Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: internationalisation

18 SME Internationalisation and Its Financing: An Exploratory Study That Analyses Government Support and Funding Mechanisms for Irish and Scottish International SMEs

Authors: L. Spencer, S. O’ Donohoe


Much of the research to date on internationalisation relates to large firms with much less known about how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) engage in internationalisation. Given the crucial role of SMEs in contributing to economic growth, there is now an emphasis on the need for SMEs internationalise. Yet little is known about how SMEs undertake and finance such expansion and whether or not internationalisation actually hinders or helps them in securing finance. The purpose of this research is to explore the internationalisation process for SMEs, the sources of funding used in financing this expansion and support received from the state agencies in assisting their overseas expansion. A conceptual framework has been devised which marries the two strands of literature together (internationalisation and financing the firm). The exploratory nature of this research dictates that the most appropriate methodology was to use semi-structured interviews with SME owners; bank representatives and support agencies. In essence, a triangulated approach to the research problem facilitates assessment of the perceptions and experiences from firms, the state and the financial institutions. Our sample is drawn from SMEs operating in Ireland and Scotland, two small but very open economies where SMEs are the dominant form of organisation. The sample includes a range of industry sectors. Key findings to date suggest some SMEs are born global; others are born again global whilst a significant cohort can be classed as traditional internationalisers. Unsurprisingly there is a strong industry effect with firms in the high tech sector more likely to be faster internationalisers in contrast to those in the traditional manufacturing sectors. Owner manager’s own funds are deemed key to financing initial internationalisation lending support for the financial growth life cycle model albeit more important for the faster internationalisers in contrast to the slower cohort who are more likely to deploy external sources especially bank finance. Retained earnings remain the predominant source of on-going financing for internationalising firms but trade credit is often used and invoice discounting is utilised quite frequently. In terms of lending, asset based lending backed by personal guarantees appears paramount for securing bank finance. Whilst the lack of diversified sources of funding for internationalising SMEs was found in both jurisdictions there appears no evidence to suggest that internationalisation impedes firms in securing finance. Finally state supports were cited as important to the internationalisation process, in particular those provided by Enterprise Ireland were deemed very valuable. Considering the paucity of studies to date on SME internationalisation and in particular the funding mechanisms deployed by them; this study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge in both the international business and finance disciplines.

Keywords: funding, government support, international pathways, modes of entry

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17 Higher Education Internationalisation: The Case of Indonesia

Authors: Agustinus Bandur, Dyah Budiastuti


With the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) in globalisation era, higher education (HE) internationalisation has become a worldwide phenomenon. However, even though various studies have been widely published in existing literature, the settings of these studies were taken places in developed countries. Accordingly, the major purpose of this article is to explore the current trends of higher education internationalisation programs with particular reference to identify the benefits and challenges confronted by participating staff and students. For these purposes, ethnographic qualitative study with the usage of NVivo 11 software was applied in coding, analyzing, and visualization of non-numeric data gathered from interviews, videos, web contents, social media, and relevant documents. Purposive sampling technique was applied in this study with a total of ten high-ranked accredited government and private universities in Indonesia. On the basis of thematic and cross-case analyses, this study indicates that while Australia has led other countries in dual-degree programs, partner universities from Japan and Korea have the most frequent collaboration on student exchange programs. Meanwhile, most visiting scholars who have collaborated with the universities in this study came from the US, the UK, Japan, Australia, Netherlands, and China. Other European countries such as Germany, French, and Norway have also conducted joint research with Indonesian universities involved in this study. This study suggests that further supports of government policy and grants are required to overcome the challenges as well as strategic leadership and management roles to achieve high impacts of such programs on higher education quality.

Keywords: higher education, internationalisation, challenges, Indonesia

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16 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Intensity and Capabilities on Internationalization and Firm Performance

Authors: B. Urban


International entrepreneurship represents the process of discovering and creatively exploiting opportunities that exist outside a firm’s national borders in order to obtain a competitive advantage. Firms in emerging economies are increasingly looking towards internationalisation since they are faced with rising competition in their domestic markets and attracted to opportunities in foreign markets. This article investigates international entrepreneurship by examining how the influence of entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities at the firm level influence performance, while at the same time considering environmental influences on this relationship. Based on past theoretical and empirical findings, hypotheses are formulated and then tested using correlational and regression analysis. Generally, the results support the hypotheses where both entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities are positively related to internationalisation and firm performance, while weak evidence is found for environmental hostility as a moderating influence. Several recommendations are made in light of the findings, where it is suggested that firms foster higher levels of innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness while developing human, social and technology related capabilities in order to enhance their performance and increase their levels of internationalisation.

Keywords: international entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intensity, capabilities, firm performance, exporting, South Africa

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15 Analysis of the Internationalisation of Spanish Enterprises in Colombia through Cooperation Agreements

Authors: Sandoval H. Leyla Angélica, Casani Fernando


The objective of this study is to analyse how enterprises in developed countries use cooperation agreements to expand into developing countries. Starting from the literature review, seven theoretical prepositions were derived. The qualitative methodology used includes case study, through interviews conducted with eight enterprises from Spain and Colombia. Results show that the cooperation agreements have provided a quick and solid connection that facilitates internationalization, bearing in mind aspects such as: strategic factors, partners, network, technology, experience, communication methods, social benefit and the connection between these aspects and allied enterprises.

Keywords: internationalisation, firms, cooperation agreement, case study, Spain, Colombia

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14 Determinants of Market Entry Modes Used by Universities to Expand Internationally

Authors: Ali Bhayani


The article analyses determinants of the market entry modes used by corporate firms to expand internationally and explore whether higher education institutions uses the same determinants to decide on mode adopted to enter the market. Determinants like transaction costs, location advantage, idiosyncratic capabilities, isomorphic pressure to mimic, psychic distance, uncertainty, risks, the control over academic process, previous internationalisation experience and entry to homogenous markets are considered with regards to universities. A sample consisting of 40+ branch campuses from United Arab Emirates (UAE), host to highest number of branch campuses, is selected to study the determinants of the entry modes adopted. The aim of this article is not to prescribe or offer a solution for the best-available model of market entry that can be adopted by universities but rather to act as a trigger for a critical check up on universities planning to internationalize their offering. Determinants like idiosyncratic capabilities, isomorphic pressure and control over the academic process were found to be most prevalent. However, determinants like transaction cost efficiency, internationalisation experience, psychic distance, uncertainty and risks are not significant factors.

Keywords: higher education, UAE, internationalisation, market entry, international branch campuses

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13 Higher Education for Knowledge and Technology Transfer in Egypt

Authors: M. A. Zaki Ewiss, S. Afifi


Nahda University (NUB) believes that internationalisation of higher educational is able to provide global society with an education that meets current needs and that can respond efficiently to contemporary demands and challenges, which are characterized by globalisation, interdependence, and multiculturalism. In this paper, we will discuss the the challenges of the Egyptian Higher Education system and the future vision to improve this system> In this report, the following issues will be considered: Increasing knowledge on the development of specialized programs of study at the university. Developing international cooperation programs, which focus on the development of the students and staff skills, and providing academic culture and learning opportunities. Increasing the opportunities for student mobility, and research projects for faculty members. Increased opportunities for staff, faculty and students to continue to learn foreign universities, and to benefit from scholarships in various disciplines. Taking the advantage of the educational experience and modern teaching methods; Providing the opportunities to study abroad without increasing the period of time required for graduation, and through greater integration in the curricula and programs; More cultural interaction through student exchanges.Improving and providing job opportunities for graduates through participation in the global labor market. This document sets out NUB strategy to move towards that vision. We are confident that greater explicit differentiation, greater freedom and greater collaboration are the keys to delivering the further improvement in quality we shall need to retain and strengthen our position as one of the world’s leading higher education systems.

Keywords: technology transfer higher education, knowledge transfer, internationalisation, mobility

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12 Integrated Framework for Establishing Born-Global Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nonso Ochinanwata, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue


This paper explores the process of creating and capturing born-global firm opportunities. It reviews the key constructs that underpin the establishment of born-global firms in sub-Saharan Africa. These include entrepreneurial orientation, resources and capabilities, collaboration, and contextual influences. The paper discusses how individuals and entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa can establish home-based born-global firms that seek early international markets from inception. The paper suggests that sub-Saharan African governments should make a favourable microeconomics policy that will enable entrepreneurs and firms to acquire some certain minimal resources and capabilities, in order to develop global products and services.

Keywords: born global-firms, collaboration, internationalisation, dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship, sub-Saharan Africa

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11 Wireless Response System Internationalisation Testing for Multilingual

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Abduladim Ali, Joan Lu


Recently, wireless technologies have made tremendous influences in advanced technology era, precisely on the learning environment through PADs and smart phones to engage learners to collaborate effectively. In fact, the wireless communication technologies are widely adopted in the education sectors within most of the countries to deliver education support electronically. Today, Introducing multilingual Wireless Response System (WRS) application is an enormous challenge and complex. The purpose of this paper is to implementing internationalization testing strategy through WRS application case study and proposed a questionnaire in multilingual speakers like (Arabic, Kurdish, Chines, Malaysian, Turkish, Dutch, Polish, Russian) to measure the internationalization testing results which includes localization and cultural testing results. This paper identifies issues with each language’s specification attributes for instance right to left (RTL) screen direction related languages, Linguistic test or word spaces in Chines and Dutch languages. Finally, this paper attempt to emphasizes many challenges and solutions that associated with globalization testing model.

Keywords: mobile WRS, internationalization, globalization testing

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10 International Trade and Regional Inequality in South America: A Study Applied to Brazil and Argentina

Authors: Mónica Arroyo


South America shows increasing decline in regional export values in the last years, after a strong growth of trade flows especially with China up to 2013. This change is due to the end of the commodity price boom, the slowing of the Chinese economy and the effects of the 2008 economic crisis. This paper examines the integration of regional economies in this context, particularly the situation in Brazil and Argentina. Based on transformations over the last two decades, the analysis is focused on the spatial circuits of production linked to foreign markets, contributing to the understanding of the different uses of territory and the within-country inequality. The South American regional exports, consisting basically of raw materials, are concentrated in a few companies. Large areas are intended for the production of agriculture and mining commodities, under the command of major economic groups, both domestic and foreign, relegating the local population to less productive places or, in most cases, forcing them to change their activity and to migrate to other regions in search of some source of income. On the other hand, the dynamics of these commodities’ spatial circuits of production print requirements in territories in terms of infrastructure and regulation. Capturing this movement requires understanding businesses and government’s role in territorial regulation, and consequently how regional systems are changing – for instance, economic specialisation, growing role of services, investment in roads, railways, ports, and airports. This paper aims to highlight topics for discussion on regional economic dynamics and their different degrees of internationalisation. The intention is to contribute to the debate about the relations between trade, globalization, and development.

Keywords: regional inequality, international trade, developing world, South America

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9 Student Participation in Higher Education Quality Assurance Processes

Authors: Tomasz Zarebski


A very important element of the education system is its evaluation procedure. Each education system should be systematically evaluated and improved. Among the criteria subject to evaluation, attention should be paid to the following: structure of the study programme, implementation of the study programme, admission to studies, verification of learning outcomes achievement by students, giving credit for individual semesters and years, and awarding diplomas, competence, experience, qualifications and the number of staff providing education, staff development, and in-service training, education infrastructure, cooperation with social and economic stakeholders on the development, conditions for and methods of improving the internationalisation of education provided as part of the degree programme, supporting learning, social, academic or professional development of students and their entry on the labour market, public access to information about the study programme and quality assurance policy. Concerning the assessment process and the individual assessment indicators, the participation of students in these processes is essential. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the rules of student participation in accreditation processes on the example of individual countries in Europe. The rules of students' participation in the work of accreditation committees and their influence on the final grade of the committee were analysed. Most of the higher education institutions follow similar rules for accreditation. The general model gives the individual institution freedom to organize its own quality assurance, as long as the system lives up to the criteria for quality and relevance laid down in the particular provisions. This point also applies to students. The regulations of the following countries were examined in the legal-comparative aspect: Poland (Polish Accreditation Committee), Denmark (The Danish Accreditation Institution), France (High Council for the Evaluation of Research and Higher Education), Germany (Agency for Quality Assurance through Accreditation of Study Programmes) and Italy (National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes).

Keywords: accreditation, student, study programme, quality assurance in higher education

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8 Embracing Transculturality by Internationalising the EFL Classroom

Authors: Karen Jacob


Over the last decades, there has been a rise in the use of CLIL (content and language integrated learning) methodology as a way of reinforcing FL (foreign language) acquisition. CLIL techniques have also been transferred to the formal instruction-based FL classroom where through content-based lessons and project work it can very often say that teachers are ‘clilling’ in the FL classroom. When it comes to motivating students to acquire an FL, we have to take into account that English is not your run-of-the-mill FL: English is an international language (EIL). Consequently, this means that EFL students should be able to use English as an international medium of communication. This leads to the assumption that along with FL competence, speakers of EIL will need to become competent international citizens with knowledge of other societies, both contextually and geographically, and be flexible, open-minded, respectful and sensitive towards other world groups. Rather than ‘intercultural’ competence we should be referring to ‘transcultural’ competence. This paper reports the implementation of a content- and task-based approach to EFL teaching which was applied to two groups of 15 year-olds from two schools on the Spanish island of Mallorca during the school year 2015-2016. Students worked on three units of work that aimed at ‘internationalising’ the classroom by introducing topics that would encourage them to become transculturally aware of the world in which they live. In this paper we discuss the feedback given by the teachers and students on various aspects of the approach in order to answer the following research questions: 1) To what extent were the students motivated by the content and activities of the classes?; 2) Did this motivation have a positive effect on the students’ overall results for the subject; 3) Did the participants show any signs of becoming transculturally aware. Preliminary results from qualitative data show that the students enjoyed the move away from the more traditional EFL content and, as a result, they became more competent in speaking and writing. Students also appeared to become more knowledgeable and respectful towards the ‘other’. The EFL approach described in this paper takes a more qualitative approach to research by describing what is really going on in the EFL classroom and makes a conscious effort to provide real examples of not only the acquisition of linguistic competence but also the acquisition of other important communication skills that are of utmost importance in today's international arena.

Keywords: CLIL, content- and task-based learning, internationalisation, transcultural competence

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7 Implications of Internationalization for Management and Practice in Higher Education

Authors: Naziema B. Jappie


Internationalization is very complex and multifaceted and has implications for the entire university sector, and the larger community which it serves. Higher education strategic plans require sustainability on all levels of academic engagement and internationalization contributes to the sustainability because of the global competition but, at the same time, ensures diversity on campuses. Universities all over the world are increasingly recognizing the challenges of globalization and the pressures towards internationalization. The past 25 years of internationalization has faded away, and new challenges have emerged. Although internationalization remains a central strategic objective for all universities, for many leaders and education practitioners it has remained a confused concept. It has various interpretations, and it intersects with numerous other national agendas in higher education domain; it often builds upon narrow notions limited to one of its facets –attracting international student fees for financial sustainability or for ensuring a diverse campus culture. It is essential to have clear institutional views, but it is imperative that everyone reflects on the values and beliefs that underpin the internationalization of higher education and have a global focus. This paper draws together the international experience locally and globally to explore the emerging patterns of strategy and practice in internationalizing higher education. This will highlight some critical notions of how the concepts of internationalization and globalization in the context of higher education is understood by those who lead universities and what new challenges are being created as universities seek to become more international. Institutions cannot simply have bullet points in the strategic plan about recruitment of international students; there has to be a complete commitment to an international strategy of inclusivity. This paper will further examine the leadership styles that ensure transformation together with the goals set out for internationalization. The interviews with the senior leadership are in-depth semi-structured recorded interviews of approximately one-hour to learn about their institutional experiences, promotion, and enhancement of the value of internationalisation to the tertiary education sector and initiating discussions around adding the international relations dimension to the curriculum. This paper will address the issues relevant to the cross-border delivery of higher education. To ensure anonymity throughout this study, the interviewees are identified only by their institutions.

Keywords: challenges, globalization, higher education, internationalization, strategic focus

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6 Global and Domestic Response to Boko Haram Terrorism on Cameroon 2014-2018

Authors: David Nchinda Keming


The present study is focused on both the national and international collective fight against Boko Haram terrorism on Cameroon and the rule played by the Lake Chad Basin Countries (LCBCs) and the global community to suffocate the sect’s activities in the region. Although countries of the Lake Chad Basin include: Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria and Niger others like Benin also joined the course. The justification for the internationalisation of the fight against Boko Haram could be explained by the ecological and international climatic importance of the Lake Chad and the danger posed by the sect not only to the Lake Chad member countries but to global armed, civil servants and the international political economy. The study, therefore, kick start with Cameroon’s reaction to Boko Haram’s terrorist attacks on its territory. It further expounds on Cameroon’s request on bilateral diplomacy from members of the UN Security Council for an international collective support to staple the winds of the challenging sect. The study relies on the hypothesis that Boko Haram advanced terrorism on Cameroon was more challenging to the domestic military intelligence thus forcing the government to seek for bilateral and multilateral international collective support to secure its territory from the powerful sect. This premise is tested internationally via (multilateral cooperation, bilateral response, regional cooperation) and domestically through (solidarity parade, religious discourse, political manifestations, war efforts, the vigilantes and the way forward). To accomplish our study, we made used of the mixed research methodologies to interpret the primary, secondary and tertiary sources consulted. Our results reveal that the collective response was effectively positive justified by the drastic drop in the sect’s operations in Cameroon and the whole LCBCs. Although the sect was incapacitated, terrorism remains an international malaise and Cameroon hosts a fertile ground for terrorists’ activism. Boko Haram was just weakened and not completely defeated and could reappear someday even under a different appellation. Therefore, to absolutely eradicate terrorism in general and Boko Haram in particular, LCBCs must improve their military intelligence on terrorism and continue to collaborate with advanced experienced countries in fighting terrorism.

Keywords: Boko Haram, terrorism, domestic, international, response

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5 The Problematic Transfer of Classroom Creativity in Business to the Workplace

Authors: Kym Drady


This paper considers whether creativity is the missing link which would allow the evolution of organisational behaviour and profitability if it was ‘released’. It suggests that although many organisations try to engage their workforce and expect innovation they fail to provide the means for its achievement. The paper suggests that creative thinking is the ‘glue’ which links organisational performance to profitability. A key role of a university today, is to produce skilled and capable graduates. Increasing competition and internationalisation has meant that the employability agenda has never been more prominent within the field of education. As such it should be a key consideration when designing and developing a curriculum. It has been suggested that creativity is a valuable personal skill and perhaps should be the focus of an organisations business strategy in order for them to increase their competitive advantage in the twenty first century. Flexible and agile graduates are now required to become creative in their use of skills and resources in an increasingly complex and sophisticated global market. The paper, therefore, questions that if this is the case why then does creativity fail to appear as a key curriculum subject in many business schools. It also considers why policy makers continue to neglect this critical issue when it could offer the ‘key’ to economic prosperity. Recent literature does go some way to addressing by suggesting that small clusters of UK Universities have started including some creativity in their PDP work. However, this paper builds on this work and proposes that that creativity should become a central component of the curriculum. The paper suggests that creativity should appear in every area of the curriculum and that it should act as the link that connects productivity to profitability rather than being marginalised as an additional part of the curriculum. A range of data gathering methods have been used but each has been drawn from a qualitative base as it was felt that due to nature of the study individual’s thoughts and feelings needed to be examined and reflection was important. The author also recognises the importance of her own reflection both on the experiences of the students and their later working experiences as well as on the creative elements within the programme that she delivered. This paper has been drawn from research undertaken by the author in relation to her PhD study which explores the potential benefits of including creativity in the curriculum within business schools and the added value this could make to their employability. To conclude, creativity is, in the opinion of the author, the missing link to organisational profitability and as such should be prioritised especially by higher education providers.

Keywords: business curriculum, business curriculum, higher education, creative thinking and problem-solving, creativity

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4 Creativity and Innovation in Postgraduate Supervision

Authors: Rajendra Chetty


The paper aims to address two aspects of postgraduate studies: interdisciplinary research and creative models of supervision. Interdisciplinary research can be viewed as a key imperative to solve complex problems. While excellent research requires a context of disciplinary strength, the cutting edge is often found at the intersection between disciplines. Interdisciplinary research foregrounds a team approach and information, methodologies, designs, and theories from different disciplines are integrated to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline. Our aim should also be to generate research that transcends the original disciplines i.e. transdisciplinary research. Complexity is characteristic of the knowledge economy, hence, postgraduate research and engaged scholarship should be viewed by universities as primary vehicles through which knowledge can be generated to have a meaningful impact on society. There are far too many ‘ordinary’ studies that fall into the realm of credentialism and certification as opposed to significant studies that generate new knowledge and provide a trajectory for further academic discourse. Secondly, the paper will look at models of supervision that are different to the dominant ‘apprentice’ or individual approach. A reflective practitioner approach would be used to discuss a range of supervision models that resonate well with the principles of interdisciplinarity, growth in the postgraduate sector and a commitment to engaged scholarship. The global demand for postgraduate education has resulted in increased intake and new demands to limited supervision capacity at institutions. Team supervision lodged within large-scale research projects, working with a cohort of students within a research theme, the journal article route of doctoral studies and the professional PhD are some of the models that provide an alternative to the traditional approach. International cooperation should be encouraged in the production of high-impact research and institutions should be committed to stimulating international linkages which would result in co-supervision and mobility of postgraduate students and global significance of postgraduate research. International linkages are also valuable in increasing the capacity for supervision at new and developing universities. Innovative co-supervision and joint-degree options with global partners should be explored within strategic planning for innovative postgraduate programmes. Co-supervision of PhD students is probably the strongest driver (besides funding) for collaborative research as it provides the glue of shared interest, advantage and commitment between supervisors. The students’ field serves and informs the co-supervisors own research agendas and helps to shape over-arching research themes through shared research findings.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity, internationalisation, postgraduate, supervision

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3 Market Segmentation of Cruise Ship Passengers: Implications for Marketing of Local Products and Services at Destination Points

Authors: Gunnar Oskarsson, Irena Georgsdottir


Tourism has been growing incredibly fast during the past years, including the cruise industry, which is gaining increasing popularity among various groups of travelers. It is a challenging task for companies serving cruise ship passengers with local products and services at the point of destination to reach them in due time with information about their offerings, as well learning how to adapt their offerings and messages to the type of customers arriving on each particular occasion. Although some research has been conducted in this sphere, there is still limited knowledge about many specifics within this sector of the tourist industry. The objective of this research is to examine one of these, with the main goal of studying the segmentation of cruise passengers and to learn about marketing practices directed towards them. A qualitative research method, based on in-depth interviews, was used, as this provides an opportunity to gain insight into the participants’ perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 10 respondents from different companies in the tourist industry in Iceland, who interact with cruise passengers on a regular basis in their work environment. The main objective was to gain an understanding of what distinguishes different customer groups, or segments, in this industry, and of the marketing approaches directed towards them. The main findings reveal that participants note the strongest difference between cruise passengers of different nationalities, passengers coming on different ships (size and type), and passengers arriving at different times of the year. A drastic difference was noticed between nationalities in four main segments, American, British, Other European, and Asian customers, although some of these segments could be divided into even further sub-segments. Other important differencing factors were size and type of ships, quality or number of stars on the ship, and travelling time of the year. Companies serving cruise ship passengers, as well as the customers themselves, could benefit if the offerings of services were designed specifically for particular segments within the industry. Concerning marketing towards cruise passengers, the results indicate that it is carried out almost exclusively through the Internet using; a reliable website and, search engine optimization. Marketing is also by word-of-mouth. This research can assist practitioners by offering a deeper understanding of the approaches that may be effective in marketing local products and services to cruise ship passengers, based on their segmentation and by identifying effective ways to reach them. The research, furthermore, provides a valuable contribution to marketing knowledge for the benefit of an increasingly important market segment in a fast growing tourist industry.

Keywords: capabilities, global integration, internationalisation, SMEs

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2 Trade in Value Added: The Case of the Central and Eastern European Countries

Authors: Łukasz Ambroziak


Although the impact of the production fragmentation on trade flows has been examined many times since the 1990s, the research was not comprehensive because of the limitations in traditional trade statistics. Early 2010s the complex databases containing world input-output tables (or indicators calculated on their basis) has made available. It increased the possibilities of examining the production sharing in the world. The trade statistic in value-added terms enables us better to estimate trade changes resulted from the internationalisation and globalisation as well as benefits of the countries from international trade. In the literature, there are many research studies on this topic. Unfortunately, trade in value added of the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) has been so far insufficiently studied. Thus, the aim of the paper is to present changes in value added trade of the CEECs (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) in the period of 1995-2011. The concept 'trade in value added' or 'value added trade' is defined as the value added of a country which is directly and indirectly embodied in final consumption of another country. The typical question would be: 'How much value added is created in a country due to final consumption in the other countries?' The data will be downloaded from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD). The structure of this paper is as follows. First, theoretical and methodological aspects related to the application of the input-output tables in the trade analysis will be studied. Second, a brief survey of the empirical literature on this topic will be presented. Third, changes in exports and imports in value added of the CEECs will be analysed. A special attention will be paid to the differences in bilateral trade balances using traditional trade statistics (in gross terms) on one side, and value added statistics on the other. Next, in order to identify factors influencing value added exports and value added imports of the CEECs the generalised gravity model, based on panel data, will be used. The dependent variables will be value added exports and imports. The independent variables will be, among others, the level of GDP of trading partners, the level of GDP per capita of trading partners, the differences in GDP per capita, the level of the FDI inward stock, the geographical distance, the existence (or non-existence) of common border, the membership (or not) in preferential trade agreements or in the EU. For comparison, an estimation will also be made based on exports and imports in gross terms. The initial research results show that the gravity model better explained determinants of trade in value added than gross trade (R2 in the former is higher). The independent variables had the same direction of impact both on value added exports/imports and gross exports/imports. Only value of coefficients differs. The most difference concerned geographical distance. It had smaller impact on trade in value added than gross trade.

Keywords: central and eastern European countries, gravity model, input-output tables, trade in value added

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1 Managing Crowds at Sports Mega Events: Examining the Impact of ‘Fan Parks’ at International Football Tournaments between 2002 and 2016

Authors: Joel Rookwood


Sports mega events have become increasingly significant in sporting, political and economic terms, with analysis often focusing on issues including resource expenditure, development, legacy and sustainability. Transnational tournaments can inspire interest from a variety of demographics, and the operational management of such events can involve contributions from a range of personnel. In addition to television audiences events also attract attending spectators, and in football contexts the temporary migration of fans from potentially rival nations and teams can present event organising committees and security personnel with various challenges in relation to crowd management. The behaviour, interaction and control of supporters has previously led to incidents of disorder and hooliganism, with damage to property as well as injuries and deaths proving significant consequences. The Heysel tragedy at the 1985 European Cup final in Brussels is a notable example, where 39 fans died following crowd disorder and mismanagement. Football disasters and disorder, particularly in the context of international competition, have inspired responses from police, law makers, event organisers, clubs and associations, including stadium improvements, legislative developments and crowd management practice to improve the effectiveness of spectator safety. The growth and internationalisation of fandom and developments in event management and tourism have seen various responses to the evolving challenges associated with hosting large numbers of visiting spectators at mega events. In football contexts ‘fan parks’ are a notable example. Since the first widespread introduction in European football competitions at the 2006 World Cup finals in Germany, these facilities have become a staple element of such mega events. This qualitative, longitudinal, multi-continent research draws on extensive semi-structured interview and observation data. As a frame of reference, this work considers football events staged before and after the development of fan parks. Research was undertaken at four World Cup finals (Japan 2002, Germany 2006, South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014), four European Championships (Portugal 2004, Switzerland/Austria 2008, Poland/Ukraine 2012 and France 2016), four other confederation tournaments (Ghana 2008, Qatar 2011, USA 2011 and Chile 2015), and four European club finals (Istanbul 2005, Athens 2007, Rome 2009 and Basle 2016). This work found that these parks are typically temporarily erected, specifically located zones where supporters congregate together irrespective of allegiances to watch matches on large screens, and partake in other forms of organised on-site entertainment. Such facilities can also allow organisers to control the behaviour, confine the movement and monitor the alcohol consumption of supporters. This represents a notable shift in policy from previous football tournaments, when the widely assumed causal link between alcohol and hooliganism which frequently shaped legislative and police responses to disorder, also dissuaded some authorities from permitting fans to consume alcohol in and around stadia. It also reflects changing attitudes towards modern football fans. The work also found that in certain contexts supporters have increasingly engaged with such provision which impacts fan behaviour, but that this is relative to factors including location, facilities, management and security.

Keywords: event, facility, fan, management, park

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