggle between the strict morality of a puritan upbringing and the irresitable charm of Mediterranean temptations. Similar conflicts can be found in many other movies. Apart from Summer Madness we will discuss Aldo Lado's Chi l'ha vista morire? (It 1972), Nicolas Roeg's Don't Look Now (UK/It 1973) and Paul Schrader's The Comfort of Strangers (It/UK/USA 1990). Our paper raises the question whether or not these and other films present false stereotypes and chlichés. The paper is part of our large-scale research project which explores the history of erotic cinema in Italy and England.

Keywords: culture clash, erotic cinema, film, Venice

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5 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner

Abstract:

Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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4 Photocaged Carbohydrates: Versatile Tools for Biotechnological Applications

Authors: Claus Bier, Dennis Binder, Alexander Gruenberger, Dagmar Drobietz, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Anita Loeschcke, Karl Erich Jaeger, Thomas Drepper, Joerg Pietruszka

Abstract:

Light absorbing chromophoric systems are important optogenetic tools for biotechnical and biophysical investigations. Processes such as fluorescence or photolysis can be triggered by light-absorption of chromophores. These play a central role in life science. Photocaged compounds belong to such chromophoric systems. The photo-labile protecting groups enable them to release biologically active substances with high temporal and spatial resolution. The properties of photocaged compounds are specified by the characteristics of the caging group as well as the characteristics of the linked effector molecule. In our research, we work with different types of photo-labile protecting groups and various effector molecules giving us possible access to a large library of caged compounds. As a function of the caged effector molecule, a nearly limitless number of biological systems can be directed. Our main interest focusses on photocaging carbohydrates (e.g. arabinose) and their derivatives as effector molecules. Based on these resulting photocaged compounds a precisely controlled photoinduced gene expression will give us access to studies of numerous biotechnological and synthetic biological applications. It could be shown, that the regulation of gene expression via light is possible with photocaged carbohydrates achieving a higher-order control over this processes. With the one-step cleavable photocaged carbohydrate, a homogeneous expression was achieved in comparison to free carbohydrates.

Keywords: bacterial gene expression, biotechnology, caged compounds, carbohydrates, optogenetics, photo-removable protecting group

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3 The Association between Antimicrobial Usage and Biosecurity Practices on Commercial Chicken Farms in Bangladesh

Authors: Tasneem Imam, Justine S. Gibson, Mohammad Foysal, Shetu B. Das, Rashed Mahmud, Suman D. Gupta, Ahasanul Hoque, Guillaume Fournie, Joerg Henning

Abstract:

Commercial chicken production is an import livestock industry in Bangladesh. Antimicrobials are commonly used to control and prevent infectious diseases. It was hypothesized that inadequate biosecurity practices might promote antimicrobial usage on commercial chicken farms. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial usage and farm biosecurity practices implemented on 57 layer and 83 broiler farms in eight sub-districts of the Chattogram district in Bangladesh. A questionnaire was used to collect data on antimicrobial usage and biosecurity practices on these farms. A causal framework was used to guide the development of a multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression analysis to evaluate the total and direct effects of practiced biosecurity management on prophylactic and therapeutic administration of antimicrobials. A total of 24 antimicrobials were administered in the current production cycle at the time of the survey. The most administered antimicrobials on layer farms were ciprofloxacin (37.0% of farms), amoxicillin (33.3%), and tiamulin (31.5%); however, on broiler farms, colistin (56.6% of farms), doxycycline (50.6%), and neomycin (38.6%) were most used. Only 15.3% of commercial farmers used antimicrobials entirely for therapeutic purposes, whereas 84.7% administered antimicrobials prophylactically. Inadequate biosecurity practices were more common among commercial broiler farmers compared to layer farmers. For example, only 2.4% of broiler farmers used footbaths before entering sheds compared to 22.2% of the layer farmers (p < 0.001). Farms that used antimicrobials only for therapeutic purposes (vs prophylactic) implemented more frequently adequate disease control measures, such as separating sick birds from healthy birds. This research highlighted that the prophylactic application of antimicrobials is often conducted to substitute poor biosecurity practices on commercial chicken farms. Awareness programs for farmers are crucial to inform them about the risk associated with antimicrobial usage and to highlight the economic benefits of implementing cost-effective biosecurity measures to control infectious poultry diseases.

Keywords: antimicrobial, biosecurity, broiler, layer

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2 A Normalized Non-Stationary Wavelet Based Analysis Approach for a Computer Assisted Classification of Laryngoscopic High-Speed Video Recordings

Authors: Mona K. Fehling, Jakob Unger, Dietmar J. Hecker, Bernhard Schick, Joerg Lohscheller

Abstract:

Voice disorders origin from disturbances of the vibration patterns of the two vocal folds located within the human larynx. Consequently, the visual examination of vocal fold vibrations is an integral part within the clinical diagnostic process. For an objective analysis of the vocal fold vibration patterns, the two-dimensional vocal fold dynamics are captured during sustained phonation using an endoscopic high-speed camera. In this work, we present an approach allowing a fully automatic analysis of the high-speed video data including a computerized classification of healthy and pathological voices. The approach bases on a wavelet-based analysis of so-called phonovibrograms (PVG), which are extracted from the high-speed videos and comprise the entire two-dimensional vibration pattern of each vocal fold individually. Using a principal component analysis (PCA) strategy a low-dimensional feature set is computed from each phonovibrogram. From the PCA-space clinically relevant measures can be derived that quantify objectively vibration abnormalities. In the first part of the work it will be shown that, using a machine learning approach, the derived measures are suitable to distinguish automatically between healthy and pathological voices. Within the approach the formation of the PCA-space and consequently the extracted quantitative measures depend on the clinical data, which were used to compute the principle components. Therefore, in the second part of the work we proposed a strategy to achieve a normalization of the PCA-space by registering the PCA-space to a coordinate system using a set of synthetically generated vibration patterns. The results show that owing to the normalization step potential ambiguousness of the parameter space can be eliminated. The normalization further allows a direct comparison of research results, which bases on PCA-spaces obtained from different clinical subjects.

Keywords: Wavelet-based analysis, Multiscale product, normalization, computer assisted classification, high-speed laryngoscopy, vocal fold analysis, phonovibrogram

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1 Modelling of Solidification in a Latent Thermal Energy Storage with a Finned Tube Bundle Heat Exchanger Unit

Authors: Remo Waser, Simon Maranda, Anastasia Stamatiou, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

In latent heat storage, a phase change material (PCM) is used to store thermal energy. The heat transfer rate during solidification is limited and considered as a key challenge in the development of latent heat storages. Thus, finned heat exchangers (HEX) are often utilized to increase the heat transfer rate of the storage system. In this study, a new modeling approach to calculating the heat transfer rate in latent thermal energy storages with complex HEX geometries is presented. This model allows for an optimization of the HEX design in terms of costs and thermal performance of the system. Modeling solidification processes requires the calculation of time-dependent heat conduction with moving boundaries. Commonly used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods enable the analysis of the heat transfer in complex HEX geometries. If applied to the entire storage, the drawback of this approach is the high computational effort due to small time steps and fine computational grids required for accurate solutions. An alternative to describe the process of solidification is the so-called temperature-based approach. In order to minimize the computational effort, a quasi-stationary assumption can be applied. This approach provides highly accurate predictions for tube heat exchangers. However, it shows unsatisfactory results for more complex geometries such as finned tube heat exchangers. The presented simulation model uses a temporal and spatial discretization of heat exchanger tube. The spatial discretization is based on the smallest possible symmetric segment of the HEX. The heat flow in each segment is calculated using finite volume method. Since the heat transfer fluid temperature can be derived using energy conservation equations, the boundary conditions at the inner tube wall is dynamically updated for each time step and segment. The model allows a prediction of the thermal performance of latent thermal energy storage systems using complex HEX geometries with considerably low computational effort.

Keywords: modelling of solidification, finned tube heat exchanger, latent thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 206