Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16221

Search results for: communicative method grammar translation method

16221 Critical Comparison of Two Teaching Methods: The Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Teaching Method

Authors: Aicha Zohbie

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The purpose of this paper is to critically compare two teaching methods: the communicative method and the grammar-translation method. The paper presents the importance of language awareness as an approach to teaching and learning language and some challenges that language teachers face. In addition, the paper strives to determine whether the adoption of communicative teaching methods or the grammar teaching method would be more effective to teach a language. A variety of features are considered for comparing the two methods: the purpose of each method, techniques used, teachers’ and students’ roles, the use of L1, the skills that are emphasized, the correction of students’ errors, and the students’ assessments. Finally, the paper includes suggestions and recommendations for implementing an approach that best meets the students’ needs in a classroom.

Keywords: language teaching methods, language awareness, communicative method grammar translation method, advantages and disadvantages

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16220 Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

Authors: Irina-Ana Drobot

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Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students of ESP, ranging from those at the Faculty of Economics to those at the Faculty of Engineers, have shifted away from using specialized vocabulary, drills for grammar and reading comprehension questions and toward communicative methods and the practical use of language. At present, in Romania, grammar is neglected in favour of communicative methods. The current interest in translation studies may indicate a return to this type of method, since only translation specialists can distinguish among specialized terms and determine which are most suitable in a translation. Engineers are currently encouraged to learn English in order to do their own translations in their own field. This paper will analyse the issue of the extent to which it is useful to teach Engineering students to do translations in their field using cognitive psychology applied to language teaching, including issues such as motivation and social psychology. Teaching general English to engineering students can result in lack of interest, but they can be motivated by practical aspects which will help them in their field. This is why this paper needs to take into account an interdisciplinary approach to teaching English to Engineers.

Keywords: cognition, ESP, motivation, psychology

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16219 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

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16218 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

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The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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16217 A Teaching Method for Improving Sentence Fluency in Writing

Authors: Manssour Habbash, Srinivasa Rao Idapalapati

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Although writing is a multifaceted task, teaching writing is a demanding task basically for two reasons: Grammar and Syntax. This article provides a method of teaching writing that was found to be effective in improving students’ academic writing composition skill. The article explains the concepts of ‘guided-discovery’ and ‘guided-construction’ upon which a method of teaching writing is grounded and developed. Providing a brief commentary on what the core could mean primarily, the article presents an exposition of understanding and identifying the core and building upon the core that can demonstrate the way a teacher can make use of the concepts in teaching for improving the writing skills of their students. The method is an adaptation of grammar translation method that has been improvised to suit to a student-centered classroom environment. An intervention of teaching writing through this method was tried out with positive outcomes in formal classroom research setup, and in view of the content’s quality that relates more to the classroom practices and also in consideration of its usefulness to the practicing teachers the process and the findings are presented in a narrative form along with the results in tabular form.

Keywords: core of a text, guided construction, guided discovery, theme of a text

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16216 English Grammatical Errors of Arabic Sentence Translations Done by Machine Translations

Authors: Muhammad Fathurridho

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Grammar as a rule used by every language to be understood by everyone is always related to syntax and morphology. Arabic grammar is different with another languages’ grammars. It has more rules and difficulties. This paper aims to investigate and describe the English grammatical errors of machine translation systems in translating Arabic sentences, including declarative, exclamation, imperative, and interrogative sentences, specifically in year 2018 which can be supported with artificial intelligence’s role. The Arabic sample sentences which are divided into two; verbal and nominal sentence of several Arabic published texts will be examined as the source language samples. The translated sentences done by several popular online machine translation systems, including Google Translate, Microsoft Bing, Babylon, Facebook, Hellotalk, Worldlingo, Yandex Translate, and Tradukka Translate are the material objects of this research. Descriptive method that will be taken to finish this research will show the grammatical errors of English target language, and classify them. The conclusion of this paper has showed that the grammatical errors of machine translation results are varied and generally classified into morphological, syntactical, and semantic errors in all type of Arabic words (Noun, Verb, and Particle), and it will be one of the evaluations for machine translation’s providers to correct them in order to improve their understandable results.

Keywords: Arabic, Arabic-English translation, machine translation, grammatical errors

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16215 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

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This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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16214 Communicative Language between Doctors and Patients in Healthcare

Authors: Anita Puspawati

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A failure in obtaining informed consent from patient occurs because there is not effective communication skill in doctors. Therefore, the language is very important in communication between doctor and patient. This study uses descriptive analysis method, that is a method used mainly in researching the status of a group of people, an object, a condition, a system of thought or a class of events in the present. The result of this study indicates that the communicative language between doctors and patients will increase the trust of patients to their doctors and accordingşy, patients will provide the informed consent voluntarily.

Keywords: communicative, language, doctor, patient

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16213 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

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Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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16212 Enhancing Communicative Skills for Students in Automatics

Authors: Adrian Florin Busu

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The communicative approach, or communicative language teaching, used for enhancing communicative skills in students in automatics is a modern teaching approach based on the concept of learning a language through having to communicate real meaning. In the communicative approach, real communication is both the objective of learning and the means through which it takes place. This approach was initiated during the 1970’s and quickly became prominent, as it proposed an alternative to the previous systems-oriented approaches. In other words, instead of focusing on the acquisition of grammar and vocabulary, the communicative approach aims at developing students’ competence to communicate in the target language with an enhanced focus on real-life situations. To put it in an nutshell, CLT considers using the language to be just as important as actually learning the language.

Keywords: communication, approach, objective, learning

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16211 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

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The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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16210 Psycholinguistic Analysis on Stuttering Treatment through Systemic Functional Grammar in Tom Hooper’s The King’s Speech

Authors: Nurvita Wijayanti

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The movie titled The King’s Speech is based on a true story telling an English king suffers from stuttering and how he gets the treatment from the therapist, so that he can reduce the high frequency on stuttering. The treatment uses the unique approach implying the linguistic principles. This study shows how the language works significantly in order to treat the stuttering sufferer using psychological approach. Therefore, the linguistic study is done to analyze the treatment activity. Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar is used as the main approach in this study along with qualitative descriptive method. The study finds that the therapist though using the orthodox approach applies the psycholinguistic method to overcome the king’s stuttering.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, stuttering, systemic functional grammar, treatment

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16209 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

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The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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16208 The Effect of Context in Eliminating Interpretation Problems of Screen Subtitles for the Promotion of Intelligible Film Language

Authors: Ezzeldin M. T. Ali

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Arguably viewers hardly benefit from screen subtitles due to the inconsistency between scenarios and their subtitles. Research in this area will provide an understanding of the association between these scenarios and subtitles via context. It attempts to eliminate the inconsistency existing between contexts and screen subtitles providing insights into the problem. Specifically, the study aims at examining the extent to which the understanding of screen subtitles largely depends on the force of linguistic and situational contexts. This is because the context is assumed to have a powerful effect on the interpretation of the source text. Both descriptive and experimental methods were adopted for data collection. These included a test and paper-pencil-questionnaires where participants provided their impressions about the role of context in eliminating interpretation problems of screen subtitles. Participants developed a good background about screen subtitles watching films. Results showed that context forms a powerful element in understanding screen subtitles. Results also revealed that communicative translation fits well screen translation boosting the contextual meaning. The association of context and communicative translation makes subtitles globally more economical and intelligible. Context forms a central element for film language to be intelligible.

Keywords: communicative translation, context, scenario, powerful, intellgible

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16207 Impact Of Flipped Classroom Model On English as a Foreign Language Learners' Grammar Achievement: Not Only Inversion But Also Integration

Authors: Cem Bulut, Zeynep B. Kocoglu

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Flipped classroom (FC) method has gained popularity, specifically in higher education, in recent years with the idea that it is possible to use the time spent in classrooms more effectively by simply flipping the passive lecturing parts with the homework exercises. Accordingly, the present study aims to investigate whether using FC method is more effective than the non-flipped method in teaching grammar to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. An experimental research was conducted with the participants of two intact classes having A2 level English courses (N=39 in total) in a vocational school in Kocaeli, Turkey. Results from the post-test indicated that the flipped group achieved higher scores than the non-flipped group did. Additionally, independent samples t-test analysis in SPSS revealed that the difference between two groups was statistically significant. On the other hand, even if the factors that lie beneath this improvement are likely to be attributed to the teaching method, which is also supported by the answers given to the FC perception survey and interview, participants in both groups developed statistically significant positive attitudes towards learning grammar regardless of the method used. In that sense, this result was considered to be related to the level of the course, which was quite low in English level. In sum, the present study provides additional findings to the literature for FC methodology from a different perspective.

Keywords: flipped classroom, learning management system, English as a foreign language

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16206 The Effects of High Technology on Communicative Translation: A Case Study of Yoruba Language

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

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European Languages are languages of literature, science and technology. Whereas, African languages are of literature, both written and oral, making it difficult for Yoruba, the African language of Kwa linguistic classification, to neatly and accurately translate European scientific and technological words, expressions and technologies. Unless a pragmatic and communicative approach is adopted, equivalence of European technical and scientific texts might be a mission impossible for Yoruba scholars. In view of the aforementioned difficult task, this paper tends to highlight the need for a thorough study and evaluation of English or French words, expressions, idiomatic expressions, technical and scientific terminologies then, trying to find ways of adopting them to Yoruba environment through interpretative translation.

Keywords: communication, high technology, translation, Yoruba language

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16205 Raising Linguistic Awareness through Metalinguistic Written Corrective Feedback

Authors: Orit Zeevy-Solovey

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Grammar has traditionally been taught for its own sake, emphasizing rules and drills. However, in recent years, more emphasis is given to communicative competence. Current research suggests that form-focused instruction is notably efficient when incorporated in a meaningful communicative context. It is maintained that writing tasks related to the students’ academic fields will encourage them to express themselves openly in topics that are close to their hearts, without feeling too uneasy about grammatical forms. The teacher can further reduce students’ apprehension of grammar by announcing that credit will be given for merely doing the task and that grammar mistakes will not affect the grade. Students’ linguistic errors can then be corrected by giving metalinguistic feedback which involves providing learners with some kind of explicit remark about the nature of the errors they have made. Research has also shown that learners’ developmental readiness is an important factor influencing the effectiveness of written corrective feedback. Larger effect sizes appear as the proficiency level is higher. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate how grammar can be taught indirectly through writing tasks, and more specifically, how the use of metalinguistic written corrective feedback given to advanced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students can raise their linguistic awareness. Since errors are not directly corrected, the students have to work out the corrections needed through exploring grammar books and websites. Longitudinal studies of metalinguistic written corrective feedback comparing the number of errors in students’ first and fourth compositions have shown a decrease in errors.

Keywords: EFL, linguistic awareness, metalinguistic corrective feedback, teaching grammar through writing

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16204 Neural Machine Translation for Low-Resource African Languages: Benchmarking State-of-the-Art Transformer for Wolof

Authors: Cheikh Bamba Dione, Alla Lo, Elhadji Mamadou Nguer, Siley O. Ba

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In this paper, we propose two neural machine translation (NMT) systems (French-to-Wolof and Wolof-to-French) based on sequence-to-sequence with attention and transformer architectures. We trained our models on a parallel French-Wolof corpus of about 83k sentence pairs. Because of the low-resource setting, we experimented with advanced methods for handling data sparsity, including subword segmentation, back translation, and the copied corpus method. We evaluate the models using the BLEU score and find that transformer outperforms the classic seq2seq model in all settings, in addition to being less sensitive to noise. In general, the best scores are achieved when training the models on word-level-based units. For subword-level models, using back translation proves to be slightly beneficial in low-resource (WO) to high-resource (FR) language translation for the transformer (but not for the seq2seq) models. A slight improvement can also be observed when injecting copied monolingual text in the target language. Moreover, combining the copied method data with back translation leads to a substantial improvement of the translation quality.

Keywords: backtranslation, low-resource language, neural machine translation, sequence-to-sequence, transformer, Wolof

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16203 Retrospection and Introspection on the Three-Decade Sight Translation Research in China—Bibliometric Analysis of CNKI (1987—2015) Relevant Articles

Authors: Wei Deng

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Based on sorting and analyzing related literature on CNKI for nearly three decades between 1987—2015, this paper, adopting the method of bibliometrics, summarized and reviewed the domestic research on sight translation from three aspects. The analysis concluded the following findings: 1) The majority research had focused on the noumenon of sight translation. The rest of the three main research perspectives are in descending order: sight translation teaching, sight translation skills and other associated skills, and cognitive research of sight translation. 2) The domestic research increased significantly in recent five years, but there is much room for the quality. 3) The non-empirical study has had higher proportion, while the empirical study is unitary with the lack of triangle validation. This paper suggested that sight translation being in sore need of unified definition, multilingual, even interdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, perspectives, sight translation, tendency

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16202 An Experience of Translating an Excerpt from Sophie Adonon’s Echos de Femmes from French to English, Using Reverso.

Authors: Mombe, Michael Ngongeh

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This Paper seeks to investigate an assertion made by some colleagues that there is no need paying a human translator to translate their literary texts, that there are softwares such as Reverso that can be used to do the translation. The main objective of this study is to examine the veracity of this assertion using Reverso to translate a literary text without any post-editing by a human translator. The work is based on two theories: Skopos and Communicative theories of translation. The work is a documentary research where data were collected from published documents in libraries, on the internet and from the translation produced by Reverso. We made a comparative text analyses of both source and target texts in a bid to highlight the weaknesses and strengths of the software. Findings of this work revealed that those who advocate the use of only Machine translation do so in ignorance of the translation mistakes usually made by the software. From the review of all the 268 segments of translation, we found out that the translation produced by Reverso is fraught with errors. We therefore recommend the use of human translators to either do the translation of their literary texts or revise the translation produced by machine to conform to the skopos of the work. This paper is based on Reverso translation. Similar works in the near future will be based on the other translation softwares to determine their weaknesses and strengths.

Keywords: machine translation, human translator, Reverso, literary text

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16201 The Use of Authentic Videos to Change Learners’ Negative Attitudes and Perceptions toward Grammar Learning

Authors: Khaldi Youcef

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This investigation seeks to inquire into the effectiveness of using authentic videos for grammar teaching purposes. In this investigation, an English animated situation, Hercules, was used as a type of authentic multimedia to teach a particular grammatical structure, namely conditional sentences. This study also aims at investigating the EFL learners’ attitudes toward grammar learning after being exposed to such an authentic video. To reach that purpose, 56 EFL learners were required ultimately to respond to a questionnaire with an aim to reveal their attitudes towards grammar as a language entity and as a subject for being learned. Then, as a second stage of the investigation, the EFL learners were divided into a control group and an experimental group with 28 learners in each. The first group was taught grammar -conditional sentences- using a deductive-inductive approach, while the second group was exposed to an authentic video to learn conditional sentences. There was a post-lesson stage that included a questionnaire to be answered by learners of each group. The aim of this stage is to capture any change in learners' attitudes shown in the pre-lesson questionnaire. The findings of the first stage revealed learners' negative attitudes towards grammar learning. And the third stage results showed the effectiveness of authentic videos in entirely turning learners' attitudes toward grammar learning to be significantly positive. Also, the utility of authentic videos in highly motivating EFL learners can be deduced. The findings of this survey asserted the need for incorporation and integration of authentic videos in EFL classrooms as they resulted in rising effectively learners’ awareness of grammar and looking at it from a communicative perspective.

Keywords: multimedia, authentic videos, negative attitudes, grammar learning, EFL learners

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16200 Spectral Domain Fast Multipole Method for Solving Integral Equations of One and Two Dimensional Wave Scattering

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Dayalan Kasilingam

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In this paper, a spectral domain implementation of the fast multipole method is presented. It is shown that the aggregation, translation, and disaggregation stages of the fast multipole method (FMM) can be performed using the spectral domain (SD) analysis. The spectral domain fast multipole method (SD-FMM) has the advantage of eliminating the near field/far field classification used in conventional FMM formulation. The study focuses on the application of SD-FMM to one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) electric field integral equation (EFIE). The case of perfectly conducting strip, circular and square cylinders are numerically analyzed and compared with the results from the standard method of moments (MoM).

Keywords: electric field integral equation, fast multipole method, method of moments, wave scattering, spectral domain

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16199 Focusing on Effective Translation Teaching in the Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Zhi Huang

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This study follows on from previous survey and focus group research exploring the effective teaching process in a translation classroom in Australian universities through case study method. The data analysis draws on social constructivist theory in translation teaching and focuses on teaching process aiming to discover how effective translation teachers conduct teaching in the classroom. The results suggest that effective teaching requires the teacher to have ability in four aspects: classroom management, classroom pedagogy, classroom communication, and teacher roles. Effective translation teachers are able to control the whole learning process, facilitate students in independent learning, guide students to be more critical about translation, giving both positive and negative feedback for students to reflect on their own, and being supportive, patient and encouraging to students for better classroom communication and learning outcomes. This study can be applied to other teachers in translation so that they can reflect on their own teaching in their education contexts and strive for being a more qualified translation teacher and achieving teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: case study, classroom observation, classroom teaching, effective translation teaching, teacher effectiveness

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16198 An Analysis of L1 Effects on the Learning of EFL: A Case Study of Undergraduate EFL Learners at Universities in Pakistan

Authors: Nadir Ali Mugheri, Shaukat Ali Lohar

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In a multilingual society like Pakistan, code switching is commonly observed in different contexts. Mostly people use L1 (Native Languages) and L2 for common communications and L3 (i.e. English, Urdu, Sindhi) in formal contexts and for academic writings. Such a frequent code switching does affect EFL learners' acquisition of grammar and lexis of the target language which in the long run result in different types of errors in their writings. The current study is to investigate and identify common elements of L1 and L2 (spoken by students of the Universities in Pakistan) which create hindrances for EFL learners. Case study method was used for this research. Formal writings of 400 EFL learners (as participants from various Universities of the country) were observed. Among 400 participants, 200 were female and 200 were male EFL learners having different academic backgrounds. Errors found were categorized into different types according to grammatical items, the difference in meanings, structure of sentences and identifiers of tenses of L1 or L2 in comparison with those of the target language. The findings showed that EFL learners in Pakistani varsities have serious problems in their writings and they committed serious errors related to the grammar and meanings of the target language. After analysis of the committed errors, the results were found in the affirmation of the hypothesis that L1 or L2 does affect EFL learners. The research suggests in the end to adopt natural ways in pedagogy like task-based learning or communicative methods using contextualized material so as to avoid impediments of L1 or L2 in acquisition the target language.

Keywords: multilingualism, L2 acquisition, code switching, language acquisition, communicative language teaching

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16197 Quality Assurance in Translation Crowdsourcing: The TED Open Translation Project

Authors: Ya-Mei Chen

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The participatory culture enabled by Web 2.0 technologies has led to the emergence of online translation crowdsourcing, which mainly relies on the collective intelligence of volunteer translators. Due to the fact that many volunteer translators do not have formal translator training, concerns have been raised about the quality of crowdsourced translations. Some empirical research has been done to examine the translation quality of for-profit crowdsourcing initiatives. However, quality assurance of non-profit translation crowdsourcing has rarely been explored in detail. Using the TED Open Translation Project as a case study, this paper investigates how the translation-review-approval method adopted by TED can (1) direct the volunteer translators’ use of translation strategies as well as the reviewers’ adoption of revising strategies and (2) shape the final translation products. To well examine the actual effect of TED’s translation-review-approval method, this paper will focus on its two major quality assurance mechanisms, that is, TED’s style guidelines and quality review. Based on an anonymous questionnaire, this research will first explore whether the volunteer translators and reviewers are aware of the style guidelines and whether their use of translation strategies is similar to that advised in the guidelines. The questionnaire, which will be posted online, will consist of two parts: demographic information and translation strategies. The invitations to complete it will then be distributed through TED Translator Facebook groups. With an aim to investigate if the style guidelines have any substantial impacts on actual subtitling practices, a comparison will be made between the original English subtitles of 20 TED talks (each around 5 to 7 minutes) and their Chinese subtitle translations to identify regularly adopted strategies. Concerning the function of the reviewing stage, a comparative study will be conducted between the drafts of Chinese subtitles for 10 short English talks and the revised versions of these drafts so as to examine the actual revising strategies and their effect on translation quality. According to the results obtained from the questionnaire and textual comparisons, this paper will provide in-depth analysis of quality assurance of the TED Open Translation Project. It is hoped that this research, through a detailed investigation of non-profit translation crowdsourcing, can enable translation researchers and practitioners to have a better understanding of quality control in translation crowdsourcing in the digital age.

Keywords: quality assurance, TED, translation crowdsourcing, volunteer translators

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16196 Chinese Undergraduates’ Trust in And Usage of Machine Translation: A Survey

Authors: Bi Zhao

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Neural network technology has greatly improved the output of machine translation in terms of both fluency and accuracy, which greatly increases its appeal for young users. The present exploratory study aims to find out how the Chinese undergraduates perceive and use machine translation in their daily life. A survey is conducted to collect data from 100 undergraduate students from multiple Chinese universities and with varied academic backgrounds, including arts, business, science, engineering, and medicine. The survey questions inquire about their use (including frequency, scenarios, purposes, and preferences) of and attitudes (including trust, quality assessment, justifications, and ethics) toward machine translation. Interviews and tasks of evaluating machine translation output are also employed in combination with the survey on a sample of selected respondents. The results indicate that Chinese undergraduate students use machine translation on a daily basis for a wide range of purposes in academic, communicative, and entertainment scenarios. Most of them have preferred machine translation tools, but the availability of machine translation tools within a certain scenario, such as the embedded machine translation tool on the webpage, is also the determining factor in their choice. The results also reveal that despite the reportedly limited trust in the accuracy of machine translation output, most students lack the ability to critically analyze and evaluate such output. Furthermore, the evidence is revealed of the inadequate awareness of ethical responsibility as machine translation users among Chinese undergraduate students.

Keywords: Chinese undergraduates, machine translation, trust, usage

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16195 The Implementation of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) as the Media Innovation for Blind People to Learn English Tenses

Authors: Aji Budi Rinekso, Revika Niza Artiyana, Lisa Widayanti

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English is one of the international languages in the world. People use this language to communicate with each other in the international forums, international events or international organizations. As same as other languages, English has a rule which is called grammar. Grammar is the part of english which has a role as the language systems. In grammar, there are tenses which provide a time period system for past, present and future. Sometimes it is difficult for some English learner to remember all of the tenses completely. Especially for those with special needs or exceptional children with vision restrictiveness. The aims of this research are 1) To know the design of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) as the media for blind people to learn english grammar. 2) To know the work of Special Gramar Circle (Spegraci) as the media for blind people to learn english grammar. 3) To know the function of this device in increasing tenses ability for blind people. The method of this research is Research and Development which consists of several testing and revision of this device. The implementation of Special Grammar Circle (Spegraci) is to make blind people easily to learn the tenses. This device is easy to use. Users only roll this device and find out the tense formula and match to the name of the formula in braille. In addition, this device also enables to be used by normal people because normal written texts are also provided.

Keywords: blind people, media innovation, spegraci, tenses

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16194 Translation of Culture-Specific References in the Turkish Translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth

Authors: Feride Sumbul

Abstract:

Drama is a literary genre that mirrors the people and society and transfers the human nature and life to the reader or the audience within its own social-cultural structure. Each play takes on a new reality in the time and culture of the staging, and each performance actually brings a new interpretation to the play. Similarly, each translation adds a new meaning to the source text. In other words, the translated theatrical text transcends the boundaries of its language and culture and finds a new interpretation. Thus the translation of drama takes place as a transfer from one culture to another as a cross cultural communication. In this context, translating culture specific references play a key role in terms of reflecting cultural aspects of a target society. This study aims to explore the use of Venuti's translation principles of domestication and foreignization in the transfer of culture specific references in the Turkish translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth is to be compared with its Turkish version in terms of the transference of culture specific references such as religious, witchcraft, and mythological, which have no equivalent in the target language and culture. To evaluate these principles of Venuti, Davies’s translation strategies are also conducted. As a method, for the most part, he predominantly uses Davies’ method of ‘addition’ through adding extra information in the notes. For instance, rather than finding the Turkish renderings of them, the translator mostly chooses to transfer witchcraft references through retaining them in the target text, but he mainly adds extra information about the references in the notes. Therefore, the translator Nutku mostly uses Venuti’s translation principle of foreignization so that he preserves the foreignness of the theatrical text.

Keywords: drama translation, theatrical texts, culture specific references, Macbeth

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16193 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

Abstract:

Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: language teaching, feedback, peer-review, translation

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16192 Socratic Style of Teaching: An Analysis of Dialectical Method

Authors: Muhammad Jawwad, Riffat Iqbal

Abstract:

Socratic Method, also known as dialectical method and elenctic method, has significant relevancy in the contemporary educational system. It can be incorporated in modern day educational systems theoretically as well as practically. Being interactive and dialogue based in nature, this teaching approach is followed by critical thinking and innovation. The pragmatic value of the Dialectical Method has been discussed in this article and the limitations of the Socratic Method have been highlighted also. The interactive Method of Socrates can be used in many subjects of the students of different grades. The Limitations and delimitations of the Method have also been discussed for its proper implementation. In this article, it has been attempted to elaborate and analyze the teaching method of Socrates with all its pre-suppositions and Epistemological character.

Keywords: Socratic method, dialectical method, knowledge, teaching, virtue

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