Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 713

Search results for: expanded circle communicative

713 When English Learners Speak “Non-Standard” English

Authors: Gloria Chen

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In the past, when we complimented someone who had a good command of English, we would say ‘She/He speaks/writes standard English,’ or ‘His/Her English is standard.’ However, with English has becoming a ‘global language,’ many scholars and English users even create a plural form for English as ‘world Englishes,’ which indicates that national/racial varieties of English not only exist, but also are accepted to a certain degree. Now, a question will be raised when it comes to English teaching and learning: ‘What variety/varieties of English should be taught?’ This presentation will first explore Braj Kachru’s well-known categorization of the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle of English users, as well as inner circle varieties such as ‘Ebonics’ and ‘cockney’. The presentation then will discuss the purposes and contexts of English learning, and apply different approaches to different purposes and contexts. Three major purposes of English teaching/learning will be emphasized and considered: (1) communicative competence, (2) academic competence, and (3) intercultural competence. This presentation will complete with the strategies of ‘code switch’ and ‘register switch’ in teaching English to non-standard English speakers in both speaking and writing.

Keywords: world Englishes, standard and non-standard English, inner, outer, expanded circle communicative, academic, intercultural competence

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712 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: methodology, functions, teaching, ESP

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711 Grammatical and Lexical Explorations on ‘Outer Circle’ Englishes and ‘Expanding Circle’ Englishes: A Corpus-Based Comparative Analysis

Authors: Orlyn Joyce D. Esquivel

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This study analyzed 50 selected research papers from professional language and linguistic academic journals to portray the differences between Kachru’s (1994) outer circle and expanding circle Englishes. The selected outer circle Englishes include those of Bangladesh, Malaysia, the Philippines, India, and Singapore; and the selected expanding circle Englishes are those of China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Thailand. The researcher built ten corpora (five research papers for each corpus) to represent each variety of Englishes. The corpora were examined under grammatical and lexical features using Modified English TreeTagger in Sketch Engine. Results revealed the distinct grammatical and lexical features through the table and textual analyses, illustrated from the most to least dominant linguistic elements. In addition, comparative analyses were done to distinguish the features of each of the selected Englishes. The Language Change Theory was used as a basis in the discussion. Hence, the findings suggest that the ‘outer circle’ Englishes and ‘expanding circle’ Englishes will continue to drift from International English.

Keywords: applied linguistics, English as a global language, expanding circle Englishes, global Englishes, outer circle Englishes

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710 Enhancing Communicative Skills for Students in Automatics

Authors: Adrian Florin Busu

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The communicative approach, or communicative language teaching, used for enhancing communicative skills in students in automatics is a modern teaching approach based on the concept of learning a language through having to communicate real meaning. In the communicative approach, real communication is both the objective of learning and the means through which it takes place. This approach was initiated during the 1970’s and quickly became prominent, as it proposed an alternative to the previous systems-oriented approaches. In other words, instead of focusing on the acquisition of grammar and vocabulary, the communicative approach aims at developing students’ competence to communicate in the target language with an enhanced focus on real-life situations. To put it in an nutshell, CLT considers using the language to be just as important as actually learning the language.

Keywords: communication, approach, objective, learning

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709 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

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This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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708 Using Authentic and Instructional Materials to Support Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELT

Authors: Jana Beresova

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The paper presents a study carried out in 2015-2016 within the national scheme of research - VEGA 1/0106/15 based on theoretical research and empirical verification of the concept of intercultural communicative competence. It focuses on the current conception concerning target languages teaching compatible with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Our research had revealed how the concept of intercultural communicative competence had been perceived by secondary-school teachers of English in Slovakia before they were intensively trained. Intensive workshops were based on the use of both authentic and instructional materials with the goal to support interculturally oriented language teaching aimed at challenging thinking. The former concept that supported the development of the students´ linguistic knowledge and the use of a target language to obtain information about the culture of the country whose language learners were learning was expanded by the meaning-making framework which views language as a typical means by which culture is mediated. The goal of the workshop was to influence English teachers to better understand the concept of intercultural communicative competence, combining theory and practice optimally. The results of the study will be presented and analysed, providing particular recommendations for language teachers and suggesting some changes in the National Educational Programme from which English learners should benefit in their future studies or professional careers.

Keywords: authentic materials, English language teaching, instructional materials, intercultural communicative competence

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707 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

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The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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706 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

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705 Potential Roles of Motivation and Teaching Strategies in Communicative Competencies among Palestinian University Students

Authors: Hazem Hasan Hushayish

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Motivation and teaching strategies are commonly believed to improve students’ communicative competence in English as a foreign language; still, there is not much empirical evidence to support this claim. The present study is intended to focus on the effects of motivational factors and teaching strategies on the communicative competence among the Palestinian undergraduates. In the first phase, one hundred and eighty participants, who are studying English language in three Palestinian universities, answered a questionnaire. The questionnaire included items derived from Gardner’s 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007 Attitude/Motivation Test Battery AMTB and items from Dörnyei 2007 and Guilloteaux and Dörnyei 2008 teaching strategies framework for foreign language classrooms. In the second phase, 6 participants, from the same universities, were interviewed. The quantitative results indicated that participants’ communicative competence is significantly affected by motivation and teaching strategies. Also, the qualitative results indicated that teaching strategies do not directly affect students’ communicative competence, but rather affect their motivation. Consequently, the current study will add substantively to the literature concerning the effects of motivation and teaching strategies in communicative competencies among EFL learners in the Palestinian context, and some suggested procedures and suggestions that help improve learners’ communicative competences.

Keywords: communicative competence, motivation, teaching strategies, Palestinian undergraduates

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704 Classification of Sturm-Liouville Problems at Infinity

Authors: Kishor J. shinde

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We determine the values of k and p such that the Sturm-Liouville differential operator τu=-(d^2 u)/(dx^2) + kx^p u is in limit point case or limit circle case at infinity. In particular it is shown that τ is in the limit point case when (i) for p=2 and ∀k, (ii) for ∀p and k=0, (iii) for all p and k>0, (iv) for 0≤p≤2 and k<0, (v) for p<0 and k<0. τ is in the limit circle case when (i) for p>2 and k<0.

Keywords: limit point case, limit circle case, Sturm-Liouville, infinity

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703 An Exploratory Study on 'Sub-Region Life Circle' in Chinese Big Cities Based on Human High-Probability Daily Activity: Characteristic and Formation Mechanism as a Case of Wuhan

Authors: Zhuoran Shan, Li Wan, Xianchun Zhang

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With an increasing trend of regionalization and polycentricity in Chinese contemporary big cities, “sub-region life circle” turns to be an effective method on rational organization of urban function and spatial structure. By the method of questionnaire, network big data, route inversion on internet map, GIS spatial analysis and logistic regression, this article makes research on characteristic and formation mechanism of “sub-region life circle” based on human high-probability daily activity in Chinese big cities. Firstly, it shows that “sub-region life circle” has been a new general spatial sphere of residents' high-probability daily activity and mobility in China. Unlike the former analysis of the whole metropolitan or the micro community, “sub-region life circle” has its own characteristic on geographical sphere, functional element, spatial morphology and land distribution. Secondly, according to the analysis result with Binary Logistic Regression Model, the research also shows that seven factors including land-use mixed degree and bus station density impact the formation of “sub-region life circle” most, and then analyzes the index critical value of each factor. Finally, to establish a smarter “sub-region life circle”, this paper indicates that several strategies including jobs-housing fit, service cohesion and space reconstruction are the keys for its spatial organization optimization. This study expands the further understanding of cities' inner sub-region spatial structure based on human daily activity, and contributes to the theory of “life circle” in urban's meso-scale.

Keywords: sub-region life circle, characteristic, formation mechanism, human activity, spatial structure

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702 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

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This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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701 Analytical Formulae for Parameters Involved in Side Slopes of Embankments Stability

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman

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The stability of slopes of earthen embankments is usually examined by Swedish slip circle method or the slices method. The factor of safety against sliding using Fellenius procedure depends upon the angle formed by the arc of sliding at the center ψ and the radius of the slip circle r. The values of both mentioned parameters ψ and r aren't precisely predicted because they are measured from the drawing. In this paper, analytical formulae were derived for finding the exact values of both ψ and r. Also this paper presents the different conditions of intersections the slip circle with the body of an earthen dam and the coordinate of intersection points. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration the proposed solution

Keywords: earthen dams stability, , earthen embankments stability, , Fellenius method, hydraulic structures, , side slopes stability, , slices method, Swedish slip circle

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700 Communicative Language between Doctors and Patients in Healthcare

Authors: Anita Puspawati

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A failure in obtaining informed consent from patient occurs because there is not effective communication skill in doctors. Therefore, the language is very important in communication between doctor and patient. This study uses descriptive analysis method, that is a method used mainly in researching the status of a group of people, an object, a condition, a system of thought or a class of events in the present. The result of this study indicates that the communicative language between doctors and patients will increase the trust of patients to their doctors and accordingşy, patients will provide the informed consent voluntarily.

Keywords: communicative, language, doctor, patient

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699 Critical Comparison of Two Teaching Methods: The Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Teaching Method

Authors: Aicha Zohbie

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The purpose of this paper is to critically compare two teaching methods: the communicative method and the grammar-translation method. The paper presents the importance of language awareness as an approach to teaching and learning language and some challenges that language teachers face. In addition, the paper strives to determine whether the adoption of communicative teaching methods or the grammar teaching method would be more effective to teach a language. A variety of features are considered for comparing the two methods: the purpose of each method, techniques used, teachers’ and students’ roles, the use of L1, the skills that are emphasized, the correction of students’ errors, and the students’ assessments. Finally, the paper includes suggestions and recommendations for implementing an approach that best meets the students’ needs in a classroom.

Keywords: language teaching methods, language awareness, communicative method grammar translation method, advantages and disadvantages

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698 Communication Competence or Language Proficiency for Employability: An Investigation on Malaysian Polytechnics ESL Engineering Students

Authors: Chong Ling Ling

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In the Malaysian polytechnic, there are concerns about language proficiency, communicative competence, and employability among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students. This study examined the relationships between communicative competence, language proficiency, and employability using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Next, Pearson’s Correlation determines the correlation between communication competence, language proficiency, and employability skills of Malaysian Polytechnic ESL engineering students. The total number of participants was 81 final-year engineering students. The findings revealed high positive correlations between the communicative competence -'I can talk with a friend in English.' and employability skill (r = 0.854, p = .031), also, language proficiency -'I can understand the English songs I listen to' and employability skill (r = 0.887, p = .038). The result is consistent with the theories. The result revealed that for the 81 students, communication competence and language proficiency, and employability skills are firmly and significantly correlated. Thus, it concluded that both communicative competence and language proficiency equally essential to ensure a higher employability rate among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students.

Keywords: communicative competence, employability, language proficiency, Malaysian polytechnic

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697 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram

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Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.

Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater

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696 Communicative Values of Yoruba Traditional Music on Adulthood Socialisation between the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

Authors: Odukunle Adebayo Atewolara-Odule

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Music is an electronic medium and an integral content of the broadcast media, which has communicative values even in the process of entertaining listeners. The communicative values of music could have implications on what adults learn about culture and society. This study aimed at examining the communicative values of Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation by comparing the situation of the late 20th with early 21st centuries. From the population of literate adults of between the ages of 30 years and 65 years in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun state, a sample of 200 respondents was drawn into the study through the stratified technique. A descriptive survey was conducted on the sample with the use of a structured questionnaire as the research instrument. Findings showed a significant relationship between what adults learned about the society and its culture from this category of music (p=0.000<0.05) but there was a higher significant relationship between Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation in the late 20th than in early 21st centuries. Results also showed a significant communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music of the late 20th and early 21st centuries on adulthood socialisation (p=0.000<0.05). Respondents’ demographic characteristics were observed to play significant intervening roles on the communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music on socialisation among the adults between the late 20th and early 21st centuries (p=0.000<0.05). The study recommends that stakeholders should take cognisance of the lyrical contents of Yoruba traditional music due to its implications to inculcate values into people and shape their behaviour.

Keywords: adulthood socialisation, communicative values, traditional music, Voruba

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695 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

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Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

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694 An Error Analysis of English Communication of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University Students

Authors: Chantima Wangsomchok

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The main purposes of this study are (1) to test the students’ communicative competence within six main functions: greeting, parting, thanking, offering, requesting and suggesting, (2) to employ error analysis in the students’ communicative competence within those functions, and (3) to compare the characteristics of the error found from the investigation. The subjects of the study is 328 first-year undergraduates taking the Foundation English course in the first semester of the 2008 academic year at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This study found that while the subjects showed high communicative competence in the use of the following three functions: greeting, thanking, and offering, they seemed to show poor communicative competence in suggesting, requesting and parting instead. In addition, this study found that the grammatical errors were likely to be most frequently found in the parting function. In the same way, the type of errors which were less frequently found was in the functions of thanking and requesting respectively. Instead, the students tended to have high pragmatic failure in the use of greeting and suggesting functions.

Keywords: error analysis, functions of English language, communicative competence, cognitive science

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693 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

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The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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692 Analysis of Senior Secondary II Students Performance/Approaches Exhibited in Solving Circle Geometry

Authors: Mukhtari Hussaini Muhammad, Abba Adamu

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The paper will examine the approaches and solutions that will be offered by Senior Secondary School II Students (Demonstration Secondary School, Azare Bauchi State Northern Nigeria – Hausa/ Fulani predominant area) toward solving exercises related to the circle theorem. The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at the center is twice that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. The Students will be divided in to 2 groups by given them numbers 1, 2; 1, 2; 1, 2, then all 1s formed group I and all 2s formed group II. Group I will be considered as control group in which the traditional method will be applied during instructions. Thus, the researcher will revise the concept of circle, state the theorem, prove the theorem and then solve examples. Group II, experimental group in which the concept of circle will be revised to the students and then the students will be asked to draw different circles, mark arcs, draw angle at the center, angle at the circumference then measure the angles constructed. The students will be asked to explain what they can infer/deduce from the angles measured and lastly, examples will be solved. During the next contact day, both groups will be subjected to solving exercises in the classroom related to the theorem. The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at the center is twice that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of circumference. The solution to the exercises will be marked, the scores compared/analysed using relevant statistical tool. It is expected that group II will perform better because of the method/ technique followed during instructions is more learner-centered. By exploiting the talents of the individual learners through listening to the views and asking them how they arrived at a solution will really improve learning and understanding.

Keywords: circle theorem, control group, experimental group, traditional method

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691 The Malfatti’s Problem in Reuleaux Triangle

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang

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The Malfatti’s Problem is to ask for fitting 3 circles into a right triangle such that they are tangent to each other, and each circle is also tangent to a pair of the triangle’s side. This problem has been extended to any triangle (called general Malfatti’s Problem). Furthermore, the problem has been extended to have 1+2+…+n circles, we call it extended general Malfatti’s problem, these circles whose tangency graph, using the center of circles as vertices and the edge connect two circles center if these two circles tangent to each other, has the structure as Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles tangent to three sides of the triangle. In the extended general Malfatti’s problem, there are closed-form solutions for n=1, 2, and the problem becomes complex when n is greater than 2. In solving extended general Malfatti’s problem (n>2), we initially give values to the radii of all circles. From the tangency graph and current radii, we can compute angle value between two vectors. These vectors are from the center of the circle to the tangency points with surrounding elements, and these surrounding elements can be the boundary of the triangle or other circles. For each circle C, there are vectors from its center c to its tangency point with its neighbors (count clockwise) pi, i=0, 1,2,..,n. We add all angles between cpi to cp(i+1) mod (n+1), i=0,1,..,n, call it sumangle(C) for circle C. Using sumangle(C), we can reduce/enlarge the radii for all circles in next iteration, until sumangle(C) is equal to 2πfor all circles. With a similar idea, this paper proposed an algorithm to find the radii of circles whose tangency has the structure of Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles are tangent to the unit Realeaux Triangle.

Keywords: Malfatti’s problem, geometric constraint solver, computer-aided geometric design, circle packing, data visualization

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690 Empowering Business Students with Intercultural Communicative Competence through Multicultural Literature

Authors: Dorsaf Ben Malek

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The function of culture in language teaching changed because of globalization and the latest technologies. English became a lingua franca which resulted in altering the teaching objectives. The re-evaluation of cultural awareness is one of them. Business English teaching has also been subject to all these changes. It is therefore a wrong idea if we try to consider it as a diffusion of unlimited listing of lexis, diagrams, charts, and statistics. In fact, business students’ future career will require business terminology together with intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to handle different multicultural encounters and contribute to the international community. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the necessity of empowering business students with intercultural communicative competence and the second turns around the potential of multicultural literature in implementing ICC in business English teaching. This was proved through a qualitative action research done on a group of Tunisian MA business students. It was an opportunity to discover the potential of multicultural literature together with inquiry-based learning in enhancing business students’ intercultural communicative competence. Data were collected through classroom observations, journals and semi-structured interviews. Results were in favour of using multicultural literature to enhance business students’ ICC. In addition, the short story may be a motivating tool to read literature, and inquiry-based learning can be an effective approach to teaching literature.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, multicultural literature, short stories, inquiry-based learning

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689 A Microfluidic Biosensor for Detection of EGFR 19 Deletion Mutation Targeting Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Ji Su Kim, Bo Ram Choi, Ju Yeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 deletion mutation gene is over-expressed in carcinoma patient. EGFR 19 deletion mutation is known as typical biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which one section in the coding exon 19 of EGFR is deleted. Therefore, there have been many attempts over the years to detect EGFR 19 deletion mutation for replacing conventional diagnostic method such as PCR and tissue biopsy. We developed a simple and facile detection platform based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which provides highly amplified products in isothermal amplification of the ligated DNA template. Limit of detection (~50 nM) and a faster detection time (~30 min) could be achieved by introducing RCA.

Keywords: EGFR19, cancer, diagnosis, rolling circle amplification (RCA), hydrogel

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688 Investigation of Resilient Circles in Local Community and Industry: Waju-Traditional Culture in Japan and Modern Technology Application

Authors: R. Ueda

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Today global society is seeking resilient partnership in local organizations and individuals, which realizes multi-stakeholders relationship. Although it is proposed by modern global framework of sustainable development, it is conceivable that such affiliation can be found out in the traditional local community in Japan, and that traditional spirit is tacitly sustaining in modern context of disaster mitigation in society and economy. Then this research is aiming to clarify and analyze implication for the global world by actual case studies. Regional and urban resilience is the ability of multi-stakeholders to cooperate flexibly and to adapt in response to changes in the circumstances caused by disasters, but there are various conflicts affecting coordination of disaster relief measures. These conflicts arise not only from a lack of communication and an insufficient network, but also from the difficulty to jointly draw common context from fragmented information. This is because of the weakness of our modern engineering which focuses on maintenance and restoration of individual systems. Here local ‘circles’ holistically includes local community and interacts periodically. Focusing on examples of resilient organizations and wisdom created in communities, what can be seen throughout history is a virtuous cycle where the information and the knowledge are structured, the context to be adapted becomes clear, and an adaptation at a higher level is made possible, by which the collaboration between organizations is deepened and expanded. And the wisdom of a solid and autonomous disaster prevention formed by the historical community called’ Waju’ – an area surrounded by circle embankment to protect the settlement from flood – lives on in government efforts of the coastal industrial island of today. Industrial company there collaborates to create a circle including common evacuation space, road access improvement and infrastructure recovery. These days, people here adopts new interface technology. Large-scale AR- Augmented Reality for more than hundred people is expressing detailed hazard by tsunami and liquefaction. Common experiences of the major disaster space and circle of mutual discussion are enforcing resilience. Collaboration spirit lies in the center of circle. A consistent key point is a virtuous cycle where the information and the knowledge are structured, the context to be adapted becomes clear, and an adaptation at a higher level is made possible, by which the collaboration between organizations is deepened and expanded. This writer believes that both self-governing human organizations and the societal implementation of technical systems are necessary. Infrastructure should be autonomously instituted by associations of companies and other entities in industrial areas for working closely with local governments. To develop advanced disaster prevention and multi-stakeholder collaboration, partnerships among industry, government, academia and citizens are important.

Keywords: industrial recovery, multi-sakeholders, traditional culture, user experience, Waju

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687 English Learning Motivation in Communicative Competence

Authors: Sebastianus Menggo

Abstract:

The aim of communicative language teaching is to enable learners to communicate in the target language. Each learner is required to perform the micro and macro components in each utterance produced. Utterances produced must be in line with the understanding of competence and performance of each speaker. These are inter-depended. Competence and performance are obliged to be appeared proportionally in creating the utterances. The representative of competence and performance reflects the linguistics identity of a speaker in providing sentences in each certain language community. Each lexicon spoken may lead that interlocutor in comprehending the intentions utterances given. However proportional performance of both components in an utterance needed to be further elaborated. Finding appropriate gap between competence and performance components in a communicative competence must be supported positive response given by the learners.The learners’ inability to keep communicative competence proportionally is caused by inside and outside factors. The inside factors are certain lacks such as lack of self-confidence and lack of motivation which could make students feel ashamed to produce utterances, scared to make mistakes, and have no enough confidence. Knowing learner’s English learning motivation is an urgent variable to be considered in creating conducive atmosphere classroom which will raise the learners to do more toward the achievement of communicative competence. Meanwhile, the outside factor is related with the teacher. The teacher should be able to recognize the students’ problem in creating conducive atmosphere in the classroom that will raise the students’ ability to be an English speaker qualified. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know and describe the English learning motivation affecting students’ communicative competence of 48 students of XI grade of science program at catholic senior of Saint Ignasius Loyola Labuan Bajo, West Flores, Indonesia. Correlation design with purposive procedure applied in this research. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, and students’ speaking achievement document. Result shows the description of motivation significantly affecting students’ communicative competence.

Keywords: communicative, competence, English, learning, motivation

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686 Effect of Spelling on Communicative Competence: A Case Study of Registry Staff of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Lukman Omobola Adisa

Abstract:

Spelling is rule bound in a written discourse. It, however, calls into question, when such convention is grossly contravened in a formal setting revered as citadel of learning, despite availability of computer spell-checker, human knowledge, and lexicon. The foregoing reveals the extent of decadence pervading education sector in Nigeria. It is on this premise that this study reviews the effect of spelling on communicative competence of the University of Ibadan Registry Staff. The theoretical framework basically evaluates diverse scholars’ views on communicative competence and how spelling influences the intended meaning of a word/ sentence as a result of undue infringement on grammatical (spelling) rule. Newsletter, bulletin, memo, and letter are four print materials purposively selected while the methodology adopted is content analysis. Similarly, five categories, though not limited to, through which spelling blunders are committed are considered: effect of spelling (omission, addition, and substitution); sound ( homophone); transposition (heading/body: content) and ambiguity (capitalisation, space, and acronym). Subsequently, the analyses, findings, and recommendations are equally looked into. Summarily, the study x-rays effective role(s) plays by spelling in enhancing communicative competence through appropriate usage of linguistic registers.

Keywords: communicative competence, content analysis, effect of spelling, linguistics registers

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685 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams

Authors: Ferhat Erdal, Osman Tunca, Serkan Tas, Serdar Carbas

Abstract:

Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.

Keywords: steel structures, web-expanded beams, angelina beam, optimum design, failure modes, finite element analysis

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684 Entropy in a Field of Emergence in an Aspect of Linguo-Culture

Authors: Nurvadi Albekov

Abstract:

Communicative situation is a basis, which designates potential models of ‘constructed forms’, a motivated basis of a text, for a text can be assumed as a product of the communicative situation. It is within the field of emergence the models of text, that can be potentially prognosticated in a certain communicative situation, are designated. Every text can be assumed as conceptual system structured on the base of certain communicative situation. However in the process of ‘structuring’ of a certain model of ‘conceptual system’ consciousness of a recipient is able act only within the border of the field of emergence for going out of this border indicates misunderstanding of the communicative situation. On the base of communicative situation we can witness the increment of meaning where the synergizing of the informative model of communication, formed by using of the invariant units of a language system, is a result of verbalization of the communicative situation. The potential of the models of a text, prognosticated within the field of emergence, also depends on the communicative situation. The conception ‘the field of emergence’ is interpreted as a unit of the language system, having poly-directed universal structure, implying the presence of the core, the center and the periphery, including different levels of means of a functioning system of language, both in terms of linguistic resources, and in terms of extra linguistic factors interaction of which results increment of a text. The conception ‘field of emergence’ is considered as the most promising in the analysis of texts: oral, written, printed and electronic. As a unit of the language system field of emergence has several properties that predict its use during the study of a text in different levels. This work is an attempt analysis of entropy in a text in the aspect of lingua-cultural code, prognosticated within the model of the field of emergence. The article describes the problem of entropy in the field of emergence, caused by influence of the extra-linguistic factors. The increasing of entropy is caused not only by the fact of intrusion of the language resources but by influence of the alien culture in a whole, and by appearance of non-typical for this very culture symbols in the field of emergence. The borrowing of alien lingua-cultural symbols into the lingua-culture of the author is a reason of increasing the entropy when constructing a text both in meaning and in structuring level. It is nothing but artificial formatting of lexical units that violate stylistic unity of a phrase. It is marked that one of the important characteristics descending the entropy in the field of emergence is a typical similarity of lexical and semantic resources of the different lingua-cultures in aspects of extra linguistic factors.

Keywords: communicative situation, field of emergence, lingua-culture, entropy

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