Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 164

Search results for: paddy straw

164 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation of Paddy Straw and Fruit Wastes into Ethanol Production

Authors: Kamla Malik


For ethanol production from paddy straw firstly pretreatment was done by using sodium hydroxide solution (2.0%) at 15 psi for 1 hr. The maximum lignin removal was achieved with 0.5 mm mesh size of paddy straw. It contained 72.4 % cellulose, 15.9% hemicelluloses and 2.0 % lignin after pretreatment. Paddy straw hydrolysate (PSH) with fruits wastes (5%), such as sweet lime, apple, sapota, grapes, kinnow, banana, papaya, mango, and watermelon were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for 72 hrs by co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and Candida sp. with 0.3 % urea as a cheap nitrogen source. Fermentation was carried out at 35°C and determined ethanol yield at 24 hours interval. The maximum production of ethanol was produced within 72 hrs of fermentation in PSH + sapota peels (3.9% v/v) followed by PSH + kinnow peels (3.6%) and PSH+ papaya peels extract (3.1 %). In case of PSH+ banana peels and mango peel extract the ethanol produced were 2.8 % and 2.2 % (v/v). The results of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugar should not be discarded into our environment, but should be supplemented in paddy straw which converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as an alternative energy source.

Keywords: ethanol, fermentation, fruit wastes, paddy straw

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
163 Small Scale Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straw

Authors: V. H. Nguyen, A. Castalone, C. Jamieson, M. Gummert


Rice straw is an abundant biomass resource in Asian countries that can be used for bioenergy. In continuously flooded rice fields, it can be removed without reducing the levels of soil organic matter. One suitable bioenergy technology is anaerobic digestion (AD), but it needs to be further verified using rice straw as a feedstock. For this study, a batch AD system was developed using rice straw and cow dung. It is low cost, farm scale, with the batch capacity ranging from 5 kg to 200 kg of straw mixed with 10% of cow dung. The net energy balance obtained was from 3000 to 4000 MJ per ton of straw input at 15-18% moisture content. Net output energy obtained from biogas and digestate ranged from 4000 to 5000 MJ per ton of straw. This indicates AD as a potential solution for converting rice straw from a waste to a clean fuel, reducing the environmental footprint caused by current disposal practices.

Keywords: rice straw, anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
162 Paddy/Rice Singulation for Determination of Husking Efficiency and Damage Using Machine Vision

Authors: M. Shaker, S. Minaei, M. H. Khoshtaghaza, A. Banakar, A. Jafari


In this study a system of machine vision and singulation was developed to separate paddy from rice and determine paddy husking and rice breakage percentages. The machine vision system consists of three main components including an imaging chamber, a digital camera, a computer equipped with image processing software. The singulation device consists of a kernel holding surface, a motor with vacuum fan, and a dimmer. For separation of paddy from rice (in the image), it was necessary to set a threshold. Therefore, some images of paddy and rice were sampled and the RGB values of the images were extracted using MATLAB software. Then mean and standard deviation of the data were determined. An Image processing algorithm was developed using MATLAB to determine paddy/rice separation and rice breakage and paddy husking percentages, using blue to red ratio. Tests showed that, a threshold of 0.75 is suitable for separating paddy from rice kernels. Results from the evaluation of the image processing algorithm showed that the accuracies obtained with the algorithm were 98.36% and 91.81% for paddy husking and rice breakage percentage, respectively. Analysis also showed that a suction of 45 mmHg to 50 mmHg yielding 81.3% separation efficiency is appropriate for operation of the kernel singulation system.

Keywords: breakage, computer vision, husking, rice kernel

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
161 Feasibility Study of Potential and Economic of Rice Straw VSPP Power Plant in Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Chirapan Nuengchaknin


The potential feasibility of a 9.5 MWe capacity rice straw power plant project in Thailand was studied by evaluating the rice straw resource. The result showed that Thailand had a high rice straw biomass potential at the provincial level, especially, the provinces in the central, northeastern and western Thailand, which could feasibly develop plants. The economic feasibility of project was also investigated. The financial feasibility is also evaluated based on two important factors in the project, i.e., NPV ≥ 0 and IRR ≥ 11%. It was found that the rice straw power plant project at 9.5 MWe was financially feasible with the cost of fuel in the range of 30.6-47.7 USD/t.

Keywords: power plant, project feasibility, rice straw, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
160 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert


Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
159 Optimal Wheat Straw to Bioethanol Supply Chain Models

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul Razik, Ali Elkamel, Leonardo Simon


Wheat straw is one of the alternative feedstocks that may be utilized for bioethanol production especially when sustainability criteria are the major concerns. To increase market competitiveness, optimal supply chain plays an important role since wheat straw is a seasonal agricultural residue. In designing the supply chain optimization model, economic profitability of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes options were considered. It was found that torrefied pelletization with gasification route to be the most profitable option to produce bioethanol from the lignocellulosic source of wheat straw.

Keywords: bio-ethanol, optimization, supply chain, wheat straw

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
158 Historical Landscape Affects Present Tree Density in Paddy Field

Authors: Ha T. Pham, Shuichi Miyagawa


Ongoing landscape transformation is one of the major causes behind disappearance of traditional landscapes, and lead to species and resource loss. Tree in paddy fields in the northeast of Thailand is one of those traditional landscapes. Using three different historical time layers, we acknowledged the severe deforestation and rapid urbanization happened in the region. Despite the general thinking of decline in tree density as consequences, the heterogeneous trend of changes in total tree density in three studied landscapes denied the hypothesis that number of trees in paddy field depend on the length of land use practice. On the other hand, due to selection of planting new trees on levees, existence of trees in paddy field are now rely on their values for human use. Besides, changes in land use and landscape structure had a significant impact on decision of which tree density level is considered as suitable for the landscape.

Keywords: aerial photographs, land use change, traditional landscape, tree in paddy fields

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
157 Diversity of Insect Pests of Paddy in Panhala Tehasil, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India

Authors: Manjiri A. More, Manisha M. Bhosale


Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and India is one of the world’s largest producers of Rice. Today, paddy crop is facing a severe problem of insect pests and is attacked by more than 100 species of insects, among those 20 species cause economic damage. Rice is the staple food of people of panhala tehasil, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. During June 2017 to September 2017 efforts were made to study the diversity of insect pests associated with the paddy crop in the study region. The collection and preservation of the specimens were done by following standard procedure and the identification was done with the help standard literature, taxonomic keys, and webography. In all, 6 species were recorded as pests of paddy in which order Lepidoptera was dominant with 2 species, while orders Diptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were represented by 1 species each respectively. The results of the present investigation will be helpful for formulating control strategies against these paddy pests.

Keywords: diversity, insect pests, Panhala, staple

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156 Design and Evaluation of a Fully-Automated Fluidized Bed Dryer for Complete Drying of Paddy

Authors: R. J. Pontawe, R. C. Martinez, N. T. Asuncion, R. V. Villacorte


Drying of high moisture paddy remains a major problem in the Philippines, especially during inclement weather condition. To alleviate the problem, mechanical dryers were used like a flat bed and recirculating batch-type dryers. However, drying to 14% (wet basis) final moisture content is long which takes 10-12 hours and tedious which is not the ideal for handling high moisture paddy. Fully-automated pilot-scale fluidized bed drying system with 500 kilograms per hour capacity was evaluated using a high moisture paddy. The developed fluidized bed dryer was evaluated using four drying temperatures and two variations in fluidization time at a constant airflow, static pressure and tempering period. Complete drying of paddy with ≥28% (w.b.) initial MC was attained after 2 passes of fluidized-bed drying at 2 minutes exposure to 70 °C drying temperature and 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, followed by 60 min ambient air tempering period (30 min without ventilation and 30 min with air ventilation) for a total drying time of 2.07 h. Around 82% from normal mechanical drying time was saved at 70 °C drying temperature. The drying cost was calculated to be P0.63 per kilogram of wet paddy. Specific heat energy consumption was only 2.84 MJ/kg of water removed. The Head Rice Yield recovery of the dried paddy passed the Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards. Sensory evaluation showed that the color and taste of the samples dried in the fluidized bed dryer were comparable to air dried paddy. The optimum drying parameters of using fluidized bed dryer is 70 oC drying temperature at 2 min fluidization time, 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, 10.16 cm grain depth and 60 min ambient air tempering period.

Keywords: drying, fluidized bed dryer, head rice yield, paddy

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
155 Financial Analysis of Feasibility for a Heat Utilization System Using Rice Straw Pellets: Heating Energy Demand and the Collection and Storage Method in Nanporo, Japan

Authors: K.Ishii, T. Furuichi, A. Fujiyama, S. Hariya


Rice straw pellets are a promising fuel as a renewable energy source. Financial analysis is needed to make a utilization system using rise straw pellets financially feasible, considering all regional conditions including stakeholders related to the collection and storage, production, transportation and heat utilization. We conducted the financial analysis of feasibility for a heat utilization system using rice straw pellets which has been developed for the first time in Nanporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Especially, we attempted to clarify the effect of factors required for the system to be financial feasibility, such as the heating energy demand and collection and storage method of rice straw. The financial feasibility was found to improve when increasing the heating energy demand and collecting wheat straw in August separately from collection of rice straw in November because the costs of storing rice straw and producing pellets were reduced. However, the system remained financially unfeasible. This study proposed a contractor program funded by a subsidy from Nanporo local government where a contracted company, instead of farmers, collects and transports rice straw in order to ensure the financial feasibility of the system, contributing to job creation in the region.

Keywords: rice straw, pellets, heating energy demand, collection, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
154 The Changes of Chemical Composition of Rice Straw Treated by a Biodecomposer Developed from Rumen Bacterial of Buffalo

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa


In tropical countries such as in Indonesia, rice straw plays an important role in fulfilling the needs of feed for ruminant, especially during the dry season in which the availability of forage is very limited. However, the main problem of using rice straw as a feedstuff is low digestibility due to the existence of the links between lignin and cellulose or hemicellulose, and imbalance of its minerals content. One alternative to solve this problem is by application of biodecomposer (BS) derived from rumen bacterial of the ruminant. This study was designed to assess the effects of BS application on the changes of the chemical composition of rice straw. Four adults local buffalo raised under typical feeding conditions were used as a source of inoculum for BS development. The animal was fed for a month with a diet consisted of rice straw and elephant grass before taking rumen fluid samples. Samples of rumen fluid were inoculated in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) media under anaerobic condition for 48 hours at 37°C. The mixture of CMC media and microbes are ready to be used as a biodecomposer following incubation of the mixture under anaerobic condition for 7 days at 45°C. The effectiveness of BS then assessed by applying the BS on the straw according to completely randomized design consisted of four treatments and three replication. One hundred g of ground coarse rice straw was used as the substrate. The BS was applied to the rice straw substrate with the following composition: Rice straw without BS (P0), rice straw + 5% BS (P1), rice straw +10% BS (P2), and rice straw + 15% BS. The mixture of rice straw and BS then fermented under anaerobic for four weeks. Following the fermentation, the chemical composition of rice straw was evaluated. The results indicated that the crude protein content of rice straw significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. On the other hand, the concentration of crude fiber of the rice straw was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as the level of BS increased. Other nutrients such as minerals did not change (P > 0.05) due to the treatments. In conclusion, application of BS developed from rumen bacterial of buffalo has a promising prospect to be used as a biological agent to improve the quality of rice straw as feeding for ruminant.

Keywords: biodecomposer, local buffalo, rumen microbial, chemical composition

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153 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari


This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
152 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen


Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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151 Impact of Length of Straw by the Use of a Straw Mill on the Selective Feeding of Young Cattle and Their Effects for the Cattle

Authors: Heiko Scholz


When feeding high qualitysilagetoheifersfromthe age of two, there is a riskofenergyoversupply. Depending on the feeding valueorscarceavailability ofsilageorcorn silage diets withhighproportionsof straw is often incorporated. Foran energetically standardized young cattle supply of strawproportion can be more than 20% of dry matter. It was investigated whether the grinding of straw with the strawmillselective feeding significantly limits. The investigation has been carried out with young cattle in the second year. 78 animals were kept and fed under similar conditions in two groups. The experimental group (EG) consisted of cattle 12 to 15 months, and in the control group (CG), the cattle were 15 to 20 months old. The experimental feeding took place in five days of feed distribution, and residual feed were weighed. The ration of EG contained ground with the straw mill straw, and CG was further fed rotor-cut pressed straw. To determine the selective seizure samples of feed distributionandtheremainingfood with the particle separator boxandthecrude protein-and energy-content have been determined. The grinding of the straw increased the daily feed intake.IntheEGan increase infeed intakewas observedby grinding of the straw. Feed intakedirectlyon the day for changing the dietoflongonground straw increased by more than 2.0 kgofDMper animal. In the following days, the feed intakewasincreasedby 0.9kg DMper animal and day on average (7.4 vs. 8.3 kg DM per day). The results of the screen distribution of residual feed point to a differentiated feeding behavior between the groups. In the EG, the particle length of the residual feed to a large extent with the template matches. The acid-base-balance (NSBA)valuesofEGarewithin normal limits. Ifstrawsharesof25% and more are federations to young cattle (heifers), the theparticlelengthof straw has significant impact ontheselectivefeeding behavior. Aparticlelength of 1.5cmcompared to7.5 cmlongpreventedstrawcertainly discarding of the straw on the feeding barn. The feed intake increases whenshortstrawis mixed into theTMR.

Keywords: straw mill, heifer, feed selection, dry matter intake

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150 Remote Sensing and GIS Integration for Paddy Production Estimation in Bali Province, Indonesia

Authors: Sarono, Hamim Zaky Hadibasyir, dan Ridho Kurniawan


Estimation of paddy production is one of the areas that can be examined using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the field of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to know the amount of the paddy production estimation and how remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are able to perform analysis of paddy production estimation in Tegalallang and Payangan Sub district, Bali Province, Indonesia. The method used is the method of land suitability. This method associates a physical parameters which are to be embodied in the smallest unit of a mapping that represents a mapping unit in a particular field and connecting with its field productivity. Analysis of estimated production using standard land suitability from FAO using matching technique. The parameters used to create the land unit is slope (FAO), climate classification (Oldeman), landform (Prapto Suharsono), and soil type. Land use map consist of paddy and non paddy field information obtained from Geo-eye 1 imagery using visual interpretation technique. Landsat image of the Data used for the interpretation of the landform, the classification of the slopes obtained from high point identification with method of interpolation spline, whereas climate data, soil, use secondary data originating from institutions-related institutions. The results of this research indicate Tegallalang and Payangan Districts in known wetland suitability consists of S1 (very suitable) covering an area of 2884,7 ha with the productivity of 5 tons/ha and S2 (suitable) covering an area of 482,9 ha with the productivity of 3 tons/ha. The sum of paddy production estimation as a results in both districts are 31.744, 3 tons in one year.

Keywords: production estimation, paddy, remote sensing, geography information system, land suitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
149 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad


Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
148 Perceptions of Climate Change and Adaptation of Climate-Smart Technology by the Paddy Farmers: A Case Study of Kandy District in Sri Lanka

Authors: W. A. D. P. Wanigasundera, P. C. B. Alahakoon


Kandy district in Sri Lanka has small scale and rain-fed paddy farming, and highly vulnerable to climate change. In this study, the status of climate change was assessed using meteorological data and compared with the perceptions of paddy farming community. Factors affecting the adaptation to the climate smart farming were also assessed. Meteorological data for 33 years were collected and the changes over time compared with the perceptions of farmers. The temperature, rainfall and number of rainy days have increased in both locations. The onset of rains also has shifted. The perceptions of the majority of the farmers were in line with the actual changes. The knowledge and attitudes about the causes of climate change and adaptation were medium and related to level of adoption. Formulating effective communication strategies, and a collaborative approach involving state, private sector, civil society to make Sri Lankan agriculture ‘climate-smart’ is urgently needed.

Keywords: adaptation of climate-smart technology, climate change, perception, rain-fed paddy

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
147 Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - a Case Study

Authors: S. M. Ahuja


A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and 50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of the shelling machinery is also fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection efficiency of more than 90 %. This cyclone separator replaced two cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated standards. Besides controlling pollution there is improvement in the quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has also enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four shelling months.

Keywords: air pollution, cyclone separator, pneumatic conveying, rice shellers

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
146 Effect of Lignocellulose-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Termite Gut on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw as Ruminant Feed

Authors: Ayoub Azizi-Shotorkhoft, Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Hosein Motamedi, Morteza Chaji, Hasan Fazaeli


This study was conducted to investigate nutritive value of wheat straw processed with termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulosic-degrading potential including Bacillus licheniformis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Microbacterium paludicola in vitro. These bacteria were isolated by culturing termite guts contents in different culture media containing different lignin and lignocellulosic materials that had been prepared from water-extracted sawdust and wheat straw. Results showed that incubating wheat straw with all of three isolated bacteria increased (P<0.05) acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) compared to control, and highest amount of APPL observed following treatment with B. licheniformis. Highest and lowest (P<0.05) in vitro gas production and ruminal organic matter digestibility were obtained when treating wheat straw with B. licheniformis and control, respectively. However, other fermentation parameters such as b (i.e., gas production from the insoluble fermentable fractions at 144h), c (i.e., rate of gas production during incubation), ruminal dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration were similar between experimental treatments (P>0.05). It is concluded that processing wheat straw with isolated bacteria improved its nutritive value as ruminants feed.

Keywords: termite gut bacteria, wheat straw, nutritive value, ruminant

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
145 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh


Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
144 Interference of Contaminants in the Characterization of Sugarcane Straw for Energy Purpose

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Ana Larissa S. Hansted, Gabriela B. Belini, Carlos R. Sette Jr, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji


The aim of this study was to determine the interference from contaminants in the characterization of sugarcane straw. The sugarcane straw was collected after the harvest and taken to the drying oven, and then it was crushed in the mill type Willey. Analyzes of ash contents and Klason lignin were done in triplicate and high heating value (HHV) in duplicate, according to ASTM standard. The results obtained for the sugarcane straw were 5.29% for ash content, 29.87% for Klason lignin and 17.67 for HHV. Also, the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of contaminants was observed, such as silica. The high amount of contaminants in the samples may impact the results of analyzes, also raising its values, for example in the Klason lignin content. These contaminants can also adversely affect the quality of the biomass. Even using the standards is important to know what the purpose of the analysis and care mainly of sampling.

Keywords: biomass, bioenergy, residues, solid fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
143 A Survey on General Health Status of Paddy Field Workers in Mazandaran Province Using the GHQ-28 Questionnaire

Authors: Sharifirad M., Poursaeed A., Lashgarara F., Mirdamadi S. M.


Introduction: Paddy farming has been reported as one of the most important causes of non-fatal injuries and occupational accidents among farmers. The ignorance of the health of farmers can cause harm to farmers and lead to disability. As a result, these health consequences can result in less exploitation and economic growth in households. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the general health status of paddy field workers in Mazandaran province, Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated 384 paddy farmers in Mazandaran province, Iran, who were selected using stratified random sampling. The required data were collected using the standard questionnaire of GHQ-28 with four domains of somaticsymptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and symptoms of depression. The obtained data were then analyzed using SPSS software (version 25) through Spearman, Kendall, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings: The highest number of participants in this study was in the age group of 50-59 years, with a mean age of 46.9 years. According to the results, the total general health score was obtained at 64.3% for the subjects. Moreover, the scores of four areas of general health were determined at 91.1% (depression symptoms), 73.4% (social dysfunction), 48.7% (anxiety symptoms and insomnia), and 47.1% (somatic symptoms) in descending order. Discussions& Conclusions: The general health of the studied population was not in a good range. In addition, the most observed disorder in the general health of paddy farmers was related to the symptoms of depression, followed by somatic symptoms.

Keywords: general-health, mazandaran, paddyfield

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142 A Study on Conventional and Improved Tillage Practices for Sowing Paddy in Wheat Harvested Field

Authors: R. N. Pateriya, T. K. Bhattacharya


In India, rice-wheat cropping system occupies the major area and contributes about 40% of the country’s total food grain production. It is necessary that production of rice and wheat must keep pace with growing population. However, various factors such as degradation in natural resources, shift in cropping pattern, energy constraints etc. are causing reduction in the productivity of these crops. Seedbed for rice after wheat is difficult to prepare due to presence of straw and stubbles, and require excessive tillage operations to bring optimum tilth. In addition, delayed sowing and transplanting of rice is mainly due to poor crop residue management, multiplicity of tillage operations and non-availability of the power source. With increasing concern for fuel conservation and energy management, farmers might wish to estimate the best cultivation system for more productivity. The widest spread method of tilling land is ploughing with mould board plough. However, with the mould board plough upper layer of soil is neither always loosened at the desired extent nor proper mixing of different layers are achieved. Therefore, additional operations carried out to improve tilth. The farmers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for minimum tillage by minimizing the use of machines. Soil management can be achieved by using the combined active-passive tillage machines. A study was therefore, undertaken in wheat-harvested field to study the impact of conventional and modified tillage practices on paddy crop cultivation. Tillage treatments with tractor as a power source were selected during the experiment. The selected level of tillage treatments of tractor machinery management were (T1:- Direct Sowing of Rice), (T2:- 2 to 3 harrowing and no Puddling with manual transplanting), (T3:- 2 to 3 harrowing and Puddling with paddy harrow with manual transplanting), (T4:- 2 to 3 harrowing and Puddling with Rotavator with manual transplanting). The maximum output was obtained with treatment T1 (7.85 t/ha)) followed by T4 (6.4 t/ha), T3 (6.25 t/ha) and T2 (6.0 t/ha)) respectively.

Keywords: crop residues, cropping system, minimum tillage, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
141 Environmentally Friendly KOH and NH4OH-KOH Pulping of Rice Straw

Authors: Omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi, Sara Khorshidi, Hossein Kermanian Seyed, Majid Zabihzadeh


The main problem that hinders the intensive use of non-wood raw materials in papermaking industry is the environmental pollution caused by black liquor. As a matter of fact, black liquor of nonwood pulping is discharged to the environment due to the lack of recovery. Traditionally, NaOH pulping produces Na-based black liquor that may increase soil erosion and reduce soil permeability. With substitution of KOH/NH4OH with NaOH as the cooking liquor, K and N can act as a soil fertilizer while offering an environmentally acceptable disposal alternative. For this purpose, rice straw samples were pulped under the following conditions; Constant factors were: straw weight: 100 gram (based on oven dry), liquor to straw ratio 7:1 and maximum temperature, 170 and 180 ºC. Variable factors for KOH cooks were: KOH dosage of 14, 17 and %20 on oven dry of straw and times at maximum temperature of 60 and 90 minutes. For KOH-NH4OH cooks, KOH dosage of 5 and %10 and NH4OH dosage of 25 and %35, both based as oven dry of straw were applied. Besides, time at maximum temperature was 90 minutes. Yield ranges of KOH and KOH-NH4OH pulp samples were obtained from 37.28 to 48.62 and 45.63 to 48.08 percent, respectively. In addition, Kappa number ranged from 21.91 to 29.85 and 55.15 to 56.25, respectively. In comparison with soda, soda-AQ, cold soda, kraft, EDA (dissolving), De-Ethylene Glycol (dissolving), burst and tensile index for KOH pulp was more in similar cooking condition. With an exception of soda pulps, tear index of the mentioned pulp is more than all compared treatments. Therefore, it can be resulted that KOH pulping method is an appropriate choice for making paper of the rice straw. Also, compared to KOH-NH4OH, KOH pulping method is more appropriate choice because of better pulping results.

Keywords: environmentally friendly process, rice straw, NH4OH-KOH pulping, pulp properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
140 Effect of Baking Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Clayey Soil

Authors: Gul Muhammad, Amanullah Marri, Asif Abbas


Thermal treatment changes the physical and mechanical properties of clayey soils. Thermally treated soils have been used since ancient times for making trails for access and bricks for residence. In this study, it has been focused to observe and analyze the effect of baking (burning) temperature on the mechanical properties of clayey soils usually used for the construction of adobe houses in the rural areas of many of the developing countries. In the first stage of experimental work, a series of tests on clayey soil moulds (100 mm height and 50 mm diameter in size) added different percentages of lime and wheat straw (typically 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) were conducted. In the second stage; samples were made of clayey soils and were subjected to six level of temperatures i.e., 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500⁰C. In the third stage, the moulds of clayey soil were submerged in water prior to testing in order to investigate the flood resilience of the moulds prepared with and without the addition of lime and wheat straw. The experimental results suggest that samples with 6% of lime content and on 2% of wheat straw contents have shown the maximum value of compressive strength. The effect of baking temperature on the clayey soils has shown that maximum UCS is obtained at 200⁰C. The results also suggest reinforcement with 2% wheat straw, give 70.8% increase in the compressive strength compared to soil only, whereas the flooding resilience can be better resist by adding 6% lime and 2% wheat straw.

Keywords: baked temperature, submersion, lime, uniaxial, wheat straw

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
139 Biogas Production from Lake Bottom Biomass from Forest Management Areas

Authors: Dessie Tegegne Tibebu, Kirsi Mononen, Ari Pappinen


In areas with forest management, agricultural, and industrial activity, sediments and biomass are accumulated in lakes through drainage system, which might be a cause for biodiversity loss and health problems. One possible solution can be utilization of lake bottom biomass and sediments for biogas production. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of lake bottom materials for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion and to study the effect of pretreatment methods for feed materials on biogas yield. In order to study the potentials of biogas production lake bottom materials were collected from two sites, Likokanta and Kutunjärvi lake. Lake bottom materials were mixed with straw-horse manure to produce biogas in a laboratory scale reactor. The results indicated that highest yields of biogas values were observed when feeds were composed of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixture-while with above 50% lake bottom materials in the feed biogas production decreased. CH4 content from Likokanta lake materials with straw-horse manure and Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw-horse manure were similar values when feed consisted of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixtures. However, feeds with lake bottom materials above 50%, the CH4 concentration started to decrease, impairing gas process. Pretreatment applied on Kutunjärvi lake materials showed a slight negative effect on the biogas production and lowest CH4 concentration throughout the experiment. The average CH4 production (ml g-1 VS) from pretreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (208.9 ml g-1 VS) and untreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (182.2 ml g-1 VS) were markedly higher than from Likokanta lake materials with straw horse manure (157.8 ml g-1 VS). According to the experimental results, utilization of 100% lake bottom materials for biogas production is likely to be impaired negatively. In the future, further analyses to improve the biogas yields, assessment of costs and benefits is needed before utilizing lake bottom materials for the production of biogas.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, lake bottom materials, sediments, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
138 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada


Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
137 Optimization of Process Parameters and Modeling of Mass Transport during Hybrid Solar Drying of Paddy

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy


Drying is one of the most critical unit operations for prolonging the shelf-life of food grains in order to ensure global food security. Photovoltaic integrated solar dryers can be a sustainable solution for replacing energy intensive thermal dryers as it is capable of drying in off-sunshine hours and provide better control over drying conditions. But, performance and reliability of PV based solar dryers depend hugely on climatic conditions thereby, drastically affecting process parameters. Therefore, to ensure quality and prolonged shelf-life of paddy, optimization of process parameters for solar dryers is critical. Proper moisture distribution within the grains is most detrimental factor to enhance the shelf-life of paddy therefore; modeling of mass transport can help in providing a better insight of moisture migration. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. Optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using box Behnken model in Design expert software. Furthermore, COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Optimized model for drying paddy was found to be 700W, 2.75 m/s and 13% wb with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Furthermore, 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product to achieve global food and energy security

Keywords: finite element modeling, hybrid solar drying, mass transport, paddy, process optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
136 Feeding Value Improvement of Rice Straw Fermented by Spent Mushroom Substrate on Growth and Lactating Performance of Dairy Goat

Authors: G. J. Fan, T. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, T. F. Shiao, B. Yu, C. F. Lee


Rice straw with poor feed quality and spent mushroom substrate are both the most abundant agricultural residues in Taiwan. Edible mushrooms from white rot fungi possess lignocellulase activity. It was expected to improve the feeding value of rice straw for ruminant by solid-state fermentation pretreatment using spent mushroom substrate. Six varieties or subspecies of spent edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus (blue or white color), P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus, P. eryngii and Ganoderma lucidium) substrate were evaluated in solid-state fermentation process with rice straw for 8 wks. Quality improvement of fermented rice straw was determined by its in vitro digestibility, lignocellulose degradability, and cell wall breakdown checked by scanning electron microscope. Results turned out that Pleurotus ostreatus (white color) and P. sajor-caju had the better lignocellulose degradation effect than the others and was chosen for advance in vivo study. Rice straw fermented with spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate 8 wks was prepared for growing and lactating feeding trials of dairy goat, respectively. Pangolagrass hay at 15% diet dry matter was the control diet. Fermented or original rice straw was added to substitute pangolagrass hay in both feeding trials. A total of 30 head of Alpine castrated ram were assigned into three groups for 11 weeks, 5 pens (2 head/pen) each group. A total of 21 head of Saanen and Alpine goats were assigned into three treatments and individually fed in two repeat lactating trials with 28-d each. In castrated ram study, results showed that fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom substrate attributed the higher daily dry matter intakes (DMI, 1.53 vs. 1.20 kg) and body weight gain (138 vs. 101 g) than goats fed original rice straw. DMI (2.25 vs. 1.81 kg) and milk yield (3.31 vs. 3.02 kg) of lactating goats fed control pangolagrass diet and fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate were also higher than those fed original rice straw diet (P < 0.05). Milk compositions, milk fat, protein, total solid and lactose, were similar among treatments. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation by spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate could effectively improve the feeding value of rice straw. Fermented rice straw is a good alternative fiber feed resource for growing and lactating dairy goats and 15% in diet dry matter is recommended.

Keywords: feeding value, fermented rice straw, growing and lactating dairy goat, spent Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
135 Study of Current the Rice Straw Potential for a Small Power Plant Capacity in the Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Orrawan Rewthong, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Sarun Saensiriphan


The objective of this work was to study potential of rice straw for power plant in the central region of Thailand. Provincial power plant capacity was studied. The results showed that provinces central region had potential for small power plants with a capacity of over 10 MW in 13 provinces, 1-10 MW in 6 provinces and less than 1 MW in 3 provinces.

Keywords: rice straw, power plant, central region, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 195