Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2280

Search results for: ethanol yield

2280 Effect of Temperature on the Production of Fructose and Bioethanol from Date’s Syrup using S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859

Authors: M. A. Zeinelabdeen, A. E. Abasaeed, M. H. Gaily, A. K. Sulieman, M. D. Putra

Abstract:

The effect of temperature on the production of fructose and bioethanol from date syrup via selective fermentation by S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859 strain was studied. Various temperatures have been tested (27, 30 and 33 ᵒC). The fermentation experiments were conducted in a water shaker bath at the three temperatures under testing and 120 rpm. The results showed that a high fructose yield can be achieved at all temperatures under testing while the optimal is 27 ᵒC with 84% fructose yield. A high ethanol yield can be obtained for all temperatures under testing. However; the maximum biomass concentration and ethanol yield (86.22%) were obtained at 30 ᵒC.

Keywords: dates, ethanol, fructose, fermentation, S. cerevisiae

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2279 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30 ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30 ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h-1 at 30 ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30 ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast

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2278 Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation

Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani

Abstract:

The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus during very high gravity fermentation was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. Wort gravity of 21oP was prepared from barley malt, hops and water, to which the metal ions were supplemented in their combinations and subsequently pitched. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F)= 29.53 was obtained in wort medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol titre 7.3491 %(v/v) and 7.1313 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F= 22.54 and ethanol titre 6.1757% (v/v) was recorded in wort medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual metal ions, increased %F= 27.94 and %F= 26.03 were obtained in media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+, with increased ethanol yield of 7.8844% (v/v) and 7.6245% (v/v) respectively. Least %F of 11.75 and 10.80, and ethanol titre of 4.99 (%v/v) and 4.80 (%v/v) were obtained for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ respectively.

Keywords: ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentation

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2277 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu

Abstract:

Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF, temperature

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2276 The Potential of Sown Pastures as Feedstock for Biofuels in Brazil

Authors: Danilo G. De Quadros

Abstract:

Biofuels are a priority in the renewable energy agenda. The utilization of tropical grasses to ethanol production is a real opportunity to Brazil reaches the world’s leadership in biofuels production because there are 100 million hectares of sown pastures, which represent 20% of all land and 80% of agricultural areas. Basically, nowadays tropical grasses are used to raise livestock. The results obtained in this research could bring tremendous advance not only to national technology and economy but also to improve social and environmental aspects. Thus, the objective of this work was to estimate, through well-established international models, the potential of biofuels production using sown tropical pastures as feedstocks and to compare the results with sugarcane ethanol, considering state-of-art of conversion technology, advantages and limitations factors. There were used data from national and international literature about forage yield and biochemical conversion yield. Some scenarios were studied to evaluate potential advantages and limitations for cellulosic ethanol production, since non-food feedstock appeal to conversion strategies, passing through harvest, densification, logistics, environmental impacts (carbon and water cycles, nutrient recycling and biodiversity), and social aspects. If Brazil used only 1% of sown pastures to ethanol production by biochemical pathway, with average dry matter yield of 15 metric tons per hectare per year (there are results of 40 tons), resulted annually in 721 billion liters, that represents 10 times more than sugarcane ethanol projected by the Government in 2030. However, more research is necessary to take the results to commercial scale with competitive costs, considering many strategies and methods applied in ethanol production using cellulosic feedstock.

Keywords: biofuels, biochemical pathway, cellulosic ethanol, sustainability

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2275 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Pennisetum polystachion, lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol production, detoxification, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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2274 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation of Paddy Straw and Fruit Wastes into Ethanol Production

Authors: Kamla Malik

Abstract:

For ethanol production from paddy straw firstly pretreatment was done by using sodium hydroxide solution (2.0%) at 15 psi for 1 hr. The maximum lignin removal was achieved with 0.5 mm mesh size of paddy straw. It contained 72.4 % cellulose, 15.9% hemicelluloses and 2.0 % lignin after pretreatment. Paddy straw hydrolysate (PSH) with fruits wastes (5%), such as sweet lime, apple, sapota, grapes, kinnow, banana, papaya, mango, and watermelon were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for 72 hrs by co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and Candida sp. with 0.3 % urea as a cheap nitrogen source. Fermentation was carried out at 35°C and determined ethanol yield at 24 hours interval. The maximum production of ethanol was produced within 72 hrs of fermentation in PSH + sapota peels (3.9% v/v) followed by PSH + kinnow peels (3.6%) and PSH+ papaya peels extract (3.1 %). In case of PSH+ banana peels and mango peel extract the ethanol produced were 2.8 % and 2.2 % (v/v). The results of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugar should not be discarded into our environment, but should be supplemented in paddy straw which converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as an alternative energy source.

Keywords: ethanol, fermentation, fruit wastes, paddy straw

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2273 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

Abstract:

A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

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2272 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: lactulose, lactose, purification, solubility

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2271 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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2270 Extraction, Recovery and Bioactivities of Chlorogenic Acid from Unripe Green Coffee Cherry Waste of Coffee Processing Industry

Authors: Akkasit Jongjareonrak, Supansa Namchaiya

Abstract:

Unripe green coffee cherry (UGCC) accounting about 5 % of total raw material weight receiving to the coffee bean production process and is, in general, sorting out and dump as waste. The UGCC is known to rich in phenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, chlorogenic acid (CGA), etc. CGA is one of the potent bioactive compounds using in the nutraceutical and functional food industry. Therefore, this study aimed at optimization the extraction condition of CGA from UGCC using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). The ethanol/water mixture at various ethanol concentrations (50, 60 and 70 % (v/v)) was used as an extraction solvent at elevated pressure (10.34 MPa) and temperatures (90, 120 and 150 °C). The recovery yield of UGCC crude extract, total phenolic content, CGA content and some bioactivities of UGCC extract were investigated. Using of ASE at lower temperature with higher ethanol concentration provided higher CGA content in the UGCC crude extract. The maximum CGA content was observed at the ethanol concentration of 70% ethanol and 90 °C. The further purification of UGCC crude extract gave a higher purity of CGA with a purified CGA yield of 4.28 % (w/w, of dried UGCC sample) containing 72.52 % CGA equivalent. The antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of purified CGA extract were determined. The purified CGA exhibited the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity at 0.88 mg Trolox equivalent/mg purified CGA sample. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was observed with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 3.12 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml. These results suggested that using of high concentration of ethanol and low temperature under elevated pressure of ASE condition could accelerate the extraction of CGA from UGCC. The purified CGA extract could be a promising alternative source of bioactive compound using for nutraceutical and functional food industry.

Keywords: bioactive, chlorogenic acid, coffee, extraction

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2269 Sniff-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vapor in Human Body Gases after Drinking

Authors: Toshiyuki Sato, Kenta Iitani, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

A 2-dimensional imaging system (Sniff-camera) for gaseous ethanol emissions from a human palm skin was constructed and demonstrated. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence (CL) by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. A conversion of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional CL was conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. High sensitivity imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each pixel on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions based on the metabolism of oral alcohol administration. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

Keywords: sniff-camera, gas-imaging, ethanol vapor, human body gas

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2268 Physico-Chemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: bio-energy, waste dates, bio ethanol, Algeria

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2267 Flow-Through Supercritical Installation for Producing Biodiesel Fuel

Authors: Y. A. Shapovalov, F. M. Gumerov, M. K. Nauryzbaev, S. V. Mazanov, R. A. Usmanov, A. V. Klinov, L. K. Safiullina, S. A. Soshin

Abstract:

A flow-through installation was created and manufactured for the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids and production of biodiesel fuel under supercritical fluid conditions. Transesterification of rapeseed oil with ethanol was carried out according to two parameters: temperature and the ratio of alcohol/oil mixture at the constant pressure of 19 MPa. The kinetics of the yield of fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEE) was determined in the temperature range of 320-380 °C at the alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1-20:1. The content of the formed FAEE was determined by the method of correlation of the resulting biodiesel fuel by its kinematic viscosity. The maximum FAEE yield (about 90%) was obtained within 30 min at the ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and a temperature of 380 °C. When studying of transesterification of triglycerides, a kinetic model of an isothermal flow reactor was used. The reaction order implemented in the flow reactor has been determined. The first order of the reaction was confirmed by data on the conversion of FAEE during the reaction at different temperatures and the molar ratios of the initial reagents (ethanol/oil). Using the Arrhenius equation, the values of the effective constants of the transesterification reaction rate were calculated at different reaction temperatures. In addition, based on the experimental data, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the transesterification reaction were determined.

Keywords: biodiesel, fatty acid esters, supercritical fluid technology, transesterification

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2266 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh

Abstract:

Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

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2265 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum

Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer

Abstract:

Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.

Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicum

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2264 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel

Abstract:

Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: fungi, rice husk, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, ethanol, fermentation

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2263 Ethanol and Biomass Production from Spent Sulfite Liquor by Filamentous Fungi

Authors: M. T. Asadollahzadeh, A. Ghasemian, A. R. Saraeian, H. Resalati, P. R. Lennartsson, M. J. Taherzadeh

Abstract:

Since filamentous fungi are capable of assimilating several types of sugars (hexoses and pentoses), they are potential candidates for bioconversion of spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizopus oryzae were investigated in this work. The SSL was diluted in order to obtain concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% and supplemented with two types of nutrients. The results from cultivations in shake flask showed that A. oryzae and M. indicus were not able to grow in pure SSL and SSL90% while R. oryzae could grow only in SSL50% and SSL60%. Cultivation with A. oryzae resulted in the highest yield of produced fungal biomass, while R. oryzae cultivation resulted in the lowest fungal biomass yield. Although, the mediums containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O as nutrients supplementations produced higher fungal biomass compared to the mediums containing NH4H2PO4 and ammonia, but there was no significant difference between two types of nutrients in terms of sugars and acetic acid consumption rate. The sugars consumption in M. indicus cultivation was faster than A. oryzae and R. oryzae cultivation. Acetic acid present in SSL was completely consumed during cultivation of all fungi. M. indicus was the best and fastest ethanol producer from SSL among the fungi examined, when yeast extract and salts were used as nutrients supplementations. Furthermore, no further improvement in ethanol concentration and rate of sugars consumption was obtained in medium supplemented with NH4H2PO4 and ammonia compared to medium containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O. On the other hand, the higher dilution of SSL resulted in a better fermentability, and better consumption of sugars and acetic acid.

Keywords: ethanol, filamentous fungi, fungal biomass, spent sulfite liquor

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2262 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh

Abstract:

Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

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2261 Analysis of Tannins from Padus asiatica

Authors: Telmen Dashdondov, Selenge Erdenechimeg

Abstract:

Padus asiatica contains large quantities of polyphenolic compounds, and it is one of the most consumed fruits throughout the country. These compounds have the biological activity of the fruit and have long been used in traditional Mongolian medicine for diarrhea, coughs, pneumonia, and gastritis. In this study, we studied the solvents that can be used to make extracts from dried raw fruits; in order to determine the amount of tannin in Padus asiatica, we selected three solvents: distilled water, 20% ethanol, and 40% ethanol, and determined the amount of tannin. As a result, the amount of extract (distilled water) was 11.8%, the amount of extract (20% ethanol) was 15.7%, and the amount of extract (40% ethanol) was 8.2%. Therefore, it was found that tannins are extracted better in 20% ethanol solution.

Keywords: Padus asiatica, tannin, diarrhea, Mongolian medicinal plant

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2260 Modeling and Optimization of Algae Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: I. F. Ejim, F. L. Kamen

Abstract:

Aims: In this experiment, algae oil extraction with a combination of n-hexane and ethanol was investigated. The effects of extraction solvent concentration, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality of oil were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental Design: Optimization of algae oil extraction using Box-Behnken design was used to generate 17 experimental runs in a three-factor-three-level design where oil yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value were evaluated as the response. Result: In this result, a minimum oil yield of 17% and maximum of 44% was realized. The optimum values for yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value from the overlay plot were 40.79%, 0.8788, 0.5056 mg KOH/g and 180.78 mg KOH/g respectively with desirability of 0.801. The maximum point prediction was yield 40.79% at solvent concentration 66.68 n-hexane, temperature of 40.0°C and extraction time of 4 hrs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the linear and quadratic coefficient were all significant at p<0.05. The experiment was validated and results obtained were with the predicted values. Conclusion: Algae oil extraction was successfully optimized using RSM and its quality indicated it is suitable for many industrial uses.

Keywords: algae oil, response surface methodology, optimization, Box-Bohnken, extraction

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2259 Acoustic Characteristics of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rat Pups Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

Authors: Mohd. Ashik Shahrier, Hiromi Wada

Abstract:

Prenatal ethanol exposure has potential to induce difficulties in the social behavior of rats and can alter pup-dam communication suggesting that deficits in pups could result in altered dam behavior, which in turn could result in more aberrant behavior in the pup. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) is a sensitive tool for investigating social behavior between rat pups and their dam. Rat pups produce USVs on separation from their dam. This signals the dam to locate her pups and retrieve them back to the nest. In this study, it was predicted that prenatal ethanol exposure cause alterations on the acoustic characteristics of USVs in rat pups. Thirteen pregnant rats were purchased and randomly assigned into three groups: high-ethanol (n = 4), low-ethanol (n = 5), and control (n = 4) groups. Laboratory ethanol (purity = 99.5%) was dissolved in tap water and administered to the high- and low-ethanol groups as drinking water from gestational days (GD) 8-20. Ethanol-containing water was administered to the animals in three stages by gradually increasing the concentration between GDs 8–20. From GDs 8–10, 10% and 5%, from GDs 11–13, 20% and 10%, and from GDs 14–20, 30% and 15% ethanol-containing water (v/v) was administered to the high- and low-ethanol groups, respectively. Tap water without ethanol was given to the control group throughout the experiment. The day of birth of the pups was designated as postnatal day (PND) 0. On PND 4, each litter was culled to four male and four female pups. For the present study, two male and two female pups were randomly sampled from each litter as subjects. Thus, eight male and eight female pups from the high-ethanol and control groups and another 10 male and 10 female pups from the low-ethanol group, were sampled. An ultrasonic microphone and the Sonotrack system version 2.4.0 (Metris, Hoofddorp, The Netherlands) were used to record and analyze USVs of the pups. On postnatal days 4, 8, 12 and 16, the resultant pups were individually isolated from their dams and littermates, and USVs were recorded for 5 min in a sound-proof box. Pups in the high-ethanol group produced greater number of USVs compared with that in both low-ethanol and control groups on PND 12. Rat pups in the high-ethanol group also produced higher mean, minimum, and maximum fundamental frequencies of USVs compared with that in both low-ethanol and control groups. Male pups in the high-ethanol group had higher USV amplitudes than in those in low-ethanol and control groups on PND 12. These results suggest that pups in the high-ethanol group relatively experienced more negative emotionality due to the ethanol-induced neuronal activation in the core limbic system and tegmental structures and accordingly, produced altered USVs as distress calls.

Keywords: emotionality, ethanol, maternal separation, ultrasonic vocalization

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2258 Pre-Administration of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. Prevent the Increase of Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens in Ethanol Addicted Rats

Authors: Watchareewan Thongsaard, Ratirat Sangpayap, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid

Abstract:

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. (TL) is a herbal medicine which has been used as an antidote for several poisonous agents including insecticides and as a component of a mixture of crude extracts to treat drug addicted patients. The aim of this study is to examine the level of dopamine in nucleus accumbens after chronic pre-administration of TL in ethanol addicted rats. Male Wistar rats weigh 200-250 g received TL methanol extract (200mg/kg, orally) 60 minutes before 20% ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for 30 days. The nucleus accumbens was removed and tested for dopamine by HPLC-ECD. The level of dopamine was significantly increased by chronic ethanol administration, whereas the chronic TL extract administration did not cause a difference in dopamine level when compared to control. Moreover, the pre-treatment of TL extract before ethanol significantly reduced the dopamine level in nucleus accumbens to normal level when compared with chronic ethanol administration alone. These results suggested that the increase in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens by chronic ethanol administration is the cause of ethanol addiction, and this effect is prevented by chronic TL pre-administration. Furthermore, chronic TL extract administration alone did not cause the changes in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens, indicating that TL itself did not cause addiction.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia Linn., alcohol addiction, dopamine, nucleus accumbens

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2257 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, ethanol, acetone, gasoline, zeolite

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2256 New Ethanol Method for Soft Tissue Imaging in Micro-CT

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Vladimir Musil, Jitka Riedlova, Viktor Sykora, Jana Mrzilkova, Petr Zach

Abstract:

Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to create a new fixation method for soft tissue imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of 18 mice - heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, which we fixated in ethanol after meticulous preparation. We fixated organs in different concentrations of ethanol and for different period of time. We used three types of ethanol concentration - 97%, 50% and ascending ethanol concentration (25%, 50%, 75%, 97% each for 12 hours). Fixated organs were scanned after 72 hours, 168 hours and 336 hours period of fixation. We scanned all specimens in micro-CT MARS (Medipix All Resolution System). Results: Ethanol method provided contrast enhancement in all studied organs in all used types of fixation. Fixation in 97% ethanol provided very fast fixation and the contrast among the tissues was visible already after 72 hours of fixation. Fixation for the period of 168 and 336 hours gave better details, especially in lung tissue, where alveoli were visualized. On the other hand, this type of fixation caused organs to petrify. Fixation in 50% ethanol provided best results in 336 hours fixation, details were visualized better than in 97% ethanol and samples were not as hard as in fixation in 97% ethanol. Best results were obtained in fixation in ascending ethanol concentration. All organs were visualized in great details, best-visualized organ was heart, where trabeculae and valves were visible. In this type of fixation, organs stayed soft for whole time. Conclusion: New ethanol method is a great option for soft tissue fixation as well as the method for enhancing contrast among tissues in organs. The best results were obtained with fixation of the organs in ascending ethanol concentration, the best visualized organ was the heart.

Keywords: x-ray imaging, small animals, ethanol, ex-vivo

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2255 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical

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2254 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom

Abstract:

The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: bacteria, mango, kernel, oil, phytochemicals

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2253 Kinetics of Acetaminophen Based Oscillatory Chemical Reaction with and without Ferroin as Catalyst: An Inorganic Prototype Model for Paracetamol-Ethanol Syndrome

Authors: Nadeem Bashir, Ghulam Mustafa Peerzada

Abstract:

The present study pertains to the nonlinear behavior of acetaminophen based uncatalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillator and its dynamics in the presence of Ferroin as the catalyst. The role of free metal ions as catalysts was examined and the results compared with corresponding complexed catalysts. Free metal ions were found to be sluggish with respect to the evolution of the oscillatory regime as compared to complexed ones. Effect of change of the ligand moiety of the catalyst complex on the oscillatory parameters was monitored. Since ethanol potentiates the hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen in-vivo, it is thought to understand this interaction by virtue of causing perturbation of the acetaminophen based oscillator with different concentrations of the ethanol with and without ferroin as the catalyst. Another dimension to the ethanol effect was added by perturbation of the system with ethanol at different stages of the reaction so as to get an idea whether it is acetaminophen or some reactive intermediate generated in the reaction system which reacts with ethanol. Further, the ferroin-catalyzed oscillator is taken as a prototype inorganic model of the acetaminophen-ethanol syndrome, as ferroin and HOBr were inorganic replacements to Cyt P450 and NADPH in the alcohol metabolism.

Keywords: Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, ferroin, Paracetamol-Ethanol syndrome, kinetics

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2252 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu

Abstract:

Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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2251 Fermentation of Pretreated Herbaceous Cellulosic Wastes to Ethanol by Anaerobic Cellulolytic and Saccharolytic Thermophilic Clostridia

Authors: Lali Kutateladze, Tamar Urushadze, Tamar Dudauri, Besarion Metreveli, Nino Zakariashvili, Izolda Khokhashvili, Maya Jobava

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic waste streams from agriculture, paper and wood industry are renewable, plentiful and low-cost raw materials that can be used for large-scale production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. As opposed to prevailing multi-stage biotechnological processes developed for bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to ethanol where high-cost cellulase preparations are used, Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) offers to accomplish cellulose and xylan hydrolysis followed by fermentation of both C6 and C5 sugars to ethanol in a single-stage process. Syntrophic microbial consortium comprising of anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic, and saccharolytic bacteria in the genus Clostridia with improved ethanol productivity and high tolerance to fermentation end-products had been proposed for achieving CBP. 65 new strains of anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic and saccharolytic Clostridia were isolated from different wetlands and hot springs in Georgia. Using new isolates, fermentation of mechanically pretreated wheat straw and corn stalks was done under oxygen-free nitrogen environment in thermophilic conditions (T=550C) and pH 7.1. Process duration was 120 hours. Liquid and gaseous products of fermentation were analyzed on a daily basis using Perkin-Elmer gas chromatographs with flame ionization and thermal detectors. Residual cellulose, xylan, xylose, and glucose were determined using standard methods. Cellulolytic and saccharolytic bacteria strains degraded mechanically pretreated herbaceous cellulosic wastes and fermented glucose and xylose to ethanol, acetic acid and gaseous products like hydrogen and CO2. Specifically, maximum yield of ethanol was reached at 96 h of fermentation and varied between 2.9 – 3.2 g/ 10 g of substrate. The content of acetic acid didn’t exceed 0.35 g/l. Other volatile fatty acids were detected in trace quantities.

Keywords: anaerobic bacteria, cellulosic wastes, Clostridia sp, ethanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 153