Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5388

Search results for: authentic materials

5388 The Impact of Using Authentic Materials on Students' Motivation in Learning Indonesian Language as a Foreign Language

Authors: Ratna Elizabeth

Abstract:

Motivation is a very important factor since it contributes a lot to the students’ success in learning a language. Using authentic materials is believed as a mean of increasing the motivation. The materials define as authentic if they are not specifically written for the purpose of language teaching. They are genuine spoken or written language data which are drawn from many different sources. The intention of this study is to investigate the impact of using of authentic materials on students’ motivation. A single case study is conducted to the grade 9 students who learn Indonesian Language as a Foreign Language (ILFL) at an international school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Questionnaires are also distributed to the students to know their perceptions on the using of authentic materials. The results show that the using of authentic materials has increased the students’ motivation in learning the language.

Keywords: authentic materials, ILFL, language learning, motivation

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5387 The Use of Authentic Materials in the Chinese Language Classroom

Authors: Yiwen Jin, Jing Xiao, Pinfang Su

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The idea of adapting authentic materials in language teaching is from the communicative method in the 1970s. Different from the language in language textbooks, authentic materials is not deliberately written, it is from the native speaker’s real life and contains real information, which can meet social needs. It could improve learners ' interest, create authentic context and improve learners ' communicative competence. Authentic materials play an important role in CFL(Chinese as a foreign language) classroom. Different types of authentic materials can be used in different ways during learning and teaching. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic,a lot of Chinese learners are learning Chinese without the real language environment. Although there are some well-written textbooks, there is a certain distance between textbook language materials and daily life. Learners cannot automatically fill this gap. That is why it is necessary to apply authentic materials as a supplement to the language textbook to create the real context. Chinese teachers around the world are working together, trying to integrate the resources and apply authentic materials through different approach. They apply authentic materials in the form of new textbooks, manuals, apps and short videos they collect and create to help Chinese learning and teaching. A review of previous research on authentic materials and the Chinese teachers’ attempt to adapt it in the classroom are offered in this manuscript.

Keywords: authentic materials, Chinese as a second language, developmental use of digital resources, materials development for language teaching

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5386 On Overcoming Common Oral Speech Problems through Authentic Films

Authors: Tamara Matevosyan

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The present paper discusses the main problems that students face while developing oral skills through authentic films. It states that special attention should be paid not only to the study of verbal speech but also to non-verbal communication. Authentic films serve as an important tool to understand both native speaker’s gestures and their culture of pausing while speaking. Various phonetic difficulties causing phonetic interference in actual speech are covered in the paper emphasizing the role of authentic films in overcoming them.

Keywords: compressive speech, filled pauses, unfilled pauses, pausing culture

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5385 Authentic and Transformational Leadership Model of the Directors of Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals Effecting to the Effectiveness of Southern Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals: The Interaction and Invariance Tests of Gender Factor

Authors: Suphap Sikkhaphan, Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

Abstract:

The purposes of the study included a) investigating the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals b) evaluating the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals and c) assessing the invariance test of the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. All 400 southern tambon health promoting hospital directors were enrolled into the study. Half were males (200), and another half were females (200). They were sampled via a stratified method. A research tool was a questionnaire paper containing 4 different sections. The Alpha-Cronbach’s Coefficient was equally to .98. Descriptive analysis was used for demographic data, and inferential statistics was used for the relation and invariance tests of authentic and transformational leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. The findings revealed overall the authentic and transformation leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals has the relation to the effectiveness of the hospitals. Only the factor of “strong community support” was statistically significantly related to the authentic leadership (p < .05). However, there were four latent variables statistically related to the transformational leadership including, competency and work climate, management system, network cooperation, and strong community support (p = .01). Regarding the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals, four casual variables of authentic leadership were not related to those latent variables. In contrast, all four latent variables of transformational leadership has statistically significantly related to the effectiveness of tambon health promoting hospitals (p = .001). Furthermore, only management system variable was significantly related to those casual variables of the authentic leadership (p < .05). Regarding the invariance test, the result found no statistical significance of the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals, especially between male and female genders (p > .05).

Keywords: authentic leadership, transformational leadership, tambon health promoting hospital

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5384 Authentic Leadership, Task Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Authors: C. V. Chen, Y. H. Jeng, S. J. Wang

Abstract:

Leadership is essential to enhancing followers’ psychological empowerment and has an effect on their willingness to take on extra-role behavior and aim for greater performance. Authentic leadership is confirmed to promote employees’ positive affect, psychological empowerment, well-being, and performance. Employees’ spontaneous undertaking of organizationally desired behaviors allows organizations’ gaining the edge in the fiercely competitive business environment. Apart from the contextual factor of leadership, individuals’ goal orientation is found to be highly related to his/her performance. To better understand the psychological process and potential moderation of personal goal orientation, this study investigates the effect of authentic leadership on employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior by including psychological empowerment as the mediating factor and goal orientation as the moderating factor.

Keywords: authentic leadership, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, goal orientation

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5383 Using Authentic and Instructional Materials to Support Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELT

Authors: Jana Beresova

Abstract:

The paper presents a study carried out in 2015-2016 within the national scheme of research - VEGA 1/0106/15 based on theoretical research and empirical verification of the concept of intercultural communicative competence. It focuses on the current conception concerning target languages teaching compatible with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Our research had revealed how the concept of intercultural communicative competence had been perceived by secondary-school teachers of English in Slovakia before they were intensively trained. Intensive workshops were based on the use of both authentic and instructional materials with the goal to support interculturally oriented language teaching aimed at challenging thinking. The former concept that supported the development of the students´ linguistic knowledge and the use of a target language to obtain information about the culture of the country whose language learners were learning was expanded by the meaning-making framework which views language as a typical means by which culture is mediated. The goal of the workshop was to influence English teachers to better understand the concept of intercultural communicative competence, combining theory and practice optimally. The results of the study will be presented and analysed, providing particular recommendations for language teachers and suggesting some changes in the National Educational Programme from which English learners should benefit in their future studies or professional careers.

Keywords: authentic materials, English language teaching, instructional materials, intercultural communicative competence

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5382 The Role of Brand Authenticity in Egyptian Destination Marketing

Authors: Hala Hilaly, Nermin Morsy, Jala Morsy Ibrahim

Abstract:

Brand authenticity has a significant impact on brand trust and can help grow within the markets. Consumers have become more concerned with the 'authenticity' due to the doubt of credibility of the value of mass production. This is why people prefer authentic products, which making authenticity a cornerstone of contemporary marketing and a major factor for brand success. Therefore, it is important to embrace a culture that encourages and promotes authentic values. Hence, the purpose of the research is to investigate the impact of using local products as an authentic brand on promoting Egyptian tourist destination and explore the effect of Globalized authenticity on the local product in Egypt. Results confirmed that local products provide an excellent opportunity to worldwide advertising with positive impact on promoting Egypt as tourist destination. However, number of problems are facing local products in Egypt such as imported 'Made in China' products as well as other obstacles.

Keywords: authentic brand, contemporary marketing, destination marketing, local products

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5381 The Influence of Mathematic Learning Outcomes towards Physics Ability in Senior High School through Authentic Assessment System

Authors: Aida Nurul Safitri, Rosita Sari

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Physics is science, which in its learning there are some product such as theory, fact, concept, law and formula. So that to understand physics lesson students not only need a theory or concept but also mathematical calculation to solve physics problem through formula or equation. This is can be taken from mathematics lesson which obtained by students. This research is to know the influence of mathematics learning outcomes towards physics ability in Senior High School through authentic assessment system. Based on the researches have been discussed, is obtained that mathematic lesson have an important role in physics learning but it according to one aspect only, namely cognitive aspect. In Indonesia, curriculum of 2013 reinforces displacement in the assessment, from assessment through test (measuring the competence of knowledge based on the result) toward authentic assessment (measuring the competence of attitudes, skills, and knowledge based on the process and results). In other researches are mentioned that authentic assessment system give positive responses for students to improve their motivation and increase the physics learning in the school.

Keywords: authentic assessment, curriculum of 2013, mathematic, physics

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5380 Authentic Visual Resources for the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: O. Yeret

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Visual resources are all around us, especially in today's media-driven world, which gravitates, more and more, towards the visual. As a result, authentic resources, such as television advertisements, become testaments – authentic cultural materials – that reflect the landscape of certain groups and communities during a specific point in time. Engaging language students with popular advertisements can provide a great opportunity for developing cultural awareness, a component that is sometimes overlooked in the foreign language classroom. This paper will showcase practical examples of using Israeli Television Ads in various Modern Hebrew language courses. Several approaches for combining the study of language and culture, through the use of advertisements, will be included; for example, targeted assignments based on students' proficiency levels, such as: asking to recognize vocabulary words and answer basic information questions, as opposed to commenting on the significance of an ad and analyzing its particular cultural elements. The use of visual resources in the language classroom does not only enable students to learn more about the culture of the target language, but also to combine their language skills. Most often, interacting with an ad requires close listening and some reading (through captions or other data). As students analyze the ad, they employ their writing and speaking skills by answering questions in text or audio form. Hence, these interactions are able to elicit complex language use across the four domains: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. This paper will include examples of practical assignments that were developed for several Modern Hebrew language courses, together with the specific advertisements and questions related to them. Conclusions from the process and recent feedback notes received from students regarding the use of visual resources will be mentioned as well.

Keywords: authentic materials, cultural awareness, second language acquisition, visual resources

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5379 The Effective Method for Postering Thinking Dispositions of Learners

Authors: H. Jalahi, A. Yazdanpanah Nozari

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Background and Purpose: Assessment of learners’ performance is an important factors in teaching-learning process. When a factor is sensitive and has high influence on life, their assessment should be done precisely. Thinking dispositions are very important factors in medical education because of its specific condition. In this study a model is designed for fostering thinking dispositions of learners in which authentic assessment is an important element. Materials and Methods: Objective based research is developmental, and such a model was not designed for curricula. Data collection and comparing approaches about assessment and analyzing current assessments offered applied proposals. Results: Based on research findings, the current assessments are response-based, that is students instead of product of response, only offers the specific response which the teachers expects; but authentic assessment is a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-word tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills. Conclusion: Because of the difficulties and unexpected problems in life and individuals needs to lifelong learning and conditions in medical course that require decision making in specific times, we must pay attention to reach thinking dispositions and it should be included in curriculum. Authentic assessment as an important aspect of curriculum can help fostering thinking dispositions of learners. Using this kind of assessments which focus on application of information and skills to solve real-word tasks have more important role in medical courses.

Keywords: assessment, authentic, medical courses, developmental

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5378 Sharing Experience in Authentic Learning for Mobile Security

Authors: Kai Qian, Lixin Tao

Abstract:

Mobile devices such as smartphones are getting more and more popular in our daily lives. The security vulnerability and threat attacks become a very emerging and important research and education topic in computing security discipline. There is a need to have an innovative mobile security hands-on laboratory to provide students with real world relevant mobile threat analysis and protection experience. This paper presents an authentic teaching and learning mobile security approach with smartphone devices which covers most important mobile threats in most aspects of mobile security. Each lab focuses on one type of mobile threats, such as mobile messaging threat, and conveys the threat analysis and protection in multiple ways, including lectures and tutorials, multimedia or app-based demonstration for threats analysis, and mobile app development for threat protections. This authentic learning approach is affordable and easily-adoptable which immerse students in a real world relevant learning environment with real devices. This approach can also be applied to many other mobile related courses such as mobile Java programming, database, network, and any security relevant courses so that can learn concepts and principles better with the hands-on authentic learning experience.

Keywords: mobile computing, Android, network, security, labware

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5377 A Value-Based Approach to Recognize Authentic Transformational Leaders' Delivering Process of Corporate Social Responsibility Values

Authors: Yi-Jung Chen, Yunshi Liu

Abstract:

To explain how followers can perceive whether or not transformational leaders are authentic on the basis of their leadership behaviors based on value-based leadership theory, this study adopts the dual-focus model of transformational leadership and evaluates leaders’ corporate social responsibility values along with followers’ perceptions of leaders’ values. Using dyadic questionnaires, the final study sample consisted of 252 followers and 43 leaders at a private firm in Taiwan. Results show that followers perceive corporate social responsibility values of transformational leaders through their group-focused leadership behaviors because such group-focused leadership is in line with these values.

Keywords: authentic transformational leadership, corporate social responsibility value, value-based leadership theory, dual-focus leadership

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5376 Being Authentic is the New “Pieces”: A Mixed Methods Study on Authenticity among African Christian Millennials

Authors: Victor Counted

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Staying true to self is complicated. In most cases, we might not fully come to terms with this realities. Just like any journey, a self-discovery experience with the ‘self’, is like a rollercoaster ride. The researcher attempts to engage the reader in an empirical study on authenticity tendencies of African Christian Millennials. Hence, attempting the all-important question: What does it actually mean to be true to self for the African youth? A comprehensive, yet an unfinished business that applies the authenticity theory in its exploratory navigations to uncover the “lived world” of the participants who were part of this study. Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher will exhaustively give account to the authenticity tendencies and experiences of the respondents in the study by providing the reader with a unique narrative for understanding what it means to be true to oneself in Africa. At the quantitative study, the participants recorded higher scores on the Authenticity Scale (AS) authentic living, while showing a significant correlation within the subscales. Hypotheses were tested at the quantitative phase, which statistically supported gender and church affiliation as possible predictors for the authenticity orientations of the participants, while being a Christian native and race/ethnicity were not impact factors statistically. The results helped the researcher to develop the objectives behind the qualitative study, where only fifteen AS-authentic living participants were interviewed to understand why they scored high on authentic living, in order to understand what it means to be authentic. The hallmark of the qualitative case study exploration was the common coping mechanism of splitting adopted by the respondents to deal with their self-crisis as they tried to remain authentic to self, whilst self-regulating and self-investing the self to discover ‘self’. Specifically, the researcher observed the concurrent utilization of some kind of the religious-self by the respondents to regulate their self crisis, as they relate with self fragmenting through different splitting stages in hope for some kind of redemption. It was an explanation that led to the conclusion that being authentic is the new pieces. Authenticity is in fragments. This proposition led the researcher to introduce a hermeneutical support-system that will enable future researchers engage more critically and responsibly with their “living human documents” in order to inspire timely solutions that resolve the concerns of authenticity and wellbeing among Millennials in Africa.

Keywords: authenticity, self, identity, self-fragmentation, weak self integration, postmodern self, splitting

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5375 Work Related Outcomes of Perceived Authentic Leadership: Moderating Role of Organizational Structures

Authors: Aisha Zubair, Anila Kamal

Abstract:

Leadership styles and practices greatly influence the organizational effectiveness and productivity. It also plays an important role in employees’ experiences of positive emotions at workplace and creative work behaviors. Authentic leadership as a newly emerging concept has been found as a significant predictor of various desirable work related outcomes. However, leadership practices and its work related outcomes, to a great extent, are determined by the very nature of the organizational structures (tall and flat). Tall organizations are characterized by multiple hierarchical layers with predominant vertical communication patterns, and narrow span of control; while flat organizations are featured by few layers of management employing both horizontal and vertical communication styles, and wide span of control. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the work related outcomes of perceived authentic leadership; that is work related flow and creative work behavior among employees of flat and tall organizations. Moreover, it was also intended to determine the moderating role of organizational structure (flat and tall) in the relationship between perceived authentic leadership with work related flow and creative work behavior. In this regard, two types of companies have been considered; that is, banks as a form of tall organizational structure with multiple hierarchical structures while software companies have been considered as flat organizations with minimal layers of management. Respondents (N = 1180) were full time regular employees of marketing departments of banks (600) and software companies (580) including both men and women with age range of 22-52 years (M = 33.24; SD = 7.81). Confirmatory Factor Analysis yielded factor structures of measures of work related flow and creative work behavior in accordance to the theoretical models. However, model of authentic leadership exhibited variation in terms of two items which were not included in the final measure of the perceived authentic leadership. Results showed that perceived authentic leadership was positively associated with work related flow and creative work behavior. Likewise, work related flow was positively aligned with creative work behavior. Furthermore, type of organizational structure significantly moderated the relationship of perceived authentic leadership with work related flow and creative work behavior. Results of independent sample t-test showed that employees working in flat organization reflected better perceptions of authentic leadership; higher work related flow and elevated levels of creative work behavior as compared to those working in tall organizations. It was also found that employees with extended job experience and more job duration in the same organization displayed better perceptions of authentic leadership, reported more work related flow and augmented levels of creative work behavior. Findings of the present study distinctively highlighted the similarities as well as differences in the interactions of major constructs which function differentially in the context of tall (banks) and flat (software companies) organizations. Implications of the present study for employees and management as well as future recommendations were also discussed.

Keywords: creative work behavior, organizational structure, perceived authentic leadership, work related flow

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5374 Authenticity from the Perspective of Locals: What Prince Edward Islanders Had to Say about Authentic Tourism Experiences

Authors: Susan C. Graham

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Authenticity has grown to be ubiquitous within the tourism vernacular. Yet, agreement regarding what authenticity means in relation to tourism remains nebulous. In its simplest form, authenticity in tourism refers to products and experiences that provide insights into the social, cultural, economic, natural, historical, and political life of a place. But this definition is unwieldy in its scope and may not help industry leaders nor tourist in identifying that which is authentic. Much of what is projected as authentic is a carefully curated and crafted message developed by marketers to appeal to visitors and bears little resemblance to the everyday lives of locals. So perhaps one way to identify authentic tourism experiences is to ask locals themselves. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of locals with respect to what constituted an authentic tourism experience in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Over 600 volunteers in a tourism research panel were sent a survey asking them to describe authentic PEI experiences within ten sub-categories relevant to the local tourism industry. To make participation more manageable, each respondent was asked their perspectives on any three of the tourism sub-categories. Over 400 individuals responded, providing 1391 unique responses. The responses were grouped thematically using interpretive phenomenological analysis whereby the participants’ responses were clustered into higher order groups to extract meaning. Two interesting thematic observations emerged: first, that respondents tended to clearly articulate and differentiate between intra- versus interpersonal experiences as a means of authentically experiencing PEI; and second, while respondents explicitly valued unstaged experiences over staged, several exceptions to this general rule were expressed. Responses could clearly be grouped into those that emphasized “going off the beaten path,” “exploring pristine and untouched corners,” “lesser known,” “hidden”, “going solo,” and taking the opportunity to “slow down.” Each of these responses was “self” centered, and focused on the visitor discovering and exploring in search of greater self-awareness and inner peace. In contrast, other responses encouraged the interaction of visitors with locals as a means of experiencing the authentic place. Respondents sited “going deep-sea fishing” to learn about local fishers and their communities, stopping by “local farm stands” and speaking with farmers who worked the land for generations,” patronizing “local restaurants, pubs, and b&bs”, and partaking in performances or exhibits by local artists. These kinds of experiences, the respondents claimed, provide an authentic glimpse into a place’s character. The second set of observations focused on the distinction between staged and unstaged experiences, with respondents overwhelmingly advocating for unstaged. Responses were clear in shunning “touristy,” “packaged,” and “fake” offerings for being inauthentic and misrepresenting the place as locals view it. Yet many respondents made exceptions for certain “staged” experiences, including (quite literally) the stage production of Anne of Green Gables based on the novel of the same name, the theatrical re-enactment of the founding of Canada, and visits to PEI’s many provincial and national parks, all of which respondents considered both staged and authentic at the same time.

Keywords: authentic, local, Prince Edward Island, tourism

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5373 ‘Non-Legitimate’ Voices as L2 Models: Towards Becoming a Legitimate L2 Speaker

Authors: M. Rilliard

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Based on a Multiliteracies-inspired and sociolinguistically-informed advanced French composition class, this study employed autobiographical narratives from speakers traditionally considered non-legitimate models for L2 teaching purposes of inspiring students to develop an authentic L2 voice and to see themselves as legitimate L2 speakers. Students explored their L2 identities in French through a self-inspired fictional character. Two autobiographical narratives of identity quest by non-traditional French speakers provided them guidance through this process: the novel Le Bleu des Abeilles (2013) and the film Qu’Allah Bénisse la France (2014). Written and French oral productions for different genres, as well as metalinguistic reflections in English, were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that ideas and materials that were relatable to students, namely relatable experiences and relatable language, were most useful to them in developing their L2 voices and achieving authentic and legitimate L2 speakership. These results point towards the benefits of using non-traditional speakers as pedagogical models, as they serve to legitimize students’ sense of their own L2-speakership, which ultimately leads them towards a better, more informed, mastery of the language.

Keywords: foreign language classroom, L2 identity, L2 learning and teaching, L2 writing, sociolinguistics

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5372 Leadership Education for Law Enforcement Mid-Level Managers: The Mediating Role of Effectiveness of Training on Transformational and Authentic Leadership Traits

Authors: Kevin Baxter, Ron Grove, James Pitney, John Harrison, Ozlem Gumus

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The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating effect of effectiveness of the training provided by Northwestern University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC), on the ability of law enforcement mid-level managers to learn transformational and authentic leadership traits. This study will also evaluate the leadership styles, of course, graduates compared to non-attendees using a static group comparison design. The Louisiana State Police pay approximately $40,000 in salary, tuition, housing, and meals for each state police lieutenant attending the 10-week program of the SPSC. This school lists the development of transformational leaders as an increasing element. Additionally, the SPSC curriculum addresses all four components of authentic leadership - self-awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing. Upon return to law enforcement in roles of mid-level management, there are questions as to whether or not students revert to an “autocratic” leadership style. Insufficient evidence exists to support claims for the effectiveness of management training or leadership development. Though it is widely recognized that transformational styles are beneficial to law enforcement, there is little evidence that suggests police leadership styles are changing. Police organizations continue to hold to a more transactional style (i.e., most senior police leaders remain autocrats). Additionally, research in the application of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership related to police organizations is minimal. The population of the study is law enforcement mid-level managers from various states within the United States who completed leadership training presented by the SPSC. The sample will be composed of 66 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have graduated from SPSC and 65 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have not attended SPSC. Participants will answer demographics questions, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, and the Kirkpatrick Hybrid Evaluation Survey. Analysis from descriptive statistics, group comparison, one-way MANCOVA, and the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model survey will be used to determine training effectiveness in the four levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Independent variables are SPSC graduates (two groups: upper and lower) and no-SPSC attendees, and dependent variables are transformational and authentic leadership scores. SPSC graduates are expected to have higher MLQ scores for transformational leadership traits and higher ALQ scores for authentic leadership traits than SPSC non-attendees. We also expect the graduates to rate the efficacy of SPSC leadership training as high. This study will validate (or invalidate) the benefits, costs, and resources required for leadership development from a nationally recognized police leadership program, and it will also help fill the gap in the literature that exists between law enforcement professional development and transformational and authentic leadership styles.

Keywords: training effectiveness, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, law enforcement mid-level manager

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5371 Authentic Connection between the Deity and the Individual Human Being Is Vital for Psychological, Biological, and Social Health

Authors: Sukran Karatas

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Authentic energy network interrelations between the Creator and the creations as well as from creations to creations are the most important points for the worlds of physics and metaphysic to unite together and work in harmony, both within human beings, on the other hand, have the ability to choose their own life style voluntarily. However, it includes the automated involuntary spirit, soul and body working systems together with the voluntary actions, which involve personal, cultural and universal, rational or irrational variable values. Therefore, it is necessary for human beings to know the methods of existing authentic energy network connections to be able to communicate correlate and accommodate the physical and metaphysical entities as a proper functioning unity; this is essential for complete human psychological, biological and social well-being. Authentic knowledge is necessary for human beings to verify the position of self within self and with others to regulate conscious and voluntary actions accordingly in order to prevent oppressions and frictions within self and between self and others. Unfortunately, the absence of genuine individual and universal basic knowledge about how to establish an authentic energy network connection within self, with the deity and the environment is the most problematic issue even in the twenty-first century. The second most problematic issue is how to maintain freedom, equality and justice among human beings during these strictly interwoven network connections, which naturally involve physical, metaphysical and behavioral actions of the self and the others. The third and probably the most complicated problem is the scientific identification and the authentication of the deity. This not only provides the whole power and control over the choosers to set their life orders but also to establish perfect physical and metaphysical links as fully coordinated functional energy network. This thus indicates that choosing an authentic deity is the key-point that influences automated, emotional, and behavioral actions altogether, which shapes human perception, personal actions, and life orders. Therefore, we will be considering the existing ‘four types of energy wave end boundary behaviors’, comprising, free end, fixed end boundary behaviors, as well as boundary behaviors from denser medium to less dense medium and from less dense medium to denser medium. Consequently, this article aims to demonstrate that the authentication and the choice of deity has an important effect on individual psychological, biological and social health. It is hoped that it will encourage new researches in the field of authentic energy network connections to establish the best position and the most correct interrelation connections with self and others without violating the authorized orders and the borders of one another to live happier and healthier lives together. In addition, the book ‘Deity and Freedom, Equality, Justice in History, Philosophy, Science’ has more detailed information for those interested in this subject.

Keywords: deity, energy network, power, freedom, equality, justice, happiness, sadness, hope, fear, psychology, biology, sociology

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5370 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

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As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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5369 Characteristics of Successful Sales Interaction in B2B Sales Meetings

Authors: Ari Alamäki, Timo Kaski

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The value of co-creation has gained much attention in sales research, but less is known about how salespeople and customers interact in the authentic business to business (B2B) sales meetings. The study presented in this paper empirically contributes to existing research by presenting authentic B2B sales meetings that were video recorded and analyzed using observation and qualitative content analysis methods. This paper aims to study key elements of successful sales interactions between salespeople and customers/buyers. This study points out that salespeople are selling value rather than the products or services themselves, which are only enablers in realizing business benefits. Therefore, our findings suggest that promoting and easing open discourse is an essential part of a successful sales encounter. A better understanding of how salespeople and customers successfully interact would help salespeople to develop their interpersonal sales skills.

Keywords: personal selling, relationship, sales management, value co-creation

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5368 Made-in-Japan English and the Negative Impact on English Language Learning

Authors: Anne Crescini

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The number of loanwords borrowed into the Japanese language is increasing rapidly in recent years, and many linguists argue that loanwords make up more than 10% of the Japanese lexicon. While these loanwords come from various Western languages, 80%-90% are borrowed from English. Also, there is a separate group of words and phrases categorized as ‘Japanese English’. These made-in-Japan linguistic creations may look and sound like English, but in fact are not used by native speakers and are often incomprehensible to them. Linguistically, the important thing to remember is that these terms are not English ones, but in fact, 100% Japanese words. A problem arises in language teaching, however, when Japanese English learners are unable to distinguish authentic loans from Japanese English terms. This confusion could greatly impede language acquisition and communication. The goal of this paper is to determine to what degree this potential misunderstanding may interfere with communication. Native English speakers living in the United States were interviewed and shown a list of romanized Japanese English terms, which are both commonly used and often mistaken for authentic loans. Then, the words were put into the context of a sentence in order to ascertain if context in any way aided comprehension. The results showed that while some terms are understood on their own, and others are understood better in context, a large number of the terms are entirely incomprehensible to native English speakers. If that is the case, and a Japanese learner mistakes a Japanese English term for an authentic loan, a communication breakdown may occur during interaction in English. With the ever-increasing presence of both groups of terms in the Japanese language, it is more important than ever that teaching professionals address this topic in the language classroom.

Keywords: Japanese, Japanese English, language acquisition, loanwords

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5367 On the Impracticality of Kierkegaard's Community of Authentic Individuals

Authors: Andrew Ka Pok Tam

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Kierkegaard has been misinterpreted as an anti-social philosopher for a long time until in recent years when there are more discussions on his concept of community in Journals and Papers inspired by Karl Bayer. Community which is based upon an individual's relations to others is different from the crowd or the public where the numerical or the majority make decisions. As a result, authenticity is only possible in the community. But Kierkegaard did not explain how we can preserve the individual's authenticity by establishing a community instead of a public in the reality. Kierkegaard was against the democratic reform in 1848 Denmark because he thought all elections mean the majority wins and the authenticity of a single individual would be suppressed. However, Kierkegaard himself does not suggest an alternative political system that may preserve the authenticity of individual. This paper aims to evaluate the possibility for us to establish a Kierkegaadian community in practice so as to preserve every individual's authenticity. This paper argues that the practicality of Kierekegaadian community is limited. In order to have effective communications and relations among individuals, a Kierkegaardian community must be small and inefficient as every individual's must remain authentic in all political decision for the whole community.

Keywords: authenticity, community, individual, kierkegaard

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5366 Reading Literacy, Storytelling and Cognitive Learning: an Effective Connection in Sustainability Education

Authors: Rosa Tiziana Bruno

Abstract:

The connection between education and sustainability has been posited to have benefit for realizing a social development compatible with environmental protection. However, an educational paradigm based on the passage of information or on the fear of a catastrophe might not favor the acquisition of eco-identity. To build a sustainable world, it is necessary to "become people" in harmony with other human beings, being aware of belonging to the same human community that is part of the natural world. This can only be achieved within an authentic educating community and the most effective tools for building educating communities are reading literacy and storytelling. This paper is the report of a research-action carried out in this direction, in agreement with the sociology department of the University of Salerno, which involved four hundred children and their teachers in a path based on the combination of reading literacy, storytelling, autobiographical writing and outdoor education. The goal of the research was to create an authentic educational community within the school, capable to encourage the acquisition of an eco-identity by the pupils, that is, personal and relational growth in the full realization of the Self, in harmony with the social and natural environment, with a view to an authentic education for sustainability. To ensure reasonable validity and reliability of findings, the inquiry started with participant observation and a process of triangulation has been used including: semi-structured interview, socio-semiotic analysis of the conversation and time budget. Basically, a multiple independent sources of data was used to answer the questions. Observing the phenomenon through multiple "windows" helped to comparing data through a variety of lenses. All teachers had the experience of implementing a socio-didactic strategy called "Fiabadiario" and they had the possibility to use it with approaches that fit their students. The data being collected come from the very students and teachers who are engaged with this strategy. The educational path tested during the research has produced sustainable relationships and conflict resolution within the school system and between school and families, creating an authentic and sustainable learning community.

Keywords: educating community, education for sustainability, literature in education, social relations

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5365 Task Validity in Neuroimaging Studies: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of neuroimaging studies related to language learning as imaging techniques such as fMRI and EEG have become more widely accessible to researchers. By using a variety of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, these studies have already made considerable progress in terms of our understanding of neural networks and processing related to first and second language acquisition. However, the methodological designs employed in neuroimaging studies to test language learning have been questioned by applied linguists working within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). One of the major criticisms is that tasks designed to measure language learning gains rarely have a communicative function, and seldom assess learners’ ability to use the language in authentic situations. This brings the validity of many neuroimaging tasks into question. The fundamental reason why people learn a language is to communicate, and it is well-known that both first and second language proficiency are developed through meaningful social interaction. With this in mind, the SLA field is in agreement that second language acquisition and proficiency should be measured through learners’ ability to communicate in authentic real-life situations. Whilst authenticity is not always possible to achieve in a classroom environment, the importance of task authenticity should be reflected in the design of language assessments, teaching materials, and curricula. Tasks that bear little relation to how language is used in real-life situations can be considered to lack construct validity. This paper first describes the typical tasks used in neuroimaging studies to measure language gains and proficiency, then analyses to what extent these tasks can validly assess these constructs.

Keywords: neuroimaging studies, research design, second language acquisition, task validity

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5364 Life Stories: High Quality of Life until the End with the Narrative Medicine and the Storytelling

Authors: Danila Zuffetti, Lorenzo Chiesa

Abstract:

Background: A hospice narrative interview aims at putting the sick at the core of disease and treatment allowing them to explore their most intimate facets. The aim of this work is to favor authentic narration by leading towards awareness and acceptance of terminality and to face death with serenity. Narration in palliative care aims at helping to reduce the chaos generated by the disease and to elaborate interpretations on the course of reality, besides, the narration delivered to the doctor is fundamental and communicates the meaning given to symptoms. Methods: The narrative interview has become a regular activity in the Castellini Foundation since 2017. Patients take part every week, and for more days, in one hour sessions, in a welcoming and empathic setting and the interaction with the operator leads to a gradual awareness of their terminality. Patients are submitted with free answer questions with the purpose of facilitating and stimulating self-narration. Narration has not always been linear, but patients are left free to shift in time to revisit their disease process by making use of different tools, such as digital storytelling. Results: The answers provided by the patients show to which extent the narrative interview is an instrument allowing the analysis of the stories and gives the possibility to better understand and deepen the different implications of patient and caregiver’s background. Conclusion: The narration work in the hospice demonstrates that narrative medicine is an added value. This instrument has proven useful not only in the support of patients but also for the palliative doctor to identify wishes for accompanying them to the end with dignity and serenity. The narrative interview favors the construction of an authentic therapeutic relationship. The sick are taken wholly in charge, and they are guaranteed a high quality of life until their very last instant.

Keywords: construction of an authentic therapy relationship, gradual awareness of their terminality, narrative interview, reduce the chaos generated by the desease

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5363 Using Genre Analysis to Teach Contract Negotiation Discourse Practices

Authors: Anthony Townley

Abstract:

Contract negotiation is fundamental to commercial law practice. For this study, genre and discourse analytical methodology was used to examine the legal negotiation of a Merger & Acquisition (M&A) deal undertaken by legal and business professionals in English across different jurisdictions in Europe. While some of the most delicate negotiations involved in this process were carried on face-to-face or over the telephone, these were generally progressed more systematically – and on the record – in the form of emails, email attachments, and as comments and amendments recorded in successive ‘marked-up’ versions of the contracts under negotiation. This large corpus of textual data was originally obtained by the author, in 2012, for the purpose of doctoral research. For this study, the analysis is particularly concerned with the use of emails and covering letters to exchange legal advice about the negotiations. These two genres help to stabilize and progress the negotiation process and account for negotiation activities. Swalesian analysis of functional Moves and Steps was able to identify structural similarities and differences between these text types and to identify certain salient discursive features within them. The analytical findings also indicate how particular linguistic strategies are more appropriately and more effectively associated with one legal genre rather than another. The concept of intertextuality is an important dimension of contract negotiation discourse and this study also examined how the discursive relationships between the different texts influence the way that texts are constructed. In terms of materials development, the research findings can contribute to more authentic English for Legal & Business Purposes pedagogies for students and novice lawyers and business professionals. The findings can first be used to design discursive maps that provide learners with a coherent account of the intertextual nature of the contract negotiation process. These discursive maps can then function as a framework in which to present detailed findings about the textual and structural features of the text types by applying the Swalesian genre analysis. Based on this acquired knowledge of the textual nature of contract negotiation, the authentic discourse materials can then be used to provide learners with practical opportunities to role-play negotiation activities and experience professional ways of thinking and using language in preparation for the written discourse challenges they will face in this important area of legal and business practice.

Keywords: English for legal and business purposes, discourse analysis, genre analysis, intertextuality, pedagogical materials

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5362 The Relation between Authenticity at Work and Job Satisfaction

Authors: Godiva Kwan, Winton Au, Fanny Cheung

Abstract:

Authenticity, being true to oneself and acting in congruence with one’s values and beliefs, is a basic human strength, and is instrumental to understanding well-being. While dispositional authenticity was found to be associated with positive affect and subjective well-being, others have demonstrated that individuals assumed different levels of authenticity when they took up different social roles, suggesting that state authenticity can be an alternative mechanism. This study examined the relation between workplace authenticity and job satisfaction. We hypothesize that state authenticity at work will be predicted by psychological safety climate (organizational climate where employees feel safe to speak up without being embarrassed or rejected). Employees are expected to experience higher subjective well-being and job satisfaction as a result of being authentic at work. Survey results provided support to the hypotheses. Psychological safety climate enhanced employees’ authenticity state at work, which in turn improved well-being and job satisfaction. In conclusion, we found that employees become more authentic at work in an organizational climate where they feel safe to express themselves, leading to a higher job satisfaction and well-being. The current study contributes to the understanding of underlying mechanisms behind experiencing authenticity at work among employees in Hong Kong. Our findings are expected to provide insights and to raise organizations’ awareness of creating an open and trustful culture in order to enhance job satisfaction of employees through encouraging them to “be themselves”.

Keywords: authenticity, job satisfaction, psychological safety climate, organizational climate

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5361 Lime Based Products as a Maintainable Option for Repair And Restoration of Historic Buildings in India

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola

Abstract:

This research aims to study the use of traditional building materials for the repair and refurbishment of historic buildings in India and to provide an authentic treatment of historical buildings that will be highly considered by taking into consideration the new standards of rehabilitating process. This can be proven to be an effective solution over modern impervious material due to its compatibility with traditional building methods and materials. For example, their elastoplastic properties allow accommodating movement due to settlement or moisture/temperature changes without cracking. The use of lime also enhances workability, water retention and bond characteristics. Lime is considered to be a natural, traditional material, but it is also sustainable and energy-efficient, with production powered by biomass and emissions up to 25% less than cementitious materials. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the impact of lime‐based materials on the energy efficiency and thermal properties of traditional buildings and structures. Although lime mortars, renders and plasters were largely superseded by cement-based products in the first half of the 20th century, lime has a long and proven track record dating back to ancient times. This was used by the Egyptians in 4000BC to construct the pyramids. This doesn't mean that lime is an outdated technology, nor is it difficult to be used as a material. In fact, lime has a growing place in modern construction, with increasing numbers of designers choosing to use lime-based products because of their special properties. To carry out this research, some historic buildings will be surveyed and information will be derived from the textbooks and journals related to Architectural restoration.

Keywords: lime, materials, historic, buildings, sustainability

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5360 Enhancing Student Learning Experience Online through Collaboration with Pre-Service Teachers

Authors: Jessica Chakowa

Abstract:

Learning a foreign language requires practice that needs to be undertaken beyond the classroom. Nowadays, learners can find a lot of resources online, but it can be challenging for them to find suitable material, receive timely and effective feedback on their progress, and, more importantly practice the target language with native speakers. This paper focuses on the development of interactive activities combined with online tutoring sessions to consolidate and enhance the learning experience of beginner students of French at * University. This project is based on collaboration with four pre-service teachers from a French university. It calls for authentic language learning material, real-life situations, cultural awareness, and aims for the sustainability of learning and teaching. The paper will first present the design of the project as part of a holistic approach. It will then provide some examples of activities before commenting on the learners and the teachers’ experiences based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained through activity reports, surveys and focus groups. The main findings of the study lie in the tension between the willingness to achieve pedagogical goals and to be involved in authentic interactions, highlighting the complementary between the role of the learner and the role of teacher. The paper will conclude on benefits, challenges and recommendations when implementing such educational projects.

Keywords: authenticity, language teaching and learning, online interaction, sustainability

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5359 Critical Pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Grade 8 Values Education Curriculum and Textbook

Authors: Raymon Maac, Michael Arthus Muega, Joyce Ann Calingasan, Elva Maureen Gorospe

Abstract:

Critical pedagogy is known for its advocacy of humanistic and liberating education. Its far-reaching approach helps students to understand and analyze their own situations and the realities happening in their society. However, this pedagogy together with its promising features is not well-known in the Philippines. This paper determines the place of critical pedagogy in the new values education curriculum and analyzes its features in the K-12 Values Education curriculum and textbook. The study examines the position of critical pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Values Education curriculum by closely studying and comparing their features; and scrutinizes the Grade 8 Values Education textbook specifically modules 4, 8, 10 and 13 which comprises 25% of the total 16 modules. The said modules are concerned with the role of the family in the preservation of social justice, which is one of the objectives of critical pedagogy. The findings in this research were based on the pieces of evidence gathered from the curriculum and textbook itself. Based on the evaluation done, the study found out that the ideas of critical pedagogy were the same with that of the objectives of K-12 Values Education Curriculum. Due to this, values education teachers can utilize critical pedagogy in their subject. In addition, the K-12 Values Education curriculum exhibits some of the features of critical pedagogy such as authentic student empowerment and critical thinking. Lastly, some features of critical pedagogy are also evident in some of the general parts and recommended activities in the K-12 Values Education textbook while other activities need to be fully developed by both teacher and students to reflect the genuine critical pedagogy.

Keywords: authentic student empowerment, critical pedagogy, critical thinking, liberating education

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