Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3118

Search results for: analytical modelling

3118 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert


The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: bond stress, development length, lapped splice length, reinforced concrete

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3117 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong


This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.

Keywords: numerical modelling, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation, soft soil

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3116 An Approach to Low Velocity Impact Damage Modelling of Variable Stiffness Curved Composite Plates

Authors: Buddhi Arachchige, Hessam Ghasemnejad


In this study, the post impact behavior of curved composite plates subjected to low velocity impact was studied analytically and numerically. Approaches to damage modelling are proposed through the degradation of stiffness in the damaged region by reduction of thickness in the damage region. Spring-mass models were used to model the impact response of the plate and impactor. The study involved designing two damage models to compare and contrast the model best fitted with the numerical results. The theoretical force-time responses were compared with the numerical results obtained through a detailed study carried out in LS-DYNA. The modified damage model established a good prediction with the analytical force-time response for different layups and geometry. This study provides a gateway in selecting the most effective layups for variable stiffness curved composite panels able to withstand a higher impact damage.

Keywords: analytical modelling, composite damage, impact, variable stiffness

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3115 Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution

Authors: T. Zitoun, M. Bouhadef


When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.

Keywords: analytical solution, free-surface wave, hydraulic channel, inviscid fluid

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3114 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh


In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, analytical method, DEM, SGR

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3113 Modelling the Choice of Global Systems of Mobile Networks in Nigeria Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process

Authors: Awal Liman Sale


The world is fast becoming a global village; and a necessary tool for this process is communication, of which telecommunication is a key player. The quantum development is very rapid as one innovation replaces another in a matter of weeks. Interconnected phone calls across the different Nigerian Telecom service providers are mostly difficult to connect and often diverted, incurring unnecessary charges on the customers. This compels the consumers to register and use multiple subscriber information modules (SIM) so that they can switch to another if one fails. This study aims to identify and prioritize the key factors in selecting telecom service providers by subscribers in Nigeria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in order to match the factors with the GSM network providers and create a hierarchical structure. Opinions of 400 random subscribers of different service providers will be sought using the questionnaire. In general, four components and ten sub-components will be examined in this study. After determining the weight of these components, the importance of each in choosing the service will be prioritized in Nigeria.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, global village, Nigerian telecommunication, subscriber information modules

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3112 Application of an Analytical Model to Obtain Daily Flow Duration Curves for Different Hydrological Regimes in Switzerland

Authors: Ana Clara Santos, Maria Manuela Portela, Bettina Schaefli


This work assesses the performance of an analytical model framework to generate daily flow duration curves, FDCs, based on climatic characteristics of the catchments and on their streamflow recession coefficients. According to the analytical model framework, precipitation is considered to be a stochastic process, modeled as a marked Poisson process, and recession is considered to be deterministic, with parameters that can be computed based on different models. The analytical model framework was tested for three case studies with different hydrological regimes located in Switzerland: pluvial, snow-dominated and glacier. For that purpose, five time intervals were analyzed (the four meteorological seasons and the civil year) and two developments of the model were tested: one considering a linear recession model and the other adopting a nonlinear recession model. Those developments were combined with recession coefficients obtained from two different approaches: forward and inverse estimation. The performance of the analytical framework when considering forward parameter estimation is poor in comparison with the inverse estimation for both, linear and nonlinear models. For the pluvial catchment, the inverse estimation shows exceptional good results, especially for the nonlinear model, clearing suggesting that the model has the ability to describe FDCs. For the snow-dominated and glacier catchments the seasonal results are better than the annual ones suggesting that the model can describe streamflows in those conditions and that future efforts should focus on improving and combining seasonal curves instead of considering single annual ones.

Keywords: analytical streamflow distribution, stochastic process, linear and non-linear recession, hydrological modelling, daily discharges

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3111 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou


This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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3110 An Analytical Wall Function for 2-D Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions

Authors: X. Wang, T. J. Craft, H. Iacovides


When handling the near-wall regions of turbulent flows, it is necessary to account for the viscous effects which are important over the thin near-wall layers. Low-Reynolds- number turbulence models do this by including explicit viscous and also damping terms which become active in the near-wall regions, and using very fine near-wall grids to properly resolve the steep gradients present. In order to overcome the cost associated with the low-Re turbulence models, a more advanced wall function approach has been implemented within OpenFoam and tested together with a standard log-law based wall function in the prediction of flows which involve 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLIs). On the whole, from the calculation of the impinging shock interaction, the three turbulence modelling strategies, the Lauder-Sharma k-ε model with Yap correction (LS), the high-Re k-ε model with standard wall function (SWF) and analytical wall function (AWF), display good predictions of wall-pressure. However, the SWF approach tends to underestimate the tendency of the flow to separate as a result of the SWTBLI. The analytical wall function, on the other hand, is able to reproduce the shock-induced flow separation and returns predictions similar to those of the low-Re model, using a much coarser mesh.

Keywords: SWTBLIs, skin-friction, turbulence modeling, wall function

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3109 Experimental Characterization and Modelling of Microfluidic Radial Diffusers

Authors: Eric Chappel, Dimitry Dumont-Fillon, Hugo Musard, Harald van Lintel


A microfluidic radial diffuser typically comprises a hole in a membrane, a small gap and pillar centred with the hole. The fluid is forced to flow radially in this gap between the membrane and the pillar. Such diffusers are notably used to form flow control valves, wherein several holes are machined into a flexible membrane progressively deflecting against pillars as the pressure increases. The fluidic modelling of such diffuser is made difficult by the presence of a transition region between the hole and the diffuser itself. An experimental investigation has been conducted using SOI wafers to form membranes with only one centred hole and Pyrex wafers for the substrate and pillars, both wafers being anodically bonded after alignment. A simple fluidic model accounting for the specific geometry of the diffuser is proposed and compared to experimental results. A good match is obtained, for Reynolds number in the range 0.5 to 35 using the analytical formula of a radial diffuser in the laminar regime with an effective inner radius that is 40% smaller than the real radius, in order to simulate correctly the flow constriction at the entrance of the diffuser.

Keywords: radial diffuser, flow control valve, numerical modelling, drug delivery

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3108 Pitfalls and Drawbacks in Visual Modelling of Learning Knowledge by Students

Authors: Tatyana Gavrilova, Vadim Onufriev


Knowledge-based systems’ design requires the developer’s owning the advanced analytical skills. The efficient development of that skills within university courses needs a deep understanding of main pitfalls and drawbacks, which students usually make during their analytical work in form of visual modeling. Thus, it was necessary to hold an analysis of 5-th year students’ learning exercises within courses of 'Intelligent systems' and 'Knowledge engineering' in Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University. The analysis shows that both lack of system thinking skills and methodological mistakes in course design cause the errors that are discussed in the paper. The conclusion contains an exploration of the issues and topics necessary and sufficient for the implementation of the improved practices in educational design for future curricula of teaching programs.

Keywords: knowledge based systems, knowledge engineering, students’ errors, visual modeling

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3107 Analytical Similarity Assessment of Bevacizumab Biosimilar Candidate MB02 Using Multiple State-of-the-Art Assays

Authors: Marie-Elise Beydon, Daniel Sacristan, Isabel Ruppen


MB02 (Alymsys®) is a candidate biosimilar to bevacizumab, which was developed against the reference product (RP) Avastin® sourced from both the European Union (EU) and United States (US). MB02 has been extensively characterized comparatively to Avastin® at a physicochemical and biological level using sensitive orthogonal state-of-the-art analytical methods. MB02 has been demonstrated similar to the RP with regard to its primary and higher-order structure, post- and co-translational profiles such as glycosylation, charge, and size variants. Specific focus has been put on the characterization of Fab-related activities, such as binding to VEGF A 165, which directly reflect the bevacizumab mechanism of action. Fc-related functionality was also investigated, including binding to FcRn, which is indicative of antibodies' half-life. The data generated during the analytical similarity assessment demonstrate the high analytical similarity of MB02 to its RP.

Keywords: analytical similarity, bevacizumab, biosimilar, MB02

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3106 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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3105 Building Information Modelling: A Review to Indian Scenario

Authors: P. Agnivesh, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi


Evolution of information modelling leads to the visualisation of well-organized built environment. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is considered as evolution in the off-site construction which essentially enhances and controls the present scenario of on-site construction paradigms. Promptness, sustainability and security are considered as the important characteristics of the building information modelling. Projects that uses BIM are tied firmly by technology but distributed organizationally. This allows different team members in the project to associate and integrate the works and work flows. This will in turn improve the efficiency of work breakdown structure. Internationally BIM had been accepted as modern computer aided way of information sharing by construction industry for efficient way of manipulation in order to avoid the on-site misperceptions. Even though, in developing countries like India BIM is in the phase of start and requires lot of mandates and policies to be brought about by the government for its widespread implementations. This paper reviews the current scenario of BIM worldwide and in India and suggests for the improved implementation of building modelling for Indian policy condition.

Keywords: building information modelling, Indian polity, information modelling, information sharing, mandates and policies, sustainability.

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3104 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo


Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling

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3103 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

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3102 An Analytical Approach of Computational Complexity for the Method of Multifluid Modelling

Authors: A. K. Borah, A. K. Singh


In this paper we deal building blocks of the computer simulation of the multiphase flows. Whole simulation procedure can be viewed as two super procedures; The implementation of VOF method and the solution of Navier Stoke’s Equation. Moreover, a sequential code for a Navier Stoke’s solver has been studied.

Keywords: Bi-conjugate gradient stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB), ILUT function, krylov subspace, multifluid flows preconditioner, simple algorithm

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3101 Eco Scale: A Tool for Assessing the Greenness of Pharmaceuticals Analysis

Authors: Heba M. Mohamed


Owing to scientific and public concern about health and environment and seeking for a better quality of life; “Green”, “Environmentally” and “Eco” friendly practices have been presented and implemented in different research areas. Subsequently, researchers’ attention is drawn in the direction of greening the analytical methodologies and taking the Green Analytical Chemistry principles (GAC) into consideration. It is of high importance to appraise the environmental impact of each of the implemented green approaches. Compared to the other traditional green metrics (E-factor, Atom economy and the process profile), the eco scale is the optimum choice to assess the environmental impact of the analytical procedures used for pharmaceuticals analysis. For analytical methodologies, Eco-Scale is calculated by allotting penalty points to any factor of the used analytical procedure which disagree and not match with the model green analysis, where the perfect green analysis has its Eco-Scale value of 100. In this work, calculation and comparison of the Eco-Scale for some of the reported green analytical methods was done, to accentuate their greening potentials. Where the different scores can reveal how green the method is, compared to the ideal value. The study emphasizes that greenness measurement is not only about the waste quantity determination but also dictates a holistic scheme, considering all factors.

Keywords: eco scale, green analysis, environmentally friendly, pharmaceuticals analysis

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3100 Applications of Analytical Probabilistic Approach in Urban Stormwater Modeling in New Zealand

Authors: Asaad Y. Shamseldin


Analytical probabilistic approach is an innovative approach for urban stormwater modeling. It can provide information about the long-term performance of a stormwater management facility without being computationally very demanding. This paper explores the application of the analytical probabilistic approach in New Zealand. The paper presents the results of a case study aimed at development of an objective way of identifying what constitutes a rainfall storm event and the estimation of the corresponding statistical properties of storms using two selected automatic rainfall stations located in the Auckland region in New Zealand. The storm identification and the estimation of the storm statistical properties are regarded as the first step in the development of the analytical probabilistic models. The paper provides a recommendation about the definition of the storm inter-event time to be used in conjunction with the analytical probabilistic approach.

Keywords: hydrology, rainfall storm, storm inter-event time, New Zealand, stormwater management

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3099 Two-Channels Thermal Energy Storage Tank: Experiments and Short-Cut Modelling

Authors: M. Capocelli, A. Caputo, M. De Falco, D. Mazzei, V. Piemonte


This paper presents the experimental results and the related modeling of a thermal energy storage (TES) facility, ideated and realized by ENEA and realizing the thermocline with an innovative geometry. Firstly, the thermal energy exchange model of an equivalent shell & tube heat exchanger is described and tested to reproduce the performance of the spiral exchanger installed in the TES. Through the regression of the experimental data, a first-order thermocline model was also validated to provide an analytical function of the thermocline, useful for the performance evaluation and the comparison with other systems and implementation in simulations of integrated systems (e.g. power plants). The experimental data obtained from the plant start-up and the short-cut modeling of the system can be useful for the process analysis, for the scale-up of the thermal storage system and to investigate the feasibility of its implementation in actual case-studies.

Keywords: CSP plants, thermal energy storage, thermocline, mathematical modelling, experimental data

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3098 Current Situation and Need in Learning Management for Developing the Analytical Thinking of Teachers in Basic Education of Thailand

Authors: S. Art-in


This research was a survey research. The objective of this study was to study current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking of teachers in basic education of Thailand. The target group consisted of 400 teachers teaching in basic education level. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instrument used in this study was the questionnaire asking current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, 5 level rating scale. Data were analyzed by calculating the frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentage and content analysis. The research found that: 1) For current situation, the teachers provided learning management for developing analytical thinking, in overall, in “high” level. The issue with lowest level of practice: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 1.1) the teacher aspect; the issue with lowest level of practice was: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 1.2) the learning management aspect for developing the students’ analytical thinking, the issue with lowest level of practice was: the learning activities provided opportunity for students to evaluate their analytical thinking process in each learning session. 2) The teachers showed their need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, in overall, in “the highest” level. The issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and competency in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 2.1) teacher aspect; the issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and comprehension in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 2.2) learning management aspect for developing the analytical thinking, the issue with highest level of need consisted of the determination of learning activities as problem situation, and the opportunity for students to comprehend the problem situation as well as practice their analytical thinking in order to find the answer.

Keywords: current situation and need, learning management, analytical thinking, teachers in basic education level, Thailand

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3097 Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces

Authors: A. Kazemi Jouybari, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani


This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.

Keywords: condensation, numerical solution, analytical solution, entropy rate

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3096 Development of an Analytical Model for a Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: T. Sahbani, M. Bouteraa, R. Wamkeue


Wind Turbine are considered to be one of the more efficient system of energy production nowadays, a reason that leads the main industrial companies in wind turbine construction and researchers in over the world to look for better performance and one of the ways for that is the use of the synchronous permanent magnet generator. In this context, this work is about developing an analytical model that could simulate different situation in which the synchronous generator may go through, and of course this model match perfectly with the numerical and experimental model.

Keywords: MATLAB, synchronous permanent magnet generator, wind turbine, analytical model

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3095 A Semi-Analytical Method for Analysis of the Axially Symmetric Problem on Indentation of a Hot Circular Punch into an Arbitrarily Nonhomogeneous Halfspace

Authors: S. Aizikovich, L. Krenev, Y. Tokovyy, Y. C. Wang


An approximate analytical-numerical solution to the axisymmetric problem on thermo-mechanical indentation of a flat cylindrical punch into an arbitrarily non-homogeneous elastic half-space is constructed by making use of the bilateral asymptotic method. The key point of this method lies in evaluation of the ker¬nels in the obtained integral equations by making use of a numerical technique. Once the structure of the kernel is defined, it then is approximated by an analytical expression of special kind so that the solution of the integral equation can be achieved analytically. This fact allows for construction of the solution in an analytical form, which is convenient for analysis of the mechanical effects concerned with arbitrarily presumed non-homogeneity of the material.

Keywords: contact problem, circular punch, arbitrarily-nonhomogeneous halfspace

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3094 Analytical Solution of Specific Energy Equation in Exponential Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman


The specific energy equation has many applications in practical channels, such as exponential channels. In this paper, the governing equation of alternate depth ratio for exponential channels, in general, was investigated towards obtaining analytical solution for the alternate depth ratio in three exponential channel shapes, viz., rectangular, triangular, and parabolic channels. The alternate depth ratio for rectangular channels is quadratic; hence it is very simple to solve. While for parabolic and triangular channels, the alternate depth ratio is cubic and quartic equations, respectively, analytical solution for these equations may be achieved easily for a given Froud number. Different examples are solved to prove the efficiency of the proposed solution. Such analytical solution can be easily used in natural rivers and most of practical channels.

Keywords: alternate depth, analytical solution, specific energy, parabolic channel, rectangular channel, triangular channel, open channel flow

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3093 Full Analytical Procedure to Derive P-I Diagram of a Steel Beam under Blast Loading

Authors: L. Hamra, J. F. Demonceau, V. Denoël


The aim of this paper is to study a beam extracted from a frame and subjected to blast loading. The demand of ductility depends on six dimensionless parameters: two related to the blast loading, two referring to the bending behavior of the beam and two corresponding to the dynamic behavior of the rest of the structure. We develop a full analytical procedure that provides the ductility demand as a function of these six dimensionless parameters.

Keywords: analytical procedure, blast loading, membrane force, P-I diagram

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3092 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

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3091 Analytical Solution of Blassius Equation Using the Kourosh Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Shahnazari, Reza Kazemi, Ali Saberi


Most of the engineering problems are in nonlinear forms. Nonlinear boundary layer problems defined in infinite intervals contain specific complexities, especially in boundary layer condition conformance. As an example of these nonlinear complex problems, the well-known Blasius equation can be mentioned, which itself is one of the classic boundary layer problems. No analytical solution has been proposed yet for the Blasius equation due to its complexity. In this paper, an analytical method, namely the Kourosh method, based on the singularity perturbation method and the Liao homotopy analysis is utilized to solve the Blasius problem. In this method, an inner solution is developed in the [0,1] interval to expedite the solution convergence. The magnitude of the f ˝(0), as an essential quantity for determining the physical parameters, is directly calculated from the solution of the boundary condition problem. The advantages of this solution are that it does not need any numerical solution, it has a closed form and that its validation is shown in the entire [0,∞] interval. Furthermore, all of the desirable parameters could be extracted through a series of simple analytical operations from the final solution. This solution also satisfies the continuity conditions, which is one of the main contributions of this paper in comparison with most of the other proposed analytical solutions available in the literature. Comparison with numerical solutions reveals that the proposed method is highly accurate and convenient for application.

Keywords: Blasius equation, boundary layer, Kourosh method, analytical solution

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3090 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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3089 Predicting Polyethylene Processing Properties Based on Reaction Conditions via a Coupled Kinetic, Stochastic and Rheological Modelling Approach

Authors: Kristina Pflug, Markus Busch


Being able to predict polymer properties and processing behavior based on the applied operating reaction conditions in one of the key challenges in modern polymer reaction engineering. Especially, for cost-intensive processes such as the high-pressure polymerization of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with high safety-requirements, the need for simulation-based process optimization and product design is high. A multi-scale modelling approach was set-up and validated via a series of high-pressure mini-plant autoclave reactor experiments. The approach starts with the numerical modelling of the complex reaction network of the LDPE polymerization taking into consideration the actual reaction conditions. While this gives average product properties, the complex polymeric microstructure including random short- and long-chain branching is calculated via a hybrid Monte Carlo-approach. Finally, the processing behavior of LDPE -its melt flow behavior- is determined in dependence of the previously determined polymeric microstructure using the branch on branch algorithm for randomly branched polymer systems. All three steps of the multi-scale modelling approach can be independently validated against analytical data. A triple-detector GPC containing an IR, viscosimetry and multi-angle light scattering detector is applied. It serves to determine molecular weight distributions as well as chain-length dependent short- and long-chain branching frequencies. 13C-NMR measurements give average branching frequencies, and rheological measurements in shear and extension serve to characterize the polymeric flow behavior. The accordance of experimental and modelled results was found to be extraordinary, especially taking into consideration that the applied multi-scale modelling approach does not contain parameter fitting of the data. This validates the suggested approach and proves its universality at the same time. In the next step, the modelling approach can be applied to other reactor types, such as tubular reactors or industrial scale. Moreover, sensitivity analysis for systematically varying process conditions is easily feasible. The developed multi-scale modelling approach finally gives the opportunity to predict and design LDPE processing behavior simply based on process conditions such as feed streams and inlet temperatures and pressures.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, multi-scale modelling, polymer properties, reaction engineering, rheology

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