Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 439

Search results for: acting

439 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Non-Task Behavior

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. In addition, in existing studies, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to a positive outcome variable and a negative outcome variable, respectively. It was confirmed that for employees performing emotional labor, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to OCB and CWB, respectively. While positive emotion that employees come to experience during job performance process can easily trigger a positive non-task behavior such as OCB, negative emotion that employees experience through excessive workload or unfair treatment can easily induce a negative behavior like CWB. The two management behaviors of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting, can have either a positive or negative effect on non-task behavior of employees, depending on which one they would choose. Thus, the purpose of this review paper is to clarify the relationship between emotional labor and non-task behavior more specifically.

Keywords: emotion labor, non-task behavior, OCB, CWB

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438 Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being

Authors: Huan Zhang, Darius K. S Chan

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Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace.

Keywords: perceived supervisory emotional labor, surface acting, well-being

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437 Change in Self-Reported Personality in Students of Acting

Authors: Nemanja Kidzin, Danka Puric

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Recently, the field of personality change has received an increasing amount of attention. Previously under-researched variables, such as the intention to change or taking on new social roles (in a working environment, education, family, etc.), have been shown to be relevant for personality change. Following this line of research, our study aimed to determine whether the process of acting can bring about personality changes in students of acting and, if yes, in which way. We hypothesized that there will be a significant difference between self-reported personality traits of students acting at the beginning and the end of preparing for a role. Additionally, as potential moderator variables, we measured the reported personality traits of the roles the students were acting, as well as empathy, disintegration, and years of formal education. The sample (N = 47) was composed of students of acting from the Faculty of Dramatic Arts (first- to fourth-year) and the Faculty of Modern Arts (first-year students only). Participants' mean age was 20.2 (SD = 1.47), and there were 64% of females. The procedure included two waves of testing (T1 at the beginning and T2 at the end of the semester), and students’ acting exercises and character immersion comprised the pseudo-experimental procedure. Students’ personality traits (HEXACO-60, self-report version), empathy (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy, QCAE), and disintegration (DELTA9, 10-item version) were measured at both T1 and T2, while the personality of the role (HEXACO-60 observer version) was measured at T2. Responses to all instruments were given on a 5-point Likert scale. A series of repeated-measures T-tests showed significant differences in emotionality (t(46) = 2.56, p = 0.014) and conscientiousness (t(46) = -2.39, p = 0.021) between T1 and T2. Moreover, an index of absolute personality change was significantly different from 0 for all traits (range .53 to .34, t(46) = 4.20, p < .001 for the lowest index. The average test-retest correlation for HEXACO traits was 0.57, which is lower than proposed by other similar researches. As for moderator variables, neither the personality of the role nor empathy or disintegration explained the change in students’ personality traits. The magnitude of personality change was the highest in fourth-year students, with no significant differences between the remaining three years of studying. Overall, our results seem to indicate some personality changes in students of acting. However, these changes cannot be unequivocally related to the process of preparing for a role. Further and methodologically stricter research is needed to unravel the role of acting in personality change.

Keywords: theater, personality change, acting, HEXACO

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436 ‘Undressed Star’, Sexual Scenes and Discourses in Mass Media: Exploring 1980s Taiwan Female Film Stars’ Onscreen Erotic Acting

Authors: Xinchen Zhu

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In the history of Chinese-language film, female stars’ acting is connected with issues of national ideology, consumerism, and sexual politics. In the 1980s, Taiwan entered a period of ‘soft authoritarianism’ in which the economy prospered politics became more democratic, and mass culture became more diverse. Film censorship was more flexible and sexual scenes were increasingly shown on screen. Female stars’ bodies were eroticized and commercialized through sexual and nude scenes and, by challenging conservative film censorship and social taboos, became the focus of mass media. This article will explore how discourses in mass media constructed the erotic images of female stars and, conversely, impacted film censorship, filmmakers and film actresses in 1980s’ Taiwan. This article will regard the eroticized female film stars’ acting as a ‘field’ of internal interaction and continuous reproduction, where the ideology of male dominance and voices of female film stars conflict with each other. Based on textual analysis of female stars’ sexual acting and the debate in mass media, the argument is that the eroticized female bodies were gazed upon on and off the screen. In the discourses of mass media, the artistry of actresses’ erotic acting was not only ignored, devalued and delegitimized, these stars were also labelled as ‘undressed star’ or ‘nude star’ and construed as victims of the film industry. However, the female stars were able to speak through mass media platforms, emphasizing their efforts in erotic acting and highlighting modern female subjectivity.

Keywords: sexual scenes, Taiwan female stars, erotic acting, discourses in mass media, female subjectivity

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435 Chaotic Semiflows with General Acting Topological Monoids

Authors: Alica Miller

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A semiflow is a triple consisting of a Hausdorff topological space $X$, a commutative topological monoid $T$ and a continuous monoid action of $T$ on $X$. The acting monoid $T$ is usually either the discrete monoid $\N_0$ of nonnegative integers (in which case the semiflow can be defined as a pair $(X,f)$ consisting of a phase space $X$ and a continuous function $f:X\to X$), or the monoid $\R_+$ of nonnegative real numbers (the so-called one-parameter monoid). However, it turns out that there are real-life situations where it is useful to consider the acting monoids that are a combination of discrete and continuous monoids. That, for example, happens, when we are observing certain dynamical system at discrete moments, but after some time realize that it would be beneficial to continue our observations in real time. The acting monoid in that case would be $T=\{0, t_0, 2t_0, \dots, (n-1)t_0\} \cup [nt_0,\infty)$ with the operation and topology induced from real numbers. This partly explains the motivation for the level of generality which is pursued in our research. We introduce the PSP monoids, which include all but ``pathological'' monoids, and most of our statements hold for them. The topic of our presentation are some recent results about chaos-related properties in semiflows, indecomposability and sensitivity of semiflows in the described general context.

Keywords: chaos, indecomposability, PSP monoids, semiflow, sensitivity

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434 Analysis of Casting Call Process in Thai Film Industry

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

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The purpose of this research is to analyze the process that most of the Thai film industries commonly use in order to find the right cast to play the role. The result proved that most of the low-budget film productions find the cast by asking from the crew’s friends or friend of friend. Therefore, finding the cast in low-budget film productions normally has only few people shown up for the auditions and sometimes either none of them has acting knowledge or their appearances do not match the character. However, since most of the low-budget film productions do not have much ability to find members of the cast, thus some of them still will be selected. On the other hand, most of the high-budget film productions use modeling companies to find the cast for them. However, most of modeling agencies in Thailand seek and select their cast members from the cast’s appearances or talents rather than the knowledge of acting.

Keywords: casting for film, modeling business, acting, film, performing arts, film business

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433 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif

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Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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432 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C. Vale, J. U. L. Mendes

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Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: aerodynamic, vehicles, wind tunnel, safety, acting

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431 Longitudinal Study of the Phenomenon of Acting White in Hungarian Elementary Schools Analysed by Fixed and Random Effects Models

Authors: Lilla Dorina Habsz, Marta Rado

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Popularity is affected by a variety of factors in the primary school such as academic achievement and ethnicity. The main goal of our study was to analyse whether acting white exists in Hungarian elementary schools. In other words, we observed whether Roma students penalize those in-group members who obtain the high academic achievement. Furthermore, to show how popularity is influenced by changes in academic achievement in inter-ethnic relations. The empirical basis of our research was the 'competition and negative networks' longitudinal dataset, which was collected by the MTA TK 'Lendület' RECENS research group. This research followed 11 and 12-year old students for a two-year period. The survey was analysed using fixed and random effect models. Overall, we found a positive correlation between grades and popularity, but no evidence for the acting white effect. However, better grades were more positively evaluated within the majority group than within the minority group, which may further increase inequalities.

Keywords: academic achievement, elementary school, ethnicity, popularity

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430 Factors Associated with the Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age 15-49 Years in Jinja District

Authors: Helen Nelly Naiga, Christopher Garimoi Orach

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Introduction: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective. However, LARC use in Uganda is low (13%). We assessed the factors associated with the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 yrs) in Jinja District. Methods: We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 314 women aged 15–49 years attending public health facilities (1 hospital and 3 health center IV) in Jinja district, were randomly selected. A total of 6 key informants and 6 in-depth interviews were conducted. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using Stata version 14. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The study found that 40.45% of the respondents had ever used LARC. The commonest LARC method used was implanting (38.22%). The factors significantly associated with use of LARC were employment (AOR =2.91; 95% CI (1.05-8.08), access to LARC methods (AOR =4.48; 95% CI (1.24-16.21), husband support (AOR =4.90; 95% CI (1.56-15.41), and experience of no side effects (AOR =3.48; 95% CI (1.00-12.19). Conclusion and recommendations: The study showed that 4 in 10 women of reproductive age in Jinja District were using LARC. The factors associated with LARC use were employment, husband support, access to LARC methods, and the lack of side effects. There is a need to strengthen client education, improve accessibility to LARC methods at all levels of health centers, improve male partner’s decision-making in LARC use and manage the side effects effectively.

Keywords: family planning, implants, intrauterine device, long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC)

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429 Using a Character’s Inner Monologue for Song Analysis

Authors: Robert Roznowski

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The thought process of the character is never more evident than when singing alone onstage. The composer scores the emotional state and the lyricist voices the inner conflict as the character shares with an audience her or his deepest feelings. It is at these moments that a character may be thought of as voicing her or his inner monologue. Using examples from several musical theatre songs, this presentation will look at a codified approach to analyze a song from a more psychological perspective. Using the clues from the score, traditional character analysis and a psychological-based scoring method an actor may explore more fully inhabit and express the sung and unsung thoughts of the character. The approach yields a richer and more complex approach to acting the song.

Keywords: acting, analysis, musical theatre, psychology

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428 Analysis of Brake System for Vehicle Off-Road

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

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In elapsing of the years it elaborates automobile it is developing automobiles more and more modern that, every year, the vehicles recently of the assembly lines, practically they push for the past produced models there is very little time. Those innovations didn't also pass unperceived in 0respect the safety of the vehicles. It is in this development apprenticeship the brakes systems equipped more and more with resources sophisticated. In that way, before of that context, this research tried to project a brake system for a vehicle off-road and to analyze your acting as the brakes efficiency: distances traveled and time, concluding with possible improvements in the system.

Keywords: brakes system, off-road, vehicle acting, automotive and mechanical engineering

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427 A Model for Analysis the Induced Voltage of 115 kV On-Line Acting on Neighboring 22 kV Off-Line

Authors: Sakhon Woothipatanapan, Surasit Prakobkit

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This paper presents a model for analysis the induced voltage of transmission lines (energized) acting on neighboring distribution lines (de-energized). From environmental restrictions, 22 kV distribution lines need to be installed under 115 kV transmission lines. With the installation of the two parallel circuits like this, they make the induced voltage which can cause harm to operators. This work was performed with the ATP-EMTP modeling to analyze such phenomenon before field testing. Simulation results are used to find solutions to prevent danger to operators who are on the pole.

Keywords: transmission system, distribution system, induced voltage, off-line operation

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426 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.

Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting

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425 Determinants of Long Acting Reversible Contraception Utilization among Women (15-49) in Uganda: Analysis of 2016 PMA2020 Uganda Survey

Authors: Nulu Nanono

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Background: The Ugandan national health policy and the national population policy all recognize the need to increase access to quality, affordable, acceptable and sustainable contraceptive services for all people but provision and utilization of quality services remains low. Two contraceptive methods are categorized as long-acting temporary methods: intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) and implants. Copper-containing IUCDs, generally available in Ministry of Health (MoH) family planning programs and is effective for at least 12 years while Implants, depending on the type, last for up to three to seven years. Uganda’s current policy and political environment are favorable towards achieving national access to quality and safe contraceptives for all people as evidenced by increasing government commitments and innovative family planning programs. Despite the increase of modern contraception use from 14% to 26%, long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) utilization has relatively remained low with less than 5% using IUDs & Implants which in a way explains Uganda’s persistent high fertility rates. Main question/hypothesis: The purpose of the study was to examine relationship between the demographic, socio-economic characteristics of women, health facility factors and long acting reversible contraception utilization. Methodology: LARC utilization was investigated comprising of the two questions namely are you or your partner currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? And which method or methods are you using? Data for the study was sourced from the 2016 Uganda Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 Survey comprising of 3816 female respondents aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis was done using the Chi-squared tests and the probit regression at bivariate and multivariate levels respectively. The model was further tested for validity and normality of the residuals using the Sharipo wilks test and test for kurtosis and skewness. Results: The results showed the model the age, parity, marital status, region, knowledge of LARCs, availability of LARCs to be significantly associated with long acting contraceptive utilization with p value of less than 0.05. At the multivariate analysis level, women who had higher parities (0.000) tertiary education (0.013), no knowledge about LARCs (0.006) increases their probability of using LARCs. Furthermore while women age 45-49, those who live in the eastern region reduces their probability of using LARCs. Knowledge contribution: The findings of this study join the debate of prior research in this field and add to the body of knowledge related to long acting reversible contraception. An outstanding and queer finding from the study is the non-utilization of LARCs by women who are aware and have knowledge about them, this may be an opportunity for further research to investigate the attribution to this.

Keywords: contraception, long acting, utilization, women (15-49)

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424 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

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The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

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423 Characteristics of Interaction Forces Acting on a Newly-Design Rotary Blade for Thai Walking Tractor

Authors: Sirisak Choedkiatphon, Tanya Niyamapa

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This research aimed to indeed understand the soil-rotary blade interaction of the newly-design rotary blade for Thai walking tractor. Therefore, this study was carried out to clarify the characteristics of the horizontal and the vertical forces and the moment around a rotary shaft of prototype rotary blade 15 lengthwise slice angle. It was set up and tested in laboratory soil bin at Kasetsart University under sandy loam and clay soil at soil dry bulk density and soil specific weight of 9.81 kN/m3 and 11.3% (d.b.), respectively. The tests were conducted at travel speeds of 0.069 and 0.142 m/s and rotational speeds of 150, 250 and 350 rpm. The characteristic of pushing-forward and lifting-up forces and moment around a rotor shaft were obtained by using the EOR transducer. Also, the acting point of resultant force of these soil-blade reaction forces was determined. The pushing-forward and lifting-up forces, moment around a rotor shaft and resultant force increased at higher travel speed and higher soil moisture content. In tilling stage, the acting points of resultant force located inside the circumstance of the blade locus. The results showed that the variation of magnitude and direction of pushing-forward, lifting-up and resultant forces corresponded to soil-blade interaction of the newly-design in tilling stage.

Keywords: rotary blde, soil-blade interaction, walking tractor, clay, sandy loam

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422 The Imminent Other in Anna Deavere Smith’s Performance

Authors: Joy Shihyi Huang

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This paper discusses the concept of community in Anna Deavere Smith’s performance, one that challenges and explores existing notions of justice and the other. In contrast to unwavering assumptions of essentialism that have helped to propel a discourse on moral agency within the black community, Smith employs postmodern ideas in which the theatrical attributes of doubling and repetition are conceptualized as part of what Marvin Carlson coined as a ‘memory machine.’ Her dismissal of the need for linear time, such as that regulated by Aristotle’s The Poetics and its concomitant ethics, values, and emotions as a primary ontological and epistemological construct produced by the existing African American historiography, demonstrates an urgency to produce an alternative communal self to override metanarratives in which the African Americans’ lives are contained and sublated by specific historical confines. Drawing on Emmanuel Levinas’ theories in ethics, specifically his notion of ‘proximity’ and ‘the third,’ the paper argues that Smith enacts a new model of ethics by launching an acting method that eliminates the boundary of self and other. Defying psychological realism, Smith conceptualizes an approach to acting that surpasses the mere mimetic value of invoking a ‘likeness’ of an actor to a character, which as such, resembles the mere attribution of various racial or sexual attributes in identity politics. Such acting, she contends, reduces the other to a representation of, at best, an ultimate rendering of me/my experience. She instead appreciates ‘unlikeness,’ recognizes the unavoidable actor/character gap as a power that humbles the self, whose irreversible journey to the other carves out its own image.

Keywords: Anna Deavere Smith, Emmanuel Levinas, other, performance

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421 Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor

Authors: Jae Soo Do, Kyoung-Seok Kim

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Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.

Keywords: emotion labor, surface acting, deep acting, liquid emotion

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420 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz

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The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

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419 An Improved Amplified Sway Method for Semi-Rigidly Jointed Sway Frames

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho

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A simple method of calculating satisfactory of the effect of instability on the distribution of in-plane bending moments in unbraced semi-rigidly multistory steel framed structures is presented in this paper. This method, which is a modified form of the current amplified sway method of BS5950: part1:2000, uses an approximate load factor at elastic instability in each storey of a frame which in turn dependent up on the axial loads acting in the columns. The calculated factors are then used to represent the geometrical deformations due to the presence of axial loads, acting in that storey. Only a first order elastic analysis is required to accomplish the calculation. Comparison of the prediction of the proposed method and the current BS5950 amplified sway method with an accurate second order elastic computation shows that the proposed method leads to predictions which are markedly more accurate than the current approach of BS5950.

Keywords: improved amplified sway method, steel frames, semi-rigid connections, secondary effects

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418 The Interactive Effects of Leadership on Safety

Authors: Jane E. Mullen, Kevin Kelloway, Ann Rhéaume-Brüning

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of perceived leader word-action alignment on subordinate extra-role safety behavior. Using survey data gathered from a sample of nurses employed in health care facilities located in Eastern Canada (n = 192), the effects of perceived word-action alignment (measured as the cross product of leaders speaking positively about safety and acting safely) on nurse safety participation was examined. Moderated regression analysis resulted in the significant (p < .01) prediction of nurse safety participation by the interaction term. Analysis of the simple slopes comprising the interaction term suggests that positively speaking about safety only predicted safety participation when leaders were also perceived by subordinates as acting safely. The results provide empirical support for the importance of the perceived alignment between leaders’ words, or espoused safety values and priorities, and their actions. Practical implications for safety leadership training are discussed.

Keywords: leadership, safety participation, safety performance, safety training

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417 Utilization of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods, and Associated Factors among Female College Students in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018

Authors: Woledegebrieal Aregay

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Introduction: Family planning is defined as the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It is part of a strategy to reduce poverty, maternal, infant and child mortality; empowers women by lightening the burden of excessive childbearing. Family planning is achieved through the use of different contraceptive methods among which the most effective method is modern family planning methods like Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive (LARCs) which are IUCD and Implant and these methods have multiple advantages over other reversible methods. Most importantly, once in place, they do not require maintenance and their duration of action is long, ranging from 3 to10 years. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town among female college students from April-May. A simple random sampling technique was employed to recruit a total of 1166 study subjects. Descriptive variables were computed for all predictors & dependent variables. The presence of an association between covariates & LARC use was observed by two tables’ findings using the chi-square test. Bivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify all possible factors affecting LARC utilization & its crude Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) & P-value was observed. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to control possible confounding variables. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) &P-values will be computed to identify significantly associated factors (P < 0.05) with LARC utilization. Result: Utilization of LARCs was 20.4%, the most common is Implant 86(96.5%), and followed by Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) 3(3.5%). The result of the multivariate analysis revealed that the significant association of marital status of the respondent on utilization of LARC [AOR 3.965(2.051-7.665)], discussion of the respondent about LARC utilization with the husband/boyfriend [AOR 2.198(1.191-4.058)], and attitude of the respondent on implant was found to be associated [AOR 0.365(0.143-0.933)].Conclusion: The level of knowledge and attitude in this study was not satisfactory, the utilization of long-acting reversible contraceptives among college students was relatively satisfactory but if the knowledge and attitude of the participant has improved the prevalence of LARC were increased.

Keywords: utilization, long-acting reversible contraceptive, Ethiopia, Gondar

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416 The Views of Health Care Professionals outside of the General Practice Setting on the Provision of Oral Contraception in Comparison to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Authors: Carri Welsby, Jessie Gunson, Pen Roe

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Currently, there is limited research examining health care professionals (HCPs) views on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) advice and prescription, particularly outside of the general practice (GP) setting. The aim of this study is to systematically review existing evidence around the barriers and enablers of oral contraception (OC) in comparison to LARC, as perceived by HCPs in non-GP settings. Five electronic databases were searched in April 2018 using terms related to LARC, OC, HCPs, and views, but not terms related to GPs. Studies were excluded if they concerned emergency oral contraception, male contraceptives, contraceptive use in conjunction with a health condition(s), developing countries, GPs and GP settings, were non-English or was not published before 2013. A total of six studies were included for systematic reviewing. Five key areas emerged, under which themes were categorised, including (1) understanding HCP attitudes and counselling practices towards contraceptive methods; (2) assessment of HCP attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive methods; (3) misconceptions and concerns towards contraceptive methods; and (4) influences on views, attitudes, and beliefs of contraceptive methods. Limited education and training of HCPs exists around LARC provision, particularly compared to OC. The most common misconception inhibiting HCPs contraceptive information delivery to women was the belief that LARC was inappropriate for nulliparous women. In turn, by not providing the correct information on a variety of contraceptive methods, HCP counselling practices were disempowering for women and restricted them from accessing reproductive justice. Educating HCPs to be able to provide accurate and factual information to women on all contraception is vital to encourage a woman-centered approach during contraceptive counselling and promote informed choices by women.

Keywords: advice, contraceptives, health care professionals, long acting reversible contraception, oral contraception, reproductive justice

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415 Re-Thinking and Practicing Critical Pedagogy in Education through Art

Authors: Dalya Markovich

Abstract:

In the last decade art-educators strive to integrate critical pedagogy within the art classroom. Critical pedagogy aims to deconstruct the oppressive social reality and the false consciousness in which learners from both privileged and underprivileged groups are caught. Understanding oppression as a product of socio-political conditions seeks to instigate processes of change anchored in the student's views. Yet, growing empirical evidence show that these efforts often has resulted in art projects in which art teachers play an active role in the process of critical teaching, while the students remain passive listeners. In this common scenario, the teachers/artists become authoritarian moral guides of critical thinking and acting, while the students are often found to be indifferent or play along to satisfy the teachers'/artists aspirations. These responses indicate that the message of critical pedagogy – transforming the students' way of thinking and acting – mostly do not fulfill its emancipation goals. The study analyses the critical praxis embedded in new art projects and their influence on the participants. This type of projects replaces the individual producer with a collaborative work; switch the finite work with an ongoing project; and transforms the passive learner to an engaged co-producer. The research delves into the pedagogical framework of two of these art projects by using qualitative methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 of the projects' initiator and managers, in order to access understandings of the art projects goals and pedagogical methods. Field work included 4 participant observation (two in each project) during social encounters in the project's settings, focusing on how critical thinking is enacted (or not) by the participants. The analysis exposes how the new art projects avoid the prepackaged "critical" assumptions and praxis, thus turning the participants from passive carriers of critical thinking to agents that actively use criticism. Findings invite researchers to explore new avenues for understanding critical pedagogy and developing various ways to implement critical pedagogy during art education, in view of the growing need of critical thinking and acting in school/society.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, education through art, collaborative work, agency

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414 Role of Male Partners in Postpartum Family Planning

Authors: Stephen Rulisa, Aimee Nyiramahirwe

Abstract:

Background: Strategies to increase the uptake of contraception services have been adopted in Rwanda, but the unmet need for family planning remains high. Women in the postpartum period are at higher risk for unintended pregnancy due to the silent conversion from lactational amenorrhea to reactivation of ovulatory cycles. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of male partners in the uptake of postpartum contraception. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among women who delivered at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali for a period of 3 months with random sampling. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and antenatal data, information on male companionship, and intent to use postpartum contraception at admission. Participants were contacted six weeks later to collect data on contraceptive use. The outcome variables were uptake of postpartum contraception and types of contraceptives taken (long-acting vs. short-acting), controlling for male companionship during the antenatal period. A Chi-square test was used and a p-value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 209 women were recruited with a mean age of 30.8±5.2 years. The majority (60.9%) were multigravida, and 66.5% were multiparous. More than half (55%) had male partner companionship, 18.3% had companionship for four antenatal visits, and 28.2% had education on contraception with their male partner. Factors significantly associated with uptake of postpartum contraception were: age above 30 years, owning or heading a business, multigravidity, multiparity, antenatal care at a health center or district hospital, cesarean delivery, and previous utilization of contraception. Male companionship significantly increased the intent to use contraception, uptake of modern contraception in general, and uptake of long active contraceptives but did not predict the uptake of short-acting contraceptives. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a positive association between male companionship during antenatal care, labor and delivery with the uptake of postpartum family planning. Our study suggests more sensitization to involve the male partners, improving the education on contraception during antenatal care and further research to assess the sustained uptake of contraception beyond the postpartum period.

Keywords: postpartum, family planning, contraception, male partner, uptake

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413 Application of Box-Behnken Response Surface Design for Optimization of Essential Oil Based Disinfectant on Mixed Species Biofilm

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Robert Rajko, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch

Abstract:

With the optimization of a new disinfectant the number of tests could be decreased and the cost of processing too. Good sanitizers are eco-friendly and allow no resistance evolvement of bacteria. The essential oils (EOs) are natural antimicrobials, and most of them have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status. In our study, the effect of the EOs cinnamon, marjoram, and thyme was investigated against mixed species bacterial biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. The optimal concentration of EOs, disinfection time and level of pH were evaluated with the aid of Response Surface Box-Behnken Design (RSD) on 1 day and 7 days old biofilms on metal, plastic, and wood surfaces. The variable factors were in the range of 1-3 times of minimum bactericide concentration (MBC); 10-110 minutes acting time and 4.5- 7.5 pH. The optimized EO disinfectant was compared to industrial used chemicals (HC-DPE, Hypo). The natural based disinfectants were applicable; the acting time was below 30 minutes. EOs were able to eliminate the biofilm from the used surfaces except from wood. The disinfection effect of the EO based natural solutions was in most cases equivalent or better compared to chemical sanitizers used in food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, Box-Behnken design, disinfectant, essential oil

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412 An Experimental Investigation into Fluid Forces on Road Vehicles in Unsteady Flows

Authors: M. Sumida, S. Morita

Abstract:

In this research, the effect of unsteady flows acting on road vehicles was experimentally investigated, using an advanced and recently introduced wind tunnel. The aims of this study were to extract the characteristics of fluid forces acting on road vehicles under unsteady wind conditions and obtain new information on drag forces in a practical on-road test. We applied pulsating wind as a representative example of the atmospheric fluctuations that vehicles encounter on the road. That is, we considered the case where the vehicles are moving at constant speed in the air, with large wind oscillations. The experimental tests were performed on the Ahmed-type test model, which is a simplified vehicle model. This model was chosen because of its simplicity and the data accumulated under steady wind conditions. The experiments were carried out with a time-averaged Reynolds number of Re = 4.16x10⁵ and a pulsation period of T = 1.5 s, with amplitude of η = 0.235. Unsteady fluid forces of drag and lift were obtained utilizing a multi-component load cell. It was observed that the unsteady aerodynamic forces differ significantly from those under steady wind conditions. They exhibit a phase shift and an enhanced response to the wind oscillations. Furthermore, their behavior depends on the slant angle of the rear shape of the model.

Keywords: Ahmed body, automotive aerodynamics, unsteady wind, wind tunnel test

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411 LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes NSCLC Progression through Acting as a ceRNA of miR-377-3p

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Recently, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 has been identified as an oncogenic gene in multiple cancer types and elevated expression of NEAT1 was tightly linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for this observation has not been characterized in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our studies, we identified NEAT1 was highly expressed in NSCLC patients and was a novel regulator of NSCLC progression. Patients whose tumors had high NEAT1 expression had a shorter overall survival than patients whose tumors had low NEAT1 expression. Further, NEAT1 significantly accelerates NSCLC cell growth and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Additionally, by using bioinformatics study and RNA pull down combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that NEAT1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for has-miR-377-3p, antagonized its functions and led to the de-repression of its endogenous targets E2F3, which was a core oncogene in promoting NSCLC progression. Taken together, these observations imply that the NEAT1 modulated the expression of E2F3 gene by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may build up the missing link between the regulatory miRNA network and NSCLC progression.

Keywords: long non-coding RNA NEAT1, hsa-miRNA-377-3p, E2F3, non-small cell lung cancer, tumorigenesis

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410 Analysis of a Self-Acting Air Journal Bearing: Effect of Dynamic Deformation of Bump Foil

Authors: H. Bensouilah, H. Boucherit, M. Lahmar

Abstract:

A theoretical investigation on the effects of both steady-state and dynamic deformations of the foils on the dynamic performance characteristics of a self-acting air foil journal bearing operating under small harmonic vibrations is proposed. To take into account the dynamic deformations of foils, the perturbation method is used for determining the gas-film stiffness and damping coefficients for given values of excitation frequency, compressibility number, and compliance factor of the bump foil. The nonlinear stationary Reynolds’ equation is solved by means of the Galerkins’ finite element formulation while the finite differences method are used to solve the first order complex dynamic equations resulting from the perturbation of the nonlinear transient compressible Reynolds’ equation. The stiffness of a bump is uniformly distributed throughout the bearing surface (generation I bearing). It was found that the dynamic properties of the compliant finite length journal bearing are significantly affected by the compliance of foils especially when the dynamic deformation of foils is considered in addition to the static one by applying the principle of superposition.

Keywords: elasto-aerodynamic lubrication, air foil bearing, steady-state deformation, dynamic deformation, stiffness and damping coefficients, perturbation method, fluid-structure interaction, Galerk infinite element method, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 308