Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5986

Search results for: family friendly policy

5986 Preferences and Experiences in Family-Friendly Workplace Benefits: Gender Variation among Qatari Adults

Authors: Joseph G. Grzywacz, Azza O. Abdelmoneium, Abdallah M. Badahdah

Abstract:

Qatar provides an interesting context for studying family-friendly policies for working adults because it is governed by monarchy and Sharia law provides the foundation for legislation. This study considers gender variation in the perceived importance of and satisfaction with 12 family-friendly benefits (e.g., paid parental leave, flexible work hours, onsite childcare). Data were from a 2017 national sample of native Qatari adults. The perceived importance of family-friendly benefits was comparable for women and men for 7 of 12 benefits. Men rated paid paternity leave higher than women, but women rated telecommuting, dedicated breastfeeding room, onsite childcare, and opportunities to job share higher than men. Women and men reported similar experiences for 9 of 12 family-friendly benefits, but men’s expectations were better met than women’s for flexible work arrangements, telecommuting, and financial support for athletic clubs.

Keywords: culture, family-friendly benefits, gender, work-family

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
5985 Women in Teaching Profession: Impacts and Challenges

Authors: A. M. Sultana, Norhirdawati Binti Mhd Zahir, Norzalan Hadi Yaacob

Abstract:

Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in balancing their role between family and job responsibility. The findings presented in this study are based on survey research in a secondary school Dato’ Bijaya Setia in the district of Gugusan Manjoi which is located in Kedah, Malaysia. The study found that employment of women in economic activity has several beneficial impacts of improving the economic condition of the family. The results also revealed that in low income earning families, both husbands and wives’ employment contribute to the family income that less likely to experience of family poverty. The study also showed despite women's teachers’ significant role towards the overall development of the family, the majority of women teachers encountered a number of difficulties in balancing their role between family and job responsibility especially when they need to work more than the normal working time. Therefore, it is common for the majority of women suffering from psychological stress when they are unable to complete the task at a fixed time. The present study also suggests implication of family friendly policy and its appropriate practice to support the women teachers who are significantly contributing to family, community and the country.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, family friendly policy, work family conflict, women teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
5984 In Working, Career Is Not Everything: A Case Study of Family Friendly Policies on Bank Company

Authors: Trias Setiawati, Rizkika Awalia

Abstract:

The study title is “In Working, Career is not everything: A Case Study of Family Friendly Policies (FFP) on Bank Company.” This study aims to describe the application of FFP in the banking, especially Bank Rakyat Indonesia or BRI (Indonesian People Bank) in Katamso Branch Office in Yogyakarta Katamso Branch Office in Yogyakarta (KBOY) as a support company to create a work-life balance, as well as the achievement of career and family harmony is seen from the work-family conflict faced by the employees. The importance of the application of FFP in an organization is basically to build competitive advantage of a company. This study used qualitative research methods with a case study approach in BRI in KBOY. Data collection techniques used non-participant observation and in-depth structured interviews with three employees. The results showed that FFP is in general adoption and not optimal yet. Optimal FFP policy is not yet implemented; it just in the in-formal policies such as the lack of flexible-time, the lack of daycare, the lack of counseling for employees of personal nature, despite it was the availability of lactation rooms for feeding. The employees found difficulties in balancing between achieving careers at work and reaching family harmony. Not pursued a career does not mean that they do not want to reach a better position, but they do not want to ignore the family harmony because of the hours of work overload.

Keywords: career, family friendly policies, work-family balance, work-family conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
5983 The Effect of Family Controlling Ownership on Financing Policy

Authors: Vera Diyanty, Akhmad Syahroza

Abstract:

This research aims to describe an empirical evidence of the influence of family control on the company’s financing policy. Additionally, this research also shows the effect of leadership from family member and the effectiveness of the board of commissioners on companies’ financing policy. The result of this study found that family control through direct and indirect ownership mechanism have a positive impact on the choice of bank loan compare to public debt. Nevertheless, this research also shows that companies’ founders who become CEO and the effectiveness of board of commissioners do not prove to increase the alignment effect nor decrease the negative impact of entrenchment effect on the bank loan preference.

Keywords: family controlling, family CEO, board effectiveness, financing policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
5982 Effects of Family Ownership and Institutional Ownership on Cash Dividend Policy in Companies Listed at Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Mahdi Azizzadeh, Ali Nabizadeh

Abstract:

This paper investigates whether ownership structure has significant effects on dividend policy and the percentage of cash dividend payout ratio in Iranian companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. We use a sample of 300 firm-years for 2010-2014. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship between family ownership and/or institutional ownership and dividend policy. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between dividend policies in family-owned firms with high or low institutional ownership. However, our empirical test shows that family firms with a low level of institutional investors distribute more cash dividends on average than family firms with a high level of institutional ownership.

Keywords: family ownership, institutional ownership, dividend policy, dividend payout ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5981 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
5980 Policy Analysis on Family Planning in Pakistan: Providing Options to Improve Service Provision

Authors: M. Moiz

Abstract:

Family planning has been known and accepted as a key tool to decrease fertility, provides birth spacing and plays a vital role to attain better outcomes for maternal and child health. Pakistan initiated various family planning programs to preserve maternal and child health for six decades. However, less contraceptive use leading to high fertility and low birth spacing is ultimately a risk for increasing morbidity and mortality. As an outcome of 2012 London Summit on Family Planning where 20 countries including Pakistan made its commitment to increase contraceptive prevalence rate by 55% and provide a universal access to reproductive health to protect human rights of women and ensure safe, choice informed and affordable contraceptives throughout the country. This paper will assess some of the factors of service delivery, coverage and the role of Ministry of Health and Population Welfare Department in providing Family Planning services and how it can be improved in Pakistan. In view of Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2017-18, there are total nine million potential users of contraceptives and one third among them never used with unmet need while every fifth pregnancy ends into abortion indicates need for Family Planning services. In order to explain this concern, a comprehensive analysis has been done on role of governance in implementing family planning policy and its limitations are discussed. Moreover, this paper highlights policy options and recommendations for improving service provision through public and private sector in creating demand for Family Planning services in Pakistan.

Keywords: contraceptive prevalence rate, family planning, maternal and child health, policy options

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5979 Dividend Policy in Family Controlling Firms from a Governance Perspective: Empirical Evidence in Thailand

Authors: Tanapond S.

Abstract:

Typically, most of the controlling firms are relate to family firms which are widespread and important for economic growth particularly in Asian Pacific region. The unique characteristics of the controlling families tend to play an important role in determining the corporate policies such as dividend policy. Given the complexity of the family business phenomenon, the empirical evidence has been unclear on how the families behind business groups influence dividend policy in Asian markets with the prevalent existence of cross-shareholdings and pyramidal structure. Dividend policy as one of an important determinant of firm value could also be implemented in order to examine the effect of the controlling families behind business groups on strategic decisions-making in terms of a governance perspective and agency problems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of ownership structure and concentration which are influential internal corporate governance mechanisms in family firms on dividend decision-making. Using panel data and constructing a unique dataset of family ownership and control through hand-collecting information from the nonfinancial companies listed in Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) between 2000 and 2015, the study finds that family firms with large stakes distribute higher dividends than family firms with small stakes. Family ownership can mitigate the agency problems and the expropriation of minority investors in family firms. To provide insight into the distinguish between ownership rights and control rights, this study examines specific firm characteristics including the degrees of concentration of controlling shareholders by classifying family ownership in different categories. The results show that controlling families with large deviation between voting rights and cash flow rights have more power and affect lower dividend payment. These situations become worse when second blockholders are families. To the best knowledge of the researcher, this study is the first to examine the association between family firms’ characteristics and dividend policy from the corporate governance perspectives in Thailand with weak investor protection environment and high ownership concentration. This research also underscores the importance of family control especially in a context in which family business groups and pyramidal structure are prevalent. As a result, academics and policy makers can develop markets and corporate policies to eliminate agency problem.

Keywords: agency theory, dividend policy, family control, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
5978 Bilingual Siblings and Dynamic Family Language Policies in Italian/English Families

Authors: Daniela Panico

Abstract:

Framed by language socialization and family language policy theories, the present study explores the ways the language choice patterns of bilingual siblings contribute to the shaping of the language environment and the language practices of Italian/English families residing in Sydney. The main source of data is video recordings of naturally occurring parent-children and child-to-child interactions during everyday routines (i.e., family mealtimes and siblings playtime) in the home environment. Recurrent interactional practices are analyzed in detail through a conversational analytical approach. This presentation focuses on the interactional trajectories developing during the negotiation of language choices between all family members and between siblings in face-to-face interactions. Fine-grained analysis is performed on language negotiation sequences of multiparty bilingual conversations in order to uncover the sequential patterns through which a) the children respond to the parental strategies aiming to minority language maintenance, and b) the siblings influence each other’s language use and choice (e.g., older siblings positioning themselves as language teachers and language brokers, younger siblings accepting the role of apprentices). The findings show that, along with the parents, children are active socializing agents in the family and, with their linguistic behavior, they contribute to the establishment of a bilingual or a monolingual context in the home. Moreover, by orienting themselves towards the use of one or the other language in family talk, bilingual siblings are a major internal micro force in the language ecology of a bilingual family and can strongly support language maintenance or language shift processes in such domain. Overall, the study provides insights into the dynamic ways in which family language policy is interactionally negotiated and instantiated in bilingual homes as well as the challenges of intergenerational language transmission.

Keywords: bilingual siblings, family interactions, family language policy, language maintenance

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5977 Work-Family Conflict and Family and Job Resources among Women: The Role of Negotiation

Authors: Noa Nelson, Meitar Moshe, Dana Cohen

Abstract:

Work-family conflict (WFC) is a significant source of stress for contemporary employees, with research indicating its heightened severity for women. The conservation of resources theory argues that individuals experience stress when their resources fall short of demands, and attempt to reach balance by obtaining resources. Presumably then, to achieve work-family balance women would need to negotiate for resources such as spouse support, employer support and work flexibility. The current research tested the hypotheses that competent negotiation at home and at work associated with increased family and job resources and with decreased WFC, as well as with higher work, marital and life satisfaction. In the first study, 113 employed mothers, married or cohabiting, reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with spouse over division of housework, and their actual housework load compared to spouse. They answered a WFC questionnaire, measuring how much work interferes with family (WIF) and how much family interferes with work (FIW), and finally, measurements of satisfaction. In the second study, 94 employed mothers, married or cohabiting reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with their boss over balancing work demands with family needs. They reported the levels of three job resources: flexibility, control and family-friendly organizational culture. Finally, they answered the same WFC and satisfaction measurements from study 1. Statistical analyses –t-tests, correlations, and hierarchical linear regressions- showed that in both studies, women reported higher WIF than FIW. Negotiations associated with increased resources: support from spouse, work flexibility and control and a family-friendly culture; negotiation with spouse associated also with satisfaction measurements. However, negotiations or resources (except family-friendly culture) did not associate with reduced conflict. The studies demonstrate the role of negotiation in obtaining family and job resources. Causation cannot be determined, but the fact is that employed mothers who enjoyed more support (at both home and work), flexibility and control, were more likely to keep active interactions to increase them. This finding has theoretical and practical implications, especially in view of research on female avoidance of negotiation. It is intriguing that negotiations and resources generally did not associate with reduced WFC. This finding might reflect the severity of the conflict, especially of work interfering with family, which characterizes many contemporary jobs. It might also suggest that employed mothers have high expectations from themselves, and even under supportive circumstances, experience the challenge of balancing two significant and demanding roles. The research contributes to the fields of negotiation, gender, and work-life balance. It calls for further studies, to test its model in additional populations and validate the role employees have in actively negotiating for the balance that they need. It also calls for further research to understand the contributions of job and family resources to reducing work-family conflict, and the circumstances under which they contribute.

Keywords: sork-family conflict, work-life balance, negotiation, gender, job resources, family resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
5976 Non-Family Members as Successors of Choice in South African Family Businesses

Authors: Jonathan Marks, Lauren Katz

Abstract:

Family firms are a vital component of a country’s stability, prosperity and development. Their sustainability, longevity and continuity are critical. Given the premise that family firms wish to continue the business for the benefit of the family, the family founder / owner is faced with an emotionally charged transition option; either to transfer the family business to a family member or to transfer the firm to a non-family member. The rationale employed by family founders to select non-family members as successors/ executives of choice and the concomitant rationale employed by non-family members to select family firms as employers of choice, has been under-researched in the literature of family business succession planning. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to gain access to family firm founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives and industry experts on family business. The findings indicated that the rationale for family members to select non-family successors/ executives was underpinned by the objective to grow the family firm for the benefit of the family. If non-family members were the most suitable candidates to ensure this outcome, family members were comfortable to employ non-family members. Non- family members, despite the knowledge that benefit lay primarily with family members, chose to work for family firms for personal benefits in terms of wealth, security and close connections. A commonly shared value system was a pre-requisite for all respondents. The research study provides insights from family founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives, and industry experts on the subject of succession planning outside the family structure.

Keywords: agency theory, family business, institutional logics, non-family successors, Stewardship Theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
5975 Dividend Payout and Capital Structure: A Family Firm Perspective

Authors: Abhinav Kumar Rajverma, Arun Kumar Misra, Abhijeet Chandra

Abstract:

Family involvement in business is universal across countries, with varying characteristics. Firms of developed economies have diffused ownership structure; however, that of emerging markets have concentrated ownership structure, having resemblance with that of family firms. Optimization of dividend payout and leverage are very crucial for firm’s valuation. This paper studies dividend paying behavior of National Stock Exchange listed Indian firms from financial year 2007 to 2016. The final sample consists of 422 firms and of these more than 49% (207) are family firms. Results reveal that family firms pay lower dividend and are more leveraged compared to non-family firms. This unique data set helps to understand dividend behavior and capital structure of sample firms over a long-time period and across varying family ownership concentration. Using panel regression models, this paper examines factors affecting dividend payout and capital structure and establishes a link between the two using Two-stage Least Squares regression model. Profitability shows a positive impact on dividend and negative impact on leverage, confirming signaling and pecking order theory. Further, findings support bankruptcy theory as firm size has a positive relation with dividend and leverage and volatility shows a negative relation with both dividend and leverage. Findings are also consistent with agency theory, family ownership concentration has negative relation with both dividend payments and leverage. Further, the impact of family ownership control confirms the similar finding. The study further reveals that firms with high family ownership concentration (family control) do have an impact on determining the level of private benefits. Institutional ownership is not significant for dividend payments. However, it shows significant negative relation with leverage for both family and non-family firms. Dividend payout and leverage show mixed association with each other. This paper provides evidence of how varying level of family ownership concentration and ownership control influences the dividend policy and capital structure of firms in an emerging market like India and it can have significant contribution towards understanding and formulating corporate dividend policy decisions and capital structure for emerging economies, where majority of firms exhibit behavior of family firm.

Keywords: dividend, family firms, leverage, ownership structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
5974 Coping Mechanisms for Families in Raising a Child with Disability in Bangladesh: Family Members' Perspectives

Authors: Reshma P. Nuri, Ebenezer Dassah

Abstract:

Introduction: Raising a child with a disability can affect family members in different ways. However, this can be determined by the way in which a family member copes with the situation. There is little research that explores how families develop coping strategies to overcome barriers in raising CWDs. Objective: This study explored family members’ coping mechanism in raising a child with disability in Bangladesh. Method: A qualitative approach that involved 20 interviews with family members of CWDs. A purposive sampling procedure was used in selecting the study participants. A digital recorder was used to record all the interviews. Transcriptions were done in Bengali, translated into English, and then imported to NVivo software 12 for analysis. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: The study revealed that family members adopted different coping strategies for their CWDs, including seeking support from formal (e.g., service providers) and informal sources (family members and friends); relying on religious beliefs; accepting the situation. Additionally, to cope with extra cost in raising CWDs, family members strategies included relying on overtime work; borrowing money from financial institutions; selling or mortgaging assets; and replying on donations from community members. Finally, some families had to reduce spending on food and buying toys for their CWDs. Conclusion: This qualitative study highlighted a range of coping mechanism adopted by family members in Bangladesh. The information provided in this study is potentially important to policy makers and service providers as it presents evidence on the coping mechanism of families in raising their CWDs. This underscores the need for policy design and service delivery in government support system in Bangladesh and potentially in other low- and middle-income contexts.

Keywords: Bangladesh, children with disabilities, coping mechanism, family members

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
5973 Family Business Succession through the Eye of the Upper Echelon Theory: A Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Ruswiati Suryasaputra, Linda Salim

Abstract:

This concept paper, initially a proposal for the completion of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is seeking to gain more understanding of family business succession in order to extend the average lifespan of family business that has shrunken significantly for the past 20 years. While multitude studies have been done in family business succession, the average lifespan of a family business continues to decline sharply over the past two decades to only 24 years, or 1.5 generations, in 2010, from 50-60 years, equivalent to 3 generations, as recently as 1990. While the qualitative approach of this study will not churn a theoretical framework unique to the family business field, it will bring to the surface important issues during a family business succession process that have been hidden behind the mostly profit-making issues that have been the main highlight of the family business field.

Keywords: family business, succession, nepotism, family studies

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5972 The Experiences of Rural Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients in Newfoundland and Labrador and Their Challenges and Needs in Relocating to Urban Settings for Treatment

Authors: Mei Li, Victor Meddalena

Abstract:

Background: Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has rapidly aging population and is characterized by its vast geography with high proportion of dispersed rural communities when compared to other provinces in Canada. Structural, demographic and geographic factors have created big gaps for rural residents across NL with respect to accessing various health and social services. While the barriers are well documented for patients’ access to cancer care in rural and remote areas, challenges faced by family caregivers are not fully recognized. Caregiving burden coupled with challenges associated with relocation and frequent travels create situations where caregivers are vulnerable physically, emotionally, financially and socially. This study examines the experiences of family caregivers living in rural NL through a social justice lens. It is expected to identify the gaps existing in social policy and support for rural family caregivers. It will make a novel contribution to the literature in this regard. Methods: Design: This qualitative study adopted the hermeneutic phenomenology to best describe and interpret rural-based family caregivers’ living experiences and explore the meaning, impact, and the influence of both individual experience and contextual factors shaping these experiences. Data Collection: In-depth interviews with key informants were conducted with 12 participants from various rural communities in NL. A case study was also used to explore an individual’s experience in complex social units consisting of multiple variables of in-depth understanding of the reality. Data Analysis: Thematic analysis guided by the Voice-Centred Relational (VCR) method was employed to explore the relationships and contexts of participants. Emerging Themes: Six major emerging themes were identified, namely, overwhelming caregiving burden on rural family caregivers, long existing financial hardship, separation from family and community, low level of social support and self-reliance coping strategies, and social vulnerability and isolation. Conclusion: Understanding the lived experiences of rural-based family caregivers is critical to inform the policy makers the gap of health and social service in NL. The findings of this study also have implications for family caregivers who are vulnerable in other similar contexts. This study adds innovative insights for policy making and service provision in this regard.

Keywords: family caregivers, policy, relocation, rural

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5971 Diagnose of the Future of Family Businesses Based on the Study of Spanish Family Businesses Founders

Authors: Fernando Doral

Abstract:

Family businesses are a key phenomenon within the business landscape. Nevertheless, it involves two terms (“family” and “business”) which are nowadays rapidly evolving. Consequently, it isn't easy to diagnose if a family business will be a growing or decreasing phenomenon, which is the objective of this study. For that purpose, a sample of 50 Spanish-established companies from various sectors was taken. Different factors were identified for each enterprise, related to the profile of the founders, such as age, the number of sons and daughters, or support received from the family at the moment to start it up. That information was taken as an input for a clustering method to identify groups, which could help define the founders' profiles. That characterization was carried as a base to identify three factors whose evolution should be analyzed: family structures, business landscape and entrepreneurs' motivations. The analysis of the evolution of these three factors seems to indicate a negative tendency of family businesses. Therefore the consequent diagnosis of this study is to consider family businesses as a declining phenomenon.

Keywords: business diagnose, business trends, family business, family business founders

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5970 The Gender Equality within the European Union Reconciliation of Work and Family Life Policies: Tackling Gender Inequality or Tackling Unemployment

Authors: Nazli Kazanoglu

Abstract:

Reconciliation of work and family life has been an area of interest within the academic as well as in the political debate for more than three decades. With the dramatic changes in the extent to which women and men contribute to unpaid domestic work and paid employment, the reconciliation of work and family life issues have become more prominent than ever before. And they have begun to enjoy an increased attention of policy makers both at the EU and national levels. Over the last three decades the EU has initiated numerous equality programs and strategies and roadmaps regarding reconciliation of work and family life, though particularly because of the crisis and increasing willingness of achieving the EUs target of seventy five per cent of men and women in employment by 2020, those programs, strategies and roadmaps emphasized on eradicating womens familial burdens while entering labor market and providing them as equal opportunities as their male counterparts have. Reconciliation of work and family life policies thus bit by bit moved away from the objectives with a strong commitment to ensuring gender equality towards employment objectives. This paper is thus an endeavor to look at the nature of EU reconciliation of work and family life policies from the angle of gender equality. More precisely relying on the feminist literature, this paper rests on the assumption that reconciliation of work and family policies should provide the sufficient measures indeed with a more emphasis on endorsing gender equality rather than economic concerns and prioritizes two inter-related aspects while evaluating the gender equality of reconciliation of work and family life policies. First providing free choice to women in terms of their family and work lives and second challenge the unequal division of labor at home. In that sense, it investigates the nature of the changing uses and meanings of gender equality in reconciliation of work and family life policies in different stages of the EU social policy development particularly after the introduction of European Employment Strategy which gave a tremendous importance to reconciliation of work and family life during their collaborations with other issues on the EU agenda as well as the major rationale behind their development and implementation and locates them in terms of two inter-related parameters mentioned above.

Keywords: European Union, division of unpaid work, gender equality, rhetoric of free choice

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
5969 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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5968 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

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A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

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5967 Distorted Digital Mediated Communication: An Analysis of the Effect of Smartphone on Family Communication in Nigeria

Authors: Peter E. Egielewa

Abstract:

Communication through the smartphone connects people globally. However, since the last 10 years, there has been an increasing shift from the social engagement in the family to the digital mediated communication aided by the smartphone. The traditional family communication had largely been oral and relational, which the smartphone is now digitally mediating. The study employs mixed research method of quantitative and qualitative research design and deploys questionnaire to elicit responses from both parents and children of 50 purposively selected families from five villages in Southern Nigeria that are very active with smartphone use. Based on the Theory of Family Systems, preliminary findings show that the smartphone is becoming an addiction among Nigerian family members and has shifted the dynamics of family communication from relational to digital culture. The research concludes that smartphone use affects family communication negatively and recommends the moderation of smartphone use in the family and the search for alternative platforms for family communication that minimises smartphone addiction.

Keywords: digital, distorted communication, family, Nigeria, smartphone

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5966 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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5965 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

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The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

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5964 Assessment of the Impact of Family Care Team in the District Health System of Regional Health, Thailand

Authors: Nithra Kitreerawutiwong, Sunsanee Mekrungrongwong, Artitaya Wongwonsin, Chakkraphan Phetphoom, Buaploy Phromjang

Abstract:

Background: Thailand has implemented a district health system based on the concept of primary health care. Since 2014, Family Care Team (FCT) was launched to improve the quality of care through a multidisciplinary team include not only the health sector but also social sector work together. FCT classified into 3 levels: district, sub-district, and community. This system now consists of 66,353 teams, including 3,890 teams at district level, 12,237 teams at the sub-district level, and 50,326 teams at the community level. There is a report regarding assessment the situation and perception on FCT, however, relatively few examined the operationality of this policy. This study aimed to explore the perception of district manager on the process of the implementation of FCT policy and the factors associating to implement FCT in the district health system. Methods/Results: Forty in-depth interviews were performed: 5 of primary care manager at the provincial medical health office, 5 of community hospital director, 5 of district administrative health office, 10 of sub-district health promoting hospital, and 10 of local organization. Semi-structure interview guidelines were used in the discussions. The data was analyzed by thematic analysis. This policy was formulated based on the demographic change and epidemiology transition to serve a long term care for elderly. Facilitator factors are social capital in district health systems such as family health leader and multidisciplinary team. Barrier factors are communication to the frontline provider and local organization. The output of this policy in relation to the structure of FCT is well-defined. Unanticipated effects include training of FCT in community level. Conclusion: Early feedback from healthcare manager is valuable information for the improvement of FCT to function optimally. Moreover, in the long term, health outcome need to be evaluated.

Keywords: family care team, district health system, primary care, qualitative study

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5963 An Iterative Family for Solution of System of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Sonia Sonia

Abstract:

This paper presents a family of iterative scheme for solving nonlinear systems of equations which have wide application in sciences and engineering. The proposed iterative family is based upon some parameters which generates many different iterative schemes. This family is completely derivative free and uses first of divided difference operator. Moreover some numerical experiments are performed and compared with existing methods. Analysis of convergence shows that the presented family has fourth-order of convergence. The dynamical behaviour of proposed family and local convergence have also been discussed. The numerical performance and convergence region comparison demonstrates that proposed family is efficient.

Keywords: convergence, divided difference operator, nonlinear system, Newton's method

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5962 Using the Family Justice System to Respond to ISIS Returnees: The UK Experience

Authors: Fatima Ahdash

Abstract:

Over the last 6-7 years, the UK has resorted to using the family courts and the family justice system more generally as a way of dealing with children and young people either traveling to or returning from ISIS territories in the Middle East. This is an important innovation in counter-terrorism laws and practices in the UK: never before have the family courts been used for the purpose of preventing and countering terrorism anywhere in the world. This paper will examine this innovation; it will explore how, why, and the implications of the interaction between family law and counter-terrorism, particularly on the human rights of the parents and children involved. It will question whether the use of the family courts provides a more useful, and perhaps human rights compliant, method of tackling terrorism and extremism when compared to other more Draconian legal and administrative methods.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, family justice, law, human rights

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5961 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence

Abstract:

Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

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5960 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: family and marital functioning, perinatal period, women

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5959 The Role of Parents in Teaching Entrepreneurship Culture to Their Children in Family Businesses

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Meral Erdirençelebi

Abstract:

Similar to economies in many countries; family-owned enterprises have a significant role in the development of Turkish economy. Although they have a large share in economic terms, their lifetime is limited to working life of their founders. Failure in achieving their sustainability deeply affects not only these businesses but also the economy. Therefore, two basic elements of family owned enterprises, family and organizational culture and especially entrepreneurship culture, should be examined closely. The degree of effectiveness of parents in instilling their children with entrepreneurship culture and their effects on children's profession choices are examined through face-to-face surveys with the managers owning family businesses randomly chosen among family-owned enterprises registered in Konya Chamber of Industry, which are active in specific sectors and which had different generations in their management.

Keywords: family businesses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial culture, family culture

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5958 Israeli Households Caring for Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Explorative Study

Authors: Ayelet Gur

Abstract:

Background: In recent years we are witnessing a welcome trend in which more children/persons with disabilities are living at home with their families and within their communities. This trend is related to various policy innovations as the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities that reflect a shift from the medical-institutional model to a human rights approach. We also witness the emergence of family centered approaches that perceive the family and not just the individual with the disability as a worthy target of policy planning, implementation and evaluation efforts. The current investigation aims to explore economic, psychological and social factors among households of families of children or adults with intellectual disabilities in Israel and to present policy recommendation. Methods: A national sample of 301 households was recruited through the education and employment settings of persons with intellectual disability. The main caregiver of the person with the disability (a parent) was interviewed. Measurements included the income and expense surveys; assets and debts questionnaire; the questionnaire on resources and stress; the social involvement questionnaire and Personal Wellbeing Index. Results: Findings indicate significant gaps in financial circumstances between households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and households of the general Israeli society. Households of families of children with intellectual disabilities report lower income and higher expenditures and loans than the general society. They experience difficulties in saving and coping with unexpected expenses. Caregivers (the parents) experience high stress, low social participation, low financial support from family, friend and non-governmental organizations and decreased well-being. They are highly dependent on social security allowances which constituted 40% of the household's income. Conclusions: Households' dependency on social security allowances may seem contradictory to the encouragement of persons with intellectual disabilities to favor independent living in light of the human rights approach to disability. New policy should aim at reducing caregivers' stress and enhance their social participation and support, with special emphasis on families of lower socio-economic status. Finally, there is a need to continue monitoring the economic and psycho-social needs of households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities.

Keywords: disability policy, family policy, intellectual and developmental disabilities, Israel, households study, parents of children with disabilities

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5957 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 162