Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Sanath Rajapakse

8 Isolation and Characterization of an Ethanol Resistant Bacterium from Sap of Saccharum officinarum for Efficient Fermentation

Authors: Rukshika S Hewawasam, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sanath Rajapakse, Subramanium Sotheeswaran


Bio fuel is one of the emerging industries around the world due to arise of crisis in petroleum fuel. Fermentation is a cost effective and eco-friendly process in production of bio-fuel. So inventions in microbes, substrates, technologies in fermentation cause new modifications in fermentation. One major problem in microbial ethanol fermentation is the low resistance of conventional microorganisms to the high ethanol concentrations, which ultimately lead to decrease in the efficiency of the process. In the present investigation, an ethanol resistant bacterium was isolated from sap of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). The optimal cultural conditions such as pH, temperature, incubation period, and microbiological characteristics, morphological characteristics, biochemical characteristics, ethanol tolerance, sugar tolerance, growth curve assay were investigated. Isolated microorganism was tolerated to 18% (V/V) of ethanol concentration in the medium and 40% (V/V) glucose concentration in the medium. Biochemical characteristics have revealed as Gram negative, non-motile, negative for Indole test ,Methyl Red test, Voges- Proskauer`s test, Citrate Utilization test, and Urease test. Positive results for Oxidase test was shown by isolated bacterium. Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Dextrose, Arabinose, Raffinose, Lactose, and Sachcharose can be utilized by this particular bacterium. It is a significant feature in effective fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in glucose medium under optimum conditions; pH 4, temperature 30˚C, and incubated for 72 hours. Maximum ethanol production was recorded as 12.0±0.6% (V/V). Methanol was not detected in the final product of the fermentation process. This bacterium is especially useful in bio-fuel production due to high ethanol tolerance of this microorganism; it can be used to enhance the fermentation process over conventional microorganisms. Investigations are currently conducted on establishing the identity of the bacterium

Keywords: bacterium, bio-fuel, ethanol tolerance, fermentation

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7 Relevance of the Variation in the Angulation of Palatal Throat Form to the Orientation of the Occlusal Plane- A Cephalometric Study

Authors: Sanath Kumar Shetty, Sanya Sinha, K. Kamalakanth Shenoy


The posterior reference for the ala tragal line is a cause of confusion, with different authors suggesting different locations as to the superior, middle or inferior part of the tragus. This study was conducted on 200 subjects to evaluate if any correlation exists between the variation of angulation of palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to ala-tragal line at different tragal levels. A Custom made Occlusal Plane Analyzer was used to check the parallelism between the ala-tragal line and occlusal plane. A lateral cephalogram was shot for each subject to measure the angulation of the palatal throat form. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the correlation between the angulation of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala tragal line. Also, a classification was formulated for the palatal throat form, based on confidence interval. From the results of the study, the inferior part, middle part and superior part of the tragus were seen as the reference points in 49.5%, 32% and 18.5% of the subjects respectively. Class I palatal throat form (41degree-50 degree), Class II palatal throat form (below 41 degree) and Class III palatal throat form (above 50 degree) were seen in 42%, 43% and 15% of the subjects respectively. It was also concluded that there is no significant correlation between the variation in the angulations of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala-tragal line.

Keywords: Ala-Tragal line, occlusal plane, palatal throat form, cephalometry

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6 Identification of a Print Design Approach for the Application of Multicolour and Pattern Changing Effects

Authors: Dilusha Rajapakse


The main reason for printing coloured imageries, pattern or motif onto textiles is to enhance the visual appearance of the surface so that the final textile product would get the required attention from potential customers. Such colours and patterns are permanently applied onto the textiles using conventional static colourants, and we expect such decorations to be last for the entire lifecycle of the textile product. The focus of this research presentation is to discuss the ability to integrate multicolour and pattern changing aesthetics onto textiles with the application of water based photochromic colourants. By adopting a research through design approach, a number of iterative flatbed screen printing experiments were conducted to explore the process of printing water based photochromic colours on textile surfaces. The research resulted in several technical parameters that have to be considered during the process of screen printing. Moreover, a modified printing technique that could be used to apply decorative photographic imagery onto textile with multicolour changing effects was also identified. A number of product applications for such dynamic printed textiles were revealed, and appropriate visual evidence was referred to justify the finding.

Keywords: dynamic aesthetics, multicolour changing textiles, non-emissive colours, printed textile design

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5 Design and Development of an 'Optimisation Controller' and a SCADA Based Monitoring System for Renewable Energy Management in Telecom Towers

Authors: M. Sundaram, H. R. Sanath Kumar, A. Ramprakash


Energy saving is a key sustainability focus area for the Indian telecom industry today. This is especially true in rural India where energy consumption contributes to 70 % of the total network operating cost. In urban areas, the energy cost for network operation ranges between 15-30 %. This expenditure on energy as a result of the lack of grid power availability highlights a potential barrier to telecom industry growth. As a result of this, telecom tower companies switch to diesel generators, making them the second largest consumer of diesel in India, consuming over 2.5 billion litres per annum. The growing cost of energy due to increasing diesel prices and concerns over rising greenhouse emissions have caused these companies to look at other renewable energy options. Even the TRAI (Telecom Regulation Authority of India) has issued a number of guidelines to implement Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in the telecom towers as part of its ‘Implementation of Green Technologies in Telecom Sector’ initiative. Our proposal suggests the implementation of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’ that can not only efficiently utilize the energy from RETs but also help to conserve the power used in the telecom towers. When there are multiple RETs available to supply energy, this controller will pick the optimum amount of energy from each RET based on the availability and feasibility at that point of time, reducing the dependence on diesel generators. For effective maintenance of the towers, we are planing to implement a SCADA based monitoring system along with the ‘optimization controller’.

Keywords: operation costs, consumption of fuel and carbon footprint, implementation of a programmable logic controller (PLC) based ‘optimisation controller’, efficient SCADA based monitoring system

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4 Development of a Rice Fortification Technique Using Vacuum Assisted Rapid Diffusion for Low Cost Encapsulation of Fe and Zn

Authors: R. A. C. H. Seneviratne, M. Gunawardana, R. P. N. P. Rajapakse


To address the micronutrient deficiencies in the Asian region, the World Food Program in its current mandate highlights the requirement of employing efficient fortification of micronutrients in rice, under the program 'Scaling-up Rice Fortification in Asia'. The current industrial methods of rice fortification with micronutrients are not promising due to poor permeation or retention of fortificants. This study was carried out to develop a method to improve fortification of micronutrients in rice by removing the air barriers for diffusing micronutrients through the husk. For the purpose, soaking stage of paddy was coupled with vacuum (- 0.6 bar) for different time periods. Both long and short grain varieties of paddy (BG 352 and BG 358, respectively) initially tested for water uptake during hot soaking (70 °C) under vacuum (28.5 and 26.15%, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of non-vacuum conditions (25.24 and 25.45% respectively), exhibiting the effectiveness of water diffusion into the rice grains through the cleared pores under negative pressure. To fortify the selected micronutrients (iron and zinc), paddy was vacuum-soaked in Fe2+ or Zn2+ solutions (500 ppm) separately for one hour, and continued soaking for another 3.5 h without vacuum. Significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of Fe2+ and Zn2+ were observed throughout the soaking period, in both short and long grain varieties of rice compared to rice treated without vacuum. To achieve the recommended limits of World Food Program standards for fortified iron (40-48 mg/kg) and zinc (60-72 mg/kg) in rice, soaking was done with different concentrations of Fe2+ or Zn2+ for varying time periods. For both iron and zinc fortifications, hot soaking (70 °C) in 400 ppm solutions under vacuum (- 0.6 bar) during the first hour followed by 2.5 h under atmospheric pressure exhibited the optimum fortification (Fe2+: 46.59±0.37 ppm and Zn2+: 67.24±1.36 ppm) with a greater significance (P < 0.05) compared to the controls (Fe2+: 38.84±0.62 ppm and Zn2+: 52.55±0.55 ppm). This finding was further confirmed by the XRF images, clearly showing a greater fixation of Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the rice grains under vacuum treatment. Moreover, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among both Fe2+ and Zn2+ contents in fortified rice even after polishing and washing, confirming their greater retention. A seven point hedonic scale showed that the overall acceptability for both iron and zinc fortified rice were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the parboiled rice without fortificants. With all the drawbacks eliminated, per kilogram cost will be less than US$ 1 for both iron and zinc fortified rice. The new method of rice fortification studied and developed in this research, can be claimed as the best method in comparison to other rice fortification methods currently deployed.

Keywords: fortification, vacuum assisted diffusion, micronutrients, parboiling

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3 Frequency of Problem Drinking and Depression in Males with a History of Alcohol Consumption Admitted to a Tertiary Care Setting in Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: N. H. D. P. Fonseka, I. H. Rajapakse, A. S. Dissanayake


Background: Problem drinking, namely alcohol dependence (AD) and alcohol abuse (AA) are associated with major medical, social and economic adverse consequences. Problem drinking behavior is noted among those admitted to hospitals due to alcohol-related medical/surgical complaints as well as those with unrelated complaints. Literature shows an association between alcohol consumption and depression. Aims of this study were to determine the frequency of problem drinking and depression among males with a history of alcohol consumption tertiary care setting in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: Two-hundred male patients who consumed alcohol, receiving care in medical and surgical wards in Teaching Hospital Galle, were assessed. A validated J12 questionnaire of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was administered to determine frequency AA and AD. A validated PHQ 9 questionnaire to determine the prevalence and severity of depression. Results: Sixty-three participants (31%) had problem drinking. Of them, 61% had AD, and 39% had AA. Depression was noted in 39 (19%) subjects. In those who reported alcohol consumption not amounting to problem drinking, depression was noted in 23 (16%) participants. Mild depression was seen in 17, moderate in five and moderately severe in one. Among those who had problem drinking, 16 (25%) had depression. Mild depression was seen in four, moderate in seven, moderately severe in three and severe in two. Conclusions: A high proportion alcohol users had problem drinking. Adverse consequences associated with problem drinking places a major strain on the health system especially in a low resource setting where healthcare spending is limited and alcohol cessation support services are not well organised. Thus alcohol consumption and problem drinking behaviour need to be inquired into all medical consultations. Community prevalence of depression in Sri Lanka is approximately 10%. Depression among those consuming alcohol was two times higher compared to the general population. The rates of depression among those with problem drinking were especially high being 2.5 times more common than in the general population. A substantial proportion of these patients with depression had moderately severe or severe depression. When depression coexists with problem drinking, it may increase the tendency to consume alcohol as well as act as a barrier to the success of alcohol cessation interventions. Thus screening all patients who consume alcohol for depression, especially those who are problem drinkers becomes an important step in their clinical evaluation. In addition, in view of the high prevalence of problem drinking and coexistent depression, the need to organize a structured alcohol cessation support service in Sri Lanka as well as the need for increasing access to psychological evaluation and treatment of those with problem drinking are highlighted.

Keywords: alcohol abuse, alcohol, depression, problem drinking

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2 Numerical Analysis of Nanofluid Based Two-Phase Slug-Flow Heat Transfer in Microchannels

Authors: Anjan Mevan Rajapakse, Uvindu Eranjana Thilakarathne, Charindu Ujith Dasanayake, Geethal Chandima Siriwardana, Thilaksiri Bandara


Energy efficiency has become one of the popular subjects in past years, especially with heat transfer applications. Over the years, with the development of micro-scale devices, it is an incontrovertible fact that heat dissipation rate is the main drawback when improving miniaturized (micro-scale) devices. As the sizes reducing along with increased performance in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), the thermal management of these devices is challenging. Due to sound heat transfer enhancement along with larger heat transfer surface area per unit volume, microchannel-based cooling circuits have turned out to be an efficient solution. Furthermore, performance in the flow depends significantly on the thermal and physical properties of the working fluid. Many innovative microfluidic systems have been developed in recent years by altering the properties of the working fluid while utilizing different fluid flows such as multiphase and nanofluid flows. The present research is done on the nanofluid-based two-phase slug-flow heat transfer in microchannels. The hydrodynamics and heat transfer performance of water-mineral oil slug-flow with 50 nm alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles were numerically analyzed in microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 100 µm. Further, the effect of nanoparticle volume concentration on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics was studied using the Eulerian mixture model as the multiphase model. According to the results, liquid film thickness had slightly decreased by 8% when the volume concentration of nanoparticles was 1% in the primary phase. This is further reduced by 24% when the same amount of volume fraction is introduced to the secondary phase. Because of the nanoparticles which are presented in the secondary phase, internal circulation has considerably increased. Also, the pressure drop had increased when the nanoparticles were dispersed in the slug-flow because of the elevated viscosity. It was identified that nanoparticles dispersion has a significant effect on the thermal conductivity and Nusselt number. Considerable increment in the local Nusselt number along the secondary phase droplets was observed compared to other regions in the flow and the presence of nanoparticles has increased the bulk thermal conductivity of the slug-flow. The results suggest that there are many opportunities for heat transfer enhancement as several controllable parameters existing in the flow.

Keywords: slug-flow, nanofluid, multiphase, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, microchannel, CFD

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1 Performance Validation of Model Predictive Control for Electrical Power Converters of a Grid Integrated Oscillating Water Column

Authors: G. Rajapakse, S. Jayasinghe, A. Fleming


This paper aims to experimentally validate the control strategy used for electrical power converters in grid integrated oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The particular OWC’s unidirectional air turbine-generator output power results in discrete large power pulses. Therefore, the system requires power conditioning prior to integrating to the grid. This is achieved by using a back to back power converter with an energy storage system. A Li-Ion battery energy storage is connected to the dc-link of the back-to-back converter using a bidirectional dc-dc converter. This arrangement decouples the system dynamics and mitigates the mismatch between supply and demand powers. All three electrical power converters used in the arrangement are controlled using finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy. The rectifier controller is to regulate the speed of the turbine at a set rotational speed to uphold the air turbine at a desirable speed range under varying wave conditions. The inverter controller is to maintain the output power to the grid adhering to grid codes. The dc-dc bidirectional converter controller is to set the dc-link voltage at its reference value. The software modeling of the OWC system and FCS-MPC is carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink software using actual data and parameters obtained from a prototype unidirectional air-turbine OWC developed at Australian Maritime College (AMC). The hardware development and experimental validations are being carried out at AMC Electronic laboratory. The designed FCS-MPC for the power converters are separately coded in Code Composer Studio V8 and downloaded into separate Texas Instrument’s TIVA C Series EK-TM4C123GXL Launchpad Evaluation Boards with TM4C123GH6PMI microcontrollers (real-time control processors). Each microcontroller is used to drive 2kW 3-phase STEVAL-IHM028V2 evaluation board with an intelligent power module (STGIPS20C60). The power module consists of a 3-phase inverter bridge with 600V insulated gate bipolar transistors. Delta standard (ASDA-B2 series) servo drive/motor coupled to a 2kW permanent magnet synchronous generator is served as the turbine-generator. This lab-scale setup is used to obtain experimental results. The validation of the FCS-MPC is done by comparing these experimental results to the results obtained by MATLAB/Simulink software results in similar scenarios. The results show that under the proposed control scheme, the regulated variables follow their references accurately. This research confirms that FCS-MPC fits well into the power converter control of the OWC-WEC system with a Li-Ion battery energy storage.

Keywords: dc-dc bidirectional converter, finite control set-model predictive control, Li-ion battery energy storage, oscillating water column, wave energy converter

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