Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3173

Search results for: yeast stress

3173 Effects of Live Yeast Supplementation to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Increase Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle during the Summer Season

Authors: Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Akira Goto, Takuto Endo, Hitoshi Ano, Hiromu Katamoto, Takenori Yamauchi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as lactation performance in Holstein Friesian cows during the summer season in Fukuoka prefecture. Sixteen lactating cows weighing 707.50 ± 13.09 kg (Mean ± SE) were used and randomly assigned to either supplemented (n = 8) or control (n = 8) group. The cows in supplemented group were administered with live yeast product at 10 g/d per cow from middle of July to middle of September for eight weeks. In treatment group, serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were lower at week six. In addition, serum levels of glucose and retinol were higher at week eight and those of α-tocopherol were higher at week 2 in treatment group. During study period daily average milk yield decreased in both groups. Daily average milk yield 63 days after the onset of supplementation in treatment and control groups were 23.5 and 22.2 kg, respectively. The reduction rate of milk yield in treatment group tended to be lower (17.6 vs. 20.0%). These results suggest that live yeast supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

Keywords: cow, live yeast, milk, oxidative stress, summer season

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3172 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney

Abstract:

Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: dry yeast, glass transition, thermal resistance, vitrification

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3171 The Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from Raffia Palm (Raphia hookeri) Wine Used at Different Concentrations for Proofing of Bread Dough

Authors: Elizabeth Chinyere Amadi

Abstract:

Yeast (sacchoromyces cerevisiae) was isolated from the fermenting sap of raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) wine. Different concerntrations of the yeast isolate were used to produce bread samples – B, C, D, E, F containing (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) g of yeast isolate respectively, other ingredients were kept constant. Sample A, containing 2g of commercial baker yeast served as control. The proof heights, weights, volumes and specific volume of the dough and bread samples were determined. The bread samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation using a 9–point hedonic scale. Results showed that proof height increased with increased concentration of the yeast isolate; that is direct proportion. Sample B with the least concentration of the yeast isolate had the least loaf height and volume of 2.80c m and 200 cm³ respectively but exhibited the highest loaf weight of 205.50g. However, Sample A, (commercial bakers’ yeast) had the highest loaf height and volume of 5.00 cm and 400 cm³ respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed sample D compared favorably with sample A in all the organoleptic attributes-(appearance, taste, crumb texture, crust colour and overall acceptability) tested for (P< 0.05). It was recommended that 4g compressed yeast isolate per 100g flour could be used to proof dough as a substitute for commercial bakers’ yeast and produce acceptable bread loaves.

Keywords: isolation of yeast, performance evaluation of yeast, Raffia palm wine, used at different concentrations, proofing of bread dough

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3170 Improvement of Monacolin K. and Decreasing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Emon Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote

Abstract:

A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepared red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625, and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: red yeast rice, Thai glutinous rice, monacolin K., citrinin

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3169 Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process

Authors: Sara Heidari, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Elmira Pouladi Borj

Abstract:

In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, bread, dough, yeast, sourdough

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3168 Construction of Genetic Recombinant Yeasts with High Environmental Tolerance by Accumulation of Trehalose and Detoxication of Aldehyde

Authors: Yun-Chin Chung, Nileema Divate, Gen-Hung Chen, Pei-Ru Huang, Rupesh Divate

Abstract:

Many environmental factors, such as glucose concentration, ethanol, temperature, osmotic pressure and pH, decrease the production rate of ethanol using yeast as a starter. Fermentation starters with high tolerance to various stresses are always demanded for brewing industry. Trehalose, a storage carbohydrate in cell wall of yeast, plays an important role in tolerance of environmental stress by preserving integrity of plasma membrane and stabilizing proteins. Furan aldehydes are toxic to yeast and the growth rate of yeast is significantly reduced if furan aldehydes were present in the fermentation medium. In yeast, aldehyde reductase is involved in the detoxification of reactive aldehydes and consequently the growth of yeast is improved. The aims of this study were to construct a genetic recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris with furfural and HMF degrading and high ethanol tolerance capacities. Yeast strains were engineered by genetic recombination for overexpression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (tps1) and aldehyde reductase gene (ari1). TPS1 gene was cloned from S. cerevisiae by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then ligated with pGAPZαC vector. The constructed vector, pGAPZC-tps1, was transformed to recombinant yeasts strain with overexpression of ari1. The transformants with pGAPZC-tps1-ari1 were generated called STA (S. cerevisiae) and PTA (P. pastoris) with overexpression of tps1, ari1. PCR with tps1-specific primers and western blot with his-tag confirmed the gene insertion and protein expression of tps1 in the transformants, respectively. The neutral trehalase gene (nth1) of STA was successfully deleted and the novel strain STAΔN will be used for further study, including the measurement of trehalose concentration and ethanol, furfural tolerance assay.

Keywords: genetic recombinant, yeast, ethanol tolerance, trehalase, aldehyde reductase

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3167 Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Biofilm Formation in Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species Isolated from Dairy Products

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, dairy products, lactic acid bacteria, yeast

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3166 Removal of Samarium in Environmental Water Samples by Modified Yeast Cells

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Seyed Mehdi Seyed Nejad, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

A novel bio-adsorbent is fabricated by attaching a cibacron blue to yeast cells. The modified bio-sorbent has been characterized by some techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (CHN) and applied for the preconcentration and determination of samarium from aqueous water samples. The best pH value for adsorption of the brilliant crecyle blue by yeast cells- cibacron blue was 7. The sorption capacity of modified biosorbent was 18.5 mg. g⁻¹. A recovery of 95.3% was obtained for Sm(III) when eluted with 0.5 M nitric acid. The method was applied for Sm(III) preconcentration and determination in river water sample.

Keywords: samarium, solid phase extraction, yeast cells, water sample, removal

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3165 Screening of High-Alcohol Producing Yeasts for Manufacturing Process of Whisky

Authors: Byeong-Uk Lim, Young-Ran Song, Sang-Ho Baik

Abstract:

This study aimed to develop yeast starters for scientific alcohol production and systematic quality control of whisky. A total of 389 yeast strains were isolated from traditional Korean fermentation starter (nuruk) and rice wine (makgeolli), and ten strains were finally selected for their high alcohol productivities, in which their alcohol productions were above 17.3% (v/v) during 10 days under two steps of glucose feeding condition (30% and then 15%, w/v). By 18s rDNA sequence analysis, all strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), and they can grow well under 50% (w/v) glucose and 10% (v/v) ethanol conditions. Furthermore, the capability of ten different SC strains to ferment rice wine for whisky was studied. Rice wine was fermented with only steamed rice, water, and two types of enzymes (glucoamylase and α-amylase) during 14 days at 25 °C, and then their oenological properties have been determined. As the results, the fermented rice wines indicated the final pH range of 4.24-4.38 and acidity range of 0.12-0.18. The highest ethanol production of 20.2% (v/v) was found in the fermentation with a SC-156 strain, whereas SC-92 (16.8%) and SC-119 (16.4%) showed significantly lowest ethanol productions. In addition, the residual sugar contents showed negative correlation with alcohol contents. Moreover, this study focused on nucleotide polymorphisms in the MSN2 and MSN4 genes to investigate the cause of the defective stress responses in yeast. Consequently, it was also confirmed that the deletion of the N termini of Msn4p from identified point mutations in SC-63, SC-95, SC-156, SC-158, and SC-160 strains.

Keywords: yeast, high-alcohol, whisky, rice wine

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3164 Chemical Modification of Biosorbent for Prconcentation of Cadmium in Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Niusha Mohseni Darabi, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

A new biosorbent is prepared by coupling a cibacron blue to yeast cells. The modified yeast cells with cibacron blue has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis and applied for the preconcentration and solid phase extraction of trace cadmium ion from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the cadmium ions by yeast cells- cibacron blue was 5.5. The sorption capacity of modified biosorbent was 45 mg. g−1. A recovery of 98.2% was obtained for Cd(II) when eluted with 0.5 M nitric acid. The method was applied for Cd(II) preconcentration and determination in sea water sample.

Keywords: solid phase extraction, yeast cells, Nickl, isotherm study

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3163 The Subcellular Localisation of EhRRP6 and Its Involvement in Pre-Ribosomal RNA Processing in Growth-Stressed Entamoeba histolytica

Authors: S. S. Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The eukaryotic exosome complex plays a pivotal role in RNA biogenesis, maturation, surveillance and differential expression of various RNAs in response to varying environmental signals. The exosome is composed of evolutionary conserved nine core subunits and the associated exonucleases Rrp6 and Rrp44. Rrp6p is crucial for the processing of rRNAs, other non-coding RNAs, regulation of polyA tail length and termination of transcription. Rrp6p, a 3’-5’ exonuclease is required for degradation of 5’-external transcribed spacer (ETS) released from the rRNA precursors during the early steps of pre-rRNA processing. In the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica in response to growth stress, there occurs the accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and 5’ ETS sub fragment. To understand the processes leading to this accumulation, we looked for Rrp6 and the exosome subunits in E. histolytica, by in silico approaches. Of the nine core exosomal subunits, seven had high percentage of sequence similarity with the yeast and human. The EhRrp6 homolog contained exoribonuclease and HRDC domains like yeast but its N- terminus lacked the PMC2NT domain. EhRrp6 complemented the temperature sensitive phenotype of yeast rrp6Δ cells suggesting conservation of biological activity. We showed 3’-5’ exoribonuclease activity of EhRrp6p with in vitro-synthesized appropriate RNAs substrates. Like the yeast enzyme, EhRrp6p degraded unstructured RNA, but could degrade the stem-loops slowly. Furthermore, immunolocalization revealed that EhRrp6 was nuclear-localized in normal cells but was diminished from nucleus during serum starvation, which could explain the accumulation of 5’ETS during stress. Our study shows functional conservation of EhRrp6p in E.histolytica, an early-branching eukaryote, and will help to understand the evolution of exosomal components and their regulatory function.

Keywords: entamoeba histolytica, exosome complex, rRNA processing, Rrp6

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3162 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast

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3161 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Büyüksırıt, H. Kuleaşan

Abstract:

Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, yeast, toxic protein, glycoprotein

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3160 Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture

Authors: Rupinder Kaur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts. Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus, whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast, whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050, was observed to be the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, fungus, yeast, whey

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3159 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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3158 Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation

Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani

Abstract:

The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus during very high gravity fermentation was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. Wort gravity of 21oP was prepared from barley malt, hops and water, to which the metal ions were supplemented in their combinations and subsequently pitched. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F)= 29.53 was obtained in wort medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol titre 7.3491 %(v/v) and 7.1313 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F= 22.54 and ethanol titre 6.1757% (v/v) was recorded in wort medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual metal ions, increased %F= 27.94 and %F= 26.03 were obtained in media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+, with increased ethanol yield of 7.8844% (v/v) and 7.6245% (v/v) respectively. Least %F of 11.75 and 10.80, and ethanol titre of 4.99 (%v/v) and 4.80 (%v/v) were obtained for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ respectively.

Keywords: ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentation

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3157 Application of Chitosan as a Natural Antimicrobial Compound in Stirred Yoghurt

Authors: Javad Hesari, Tahereh Donyatalab, Sodeif Azadmard Damirchi, Reza Rezaii Mokaram, Abbas Rafat

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to increase shelf life of stirred yoghurt by adding chitosan as a naturally antimicrobial compound. Chitosan were added at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6%) to the stirred yoghurt. Samples were stored at refrigerator and room temperature for 3 weeks and tested with respect of microbial properties (counts of starter bacteria, mold and yeast, coliforms and E. coli). Starter bacteria and yeast counts in samples containing chitosan was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in control samples and its antibacterial and anti-yeast effects increased with increasing concentration of chitosan. The lowest counts of starter bacteria and yeast were observed at samples whit 0.6% of chitosan. The Results showed Chitosan had a positive effect on increasing shelf life and controlling of yeasts and therefore can be used as a natural preservative in stirred yogurt.

Keywords: chitosan, natural preservative, stirred yoghurt, self-life

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3156 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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3155 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev

Abstract:

The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 V.cm-1 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 V.cm-1) and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: intensification, yeast, fermentation, electroporation, biotechnology

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3154 Preservation of Coconut Toddy Sediments as a Leavening Agent for Bakery Products

Authors: B. R. Madushan, S. B. Navaratne, I. Wickramasinge

Abstract:

Toddy sediment (TS) was cultured in a PDA medium to determine initial yeast load, and also it was undergone sun, shade, solar, dehumidified cold air (DCA) and hot air oven (at 400, 500 and 60oC) drying with a view to preserve viability of yeast. Thereafter, this study was conducted according to two factor factorial design in order to determine best preservation method. Therein the dried TS from the best drying method was taken and divided into two portions. One portion was mixed with 3: 7 ratio of TS: rice flour and the mixture was divided in to two again. While one portion was kept under in house condition the other was in a refrigerator. Same procedure was followed to the rest portion of TS too but it was at the same ratio of corn flour. All treatments were vacuum packed in triple laminate pouches and the best preservation method was determined in terms of leavening index (LI). The TS obtained from the best preservation method was used to make foods (bread and hopper) and organoleptic properties of it were evaluated against same of ordinary foods using sensory panel with a five point hedonic scale. Results revealed that yeast load or fresh TS was 58×106 CFU/g. The best drying method in preserving viability of yeast was DCA because LI of this treatment (96%) is higher than that of other three treatments. Organoleptic properties of foods prepared from best preservation method are as same as ordinary foods according to Duo trio test.

Keywords: biological leavening agent, coconut toddy, fermentation, yeast

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3153 Development of Probiotic Edible Film Coated Extruded Food Product

Authors: Manab Bandhu Bera, Navdeep Singh, Paramjit Singh Panesar

Abstract:

In view of exploiting the health benefits of probiotic yeast S.boulardii NCDC 363 and make it available in the form of non-dairy food products, study was undertaken. In this, probiotic yeast S.boulardii NCDC 363 was incorporated in the edible film made from sodium alginate (SA), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glycerol (50%). Response surface methodology was used to optimize process variables such as; concentration of SA (0.25-0.75%), WPC (1-2%) and temperature (70-80°C) and also to investigate effect of these process variables on viability of probiotic yeast and hardness when applied as an edible coat on extruded food products. Accelerated storage stability of optimized probiotic extruded food products samples was determined at 38 C and 90% RH. The optimized products were packed in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and aluminum laminated polyethylene (ALP) pouches at 38°C and relative humidity maintained was 90%. It was observed that product stored in ALP had better stability in terms of moisture absorption, hardness and viability.

Keywords: probiotic yeast, extruded food product, WPC, RSM

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3152 Decolorization and Phenol Removal of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Termite-Associated Yeast

Authors: P. Chaijak, M. Lertworapreecha, C. Sukkasem

Abstract:

A huge of dark color palm oil mill effluent (POME) cannot pass the discharge standard. It has been identified as the major contributor to the pollution load into ground water. Here, lignin-degrading yeast isolated from a termite nest was tested to treat the POME. Its lignin-degrading and decolorizing ability was determined. The result illustrated that Galactomyces sp. was successfully grown in POME. The decolorizing test demonstrated that 40% of Galactomyces sp. could reduce the color of POME (50% v/v) about 74-75% in 5 days without nutrient supplement. The result suggested that G. reessii has a potential to apply for decolorizing the dark wastewater like POME and other industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: decolorization, palm oil mill effluent, termite, yeast

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3151 Ultrasonic Treatment of Baker’s Yeast Effluent

Authors: Emine Yılmaz, Serap Fındık

Abstract:

Baker’s yeast industry uses molasses as a raw material. Molasses is end product of sugar industry. Wastewater from molasses processing presents large amount of coloured substances that give dark brown color and high organic load to the effluents. The main coloured compounds are known as melanoidins. Melanoidins are product of Maillard reaction between amino acid and carbonyl groups in molasses. Dark colour prevents sunlight penetration and reduces photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen level of surface waters. Various methods like biological processes (aerobic and anaerobic), ozonation, wet air oxidation, coagulation/flocculation are used to treatment of baker’s yeast effluent. Before effluent is discharged adequate treatment is imperative. In addition to this, increasingly stringent environmental regulations are forcing distilleries to improve existing treatment and also to find alternative methods of effluent management or combination of treatment methods. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the alternative methods. Sonochemical oxidation employs ultrasound resulting in cavitation phenomena. In this study, decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent was investigated by using ultrasound. Baker’s yeast effluent was supplied from a factory which is located in the north of Turkey. An ultrasonic homogenizator used for this study. Its operating frequency is 20 kHz. TiO2-ZnO catalyst has been used as sonocatalyst. The effects of molar proportion of TiO2-ZnO, calcination temperature and time, catalyst amount were investigated on the decolorization of baker’s yeast effluent. The results showed that prepared composite TiO2-ZnO with 4:1 molar proportion treated at 700°C for 90 min provides better result. Initial decolorization rate at 15 min is 3% without catalyst, 14,5% with catalyst treated at 700°C for 90 min respectively.

Keywords: baker’s yeast effluent, decolorization, sonocatalyst, ultrasound

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3150 Antimicrobial Effect of Natamycin against Food Spoilage Fungi and Yeast Contaminated Fermented Foods

Authors: Pervin Basaran Akocak

Abstract:

Food antimicrobials are compounds that are incorporated into food matrixes in order to cause death or delay the growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms. As a result, microbiological deterioration is prevented throughout storage and food distribution. In this study, the effect of natural antimycotic natamycin (C33H47NO13, with a molecular mass of 665.725), a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) commercial compound produced by different strains of Streptomyces sp., was tested against various fermented food contamination fungi and yeast species. At the concentration of 100 µg/ml, natamycin exhibited stronger antifungal activity against fungi than yeast species tested. The exposure time of natamycin for complete inhibition of the species tested were found to be between 100-180 min at 300-750 µg/ml concentration. SEM observations of fungal species demonstrated that natamycin distorted and damaged the conidia and hyphae by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Natamycin can be considered as a potential candidate in hurdle food treatments for preventing fungal and yeast invasion and resulting deterioration of fermented products.

Keywords: natamycin, antifungal, fermented food, food spoilage fungi

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3149 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. Amir, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: yeast culture, growth performance, digestibility, beetle goat

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3148 Effect of Texturised Soy Protein and Yeast on the Instrumental and Sensory Quality of Hybrid Beef Meatballs

Authors: Simona Grasso, Gabrielle Smith, Sophie Bowers, Oluseyi Moses Ajayi, Mark Swainson

Abstract:

Hybrid meat analogues are meat products whereby a proportion of meat has been partially replaced by more sustainable protein sources. These products could bridge the gap between meat and meat-free products, providing convenience, and allowing consumers to continue using meat products as they conventionally would, while lowering their overall meat intake. The study aimed to investigate the effect of introducing texturized soy protein (TSP) at different levels (15% and 30%) with and without nutritional yeast as flavour enhancer on the sensory and instrumental quality of beef meatballs, compared to a soy and yeast-free control. Proximate analysis, yield, colour, instrumental texture, and sensory quality were investigated. The addition of soy and yeast did not have significant effects on the overall protein content, but the total fat and moisture content went down with increasing soy substitution. Samples with 30% TSP had significantly higher yield than the other recipes. In terms of colour, a* redness values tended to go down and b* yellowness values tended to go up with increasing soy addition. The addition of increasing levels of soy and yeast modified the structure of meatballs resulting in a progressive decrease in hardness and chewiness compared to control. Sixty participants assessed the samples using Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and hedonic scales. The texture of all TSP-containing samples received significantly higher acceptability scores than control, while 15% TSP with yeast received significantly higher flavour and overall acceptability scores than control. Control samples were significantly more often associated than the other recipes to the term 'hard' and the least associated to 'soft' and 'crumbly and easy to cut'. All recipes were similarly associated to the terms 'weak meaty', 'strong meaty', 'characteristic' and 'unusual'. Correspondence analysis separated the meatballs in three distinct groups: 1) control; 2) 30%TSP with yeast; and 3) 15%TSP, 15%TSP with yeast and 30%TSP located together on the sensory map, showing similarity. Adding 15-30% TSP with or without yeast inclusion could be beneficial for the development of future meat hybrids with acceptable sensory quality. These results can provide encouragement for the use of the hybrid concept by the meat industry to promote the partial substitution of meat in flexitarians’ diets.

Keywords: CATA, hybrid meat products, texturised soy protein, yeast

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3147 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina

Abstract:

Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: bakers' yeasts, killer toxin, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ

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3146 Use of Yeast-Chitosan Bio-Microcapsules with Ultrafiltration Membrane to Remove Ammonia Nitrogen and Organic Matter in Raw Water

Authors: Chao Ding, Jun Shi, Huiping Deng

Abstract:

This study reports the preparation of a new type yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule coating sodium alginate and chitosan, with good biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Focusing on the optimum preparation conditions of bio-microcapsule, a dynamic test of yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule combined with ultrafiltration membrane was established to evaluate both the removal efficiency of major pollutants from raw water and the applicability of this system. The results of orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum preparation procedure are as follows: mix sodium alginate solution (3%) with bacteria liquid in specific proportion, drop in calcium chloride solution (4%) and solidify for 30 min; put the plastic beads into chitosan liquid (1.8%) to overlay film for 10 min and then into glutaraldehyde solution (1%) to get cross-linked for 5 min. In dynamic test, the microcapsules were effective as soon as were added in the system, without any start-up time. The removal efficiency of turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and organic matter was 60%, 80%, and 40%. Besides, the bio-microcapsules were prospective adsorbent for heavy metal; they adsorb Pb and Cr⁶⁺ in water while maintaining high biological activity to degrade ammonia nitrogen and small molecular organics through assimilation. With the presence of bio-microcapsules, the internal yeast strains’ adaptability on the external environment and resistance ability on toxic pollutants will be increased.

Keywords: ammonia nitrogen, bio-microcapsules, ultrafiltration membrane, yeast-chitosan

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3145 Evaluation of Microbial Community, Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Vinegar Manufacturing Process

Authors: Nho-Eul Song, Sang-Ho Baik

Abstract:

Fermentation characteristics of black raspberry vinegar by using static cultures without any additives were has been investigated to establish of vinegar manufacturing conditions and improve the quality of vinegar by optimization the vinegar manufacturing process. The two vinegar manufacturing conditions were prepared; one-step fermentation condition only using mother vinegar that prepared naturally occurring black raspberry vinegar without starter yeast for alcohol fermentation (traditional method) and two-step fermentation condition using commercial wine yeast and mother vinegar for acetic acid fermentation. Approximately 12% ethanol was produced after 35 days fermentation with log 7.6 CFU/mL of yeast population in one-step fermentation, resulting sugar reduction from 14 to 6oBrix whereas in two-step fermentation, ethanol concentration was reached up to 8% after 27 days with continuous increasing yeast until log 7.0 CFU/mL. In addition, yeast and ethanol were decreased after day 60 accompanied with proliferation of acetic acid bacteria (log 5.8 CFU/mL) and titratable acidity; 4.4% in traditional method and 6% in two-step fermentation method. DGGE analysis showed that S. cerevisiae was detected until 77 days of traditional fermentation and gradually changed to AAB, Acetobacter pasteurianus, as dominant species and Komagataeibacter xylinus at the end of the fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus was dominant in two-step fermentation process. The prepared two-step fermentation showed enhanced total polyphenol and flavonoid content significantly resulting in higher radical scavenging activity. Our studies firstly revealed the microbial community change with chemical change and demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for black raspberry vinegar by the static surface method.

Keywords: bacteria, black raspberry, vinegar fermentation, yeast

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3144 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 195