Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5081

Search results for: polarization dependent loss

5081 Eye Diagram for a System of Highly Mode Coupled PMD/PDL Fiber

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, Liang Chen, Saeed Hadjifaradji

Abstract:

To evaluate the optical eye diagram due to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and chromatic dispersion (CD) for a system of highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section at any given optical pulse sequence we present an analytical modle. We found that with considering PDL and the polarization direction correlation between PMD and PDL, a system with highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section can have either higher or lower Q-factor than a highly mode coupled system with same root mean square PDL/PMD values. Also we noticed that a system of two highly mode coupled fibers connected together is not equivalent to a system of highly mode coupled fiber when fluctuation is considered

Keywords: polarization mode dispersion, polarization dependent loss, chromatic dispersion, optical eye diagram

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5080 A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation

Authors: Lakhdar Zaid, Albane Sangiovanni

Abstract:

A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.

Keywords: active antenna, polarization diversity, patch antenna, polyphase filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5079 Aqueous Extract of Argemone Mexicana Roots for Effective Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in HCl Environment

Authors: Gopal Ji, Priyanka Dwivedi, Shanthi Sundaram, Rajiv Prakash

Abstract:

Inhibition effect of aqueous Argemone Mexicana root extract (AMRE) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl has been studied by weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Results indicate that inhibition ability of AMRE increases with the increasing amount of the extract. A maximum corrosion inhibition of 94% is acknowledged at the extract concentration of 400 mg L-1. Polarization curves and impedance spectra reveal that both cathodic and anodic reactions are suppressed due to passive layer formation at metal-acid interface. It is also confirmed by SEM micro graphs and FTIR studies. Furthermore, the effects of acid concentration (1-5 M), immersion time (120 hours) and temperature (30-60˚C) on inhibition potential of AMRE have been investigated by weight loss method and electrochemical techniques. Adsorption mechanism is also proposed on the basis of weight loss results, which shows good agreement with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, polarization, SEM, acid corrosion, EIS, green inhibition

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5078 Dielectric Properties of Thalium Selenide Thin Films at Radio Wave Frequencies

Authors: Onur Potok, Deniz Deger, Kemal Ulutas, Sahin Yakut, Deniz Bozoglu

Abstract:

Thalium Selenide (TlSe) is used for optoelectronic devices, pressure sensitive detectors, and gamma-ray detectors. The TlSe samples were grown as large single crystals using the Stockbarger-Bridgman method. The thin films, in the form of Al/TlSe/Al, were deposited on the microscope slide in different thicknesses (300-3000 Å) using thermal evaporation technique at 10-5 Torr. The dielectric properties of (TlSe) thin films, capacitance (C) and dielectric loss factor (tanδ), were measured in a frequency range of 10-105 Hz, and temperatures between 213K and 393K via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy analyzer. The dielectric constant (ε’) and the dielectric loss (ε’’) of the thin films were derived from measured parameters (C and tanδ). These results showed that the dielectric properties of TlSe thin films are frequency and temperature dependent. The capacitance and the dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and decreasing temperature. The dielectric loss of TlSe thin films decreases with increasing frequency, on the other hand, they increase with increasing temperature and increasing thicknesses. There is two relaxation region in the investigated frequency and temperature interval. These regions can be called as low and high-frequency dispersion regions. Low-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of the main part of the chain structure of TlSe while high-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of side parts of the structure.

Keywords: thin films, thallium selenide, dielectric spectroscopy, binary compounds

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5077 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola

Abstract:

The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5076 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in West North Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles by way of signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents the effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the west north region of Libya (Al-Khoms), experimental procedure to study the effects mentioned above. The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza stations, Al-Khoms center stations, Al-Khoms gateway stations) to determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change which coverage in the studied region, it is required to collect the dust particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The result showed that effect of the humidity and dust, the antenna height, the visibility, on the complex permittivity effects both attenuation and phase shift, there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: attenuation, de-polarization, scattering, transmission loss

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5075 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner

Abstract:

Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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5074 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
5073 Relative Intensity Noise of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Subject to Variable Polarization-Optical Feedback

Authors: Salam Nazhan Ahmed

Abstract:

Influence of variable polarization angle (θp) of optical feedback on the Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) has been experimentally investigated. The RIN is a minimum at θp = 0° for the dominant polarization mode (XP), and at θp = 90° for the suppressed polarization mode (YP) of VCSEL. Furthermore, the RIN of the XP mode increases rapidly with increasing θp, while for the YP mode, it increases slightly to θp = 45° and decreases for angles greater than 45°.

Keywords: lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical switching, optical polarization feedback, relative intensity noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
5072 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: : Attenuation, scattering, transmission loss.

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5071 Teaching Light Polarization by Putting Art and Physics Together

Authors: Fabrizio Logiurato

Abstract:

Light Polarization has many technological applications, and its discovery was crucial to reveal the transverse nature of the electromagnetic waves. However, despite its fundamental and practical importance, in high school, this property of light is often neglected. This is a pity not only for its conceptual relevance, but also because polarization gives the possibility to perform many brilliant experiments with low cost materials. Moreover, the treatment of this matter lends very well to an interdisciplinary approach between art, biology and technology, which usually makes things more interesting to students. For these reasons, we have developed, and in this work, we introduce a laboratory on light polarization for high school and undergraduate students. They can see beautiful pictures when birefringent materials are set between two crossed polarizing filters. Pupils are very fascinated and drawn into by what they observe. The colourful images remind them of those ones of abstract painting or alien landscapes. With this multidisciplinary teaching method, students are more engaged and participative, and also, the learning process of the respective physics concepts is more effective.

Keywords: light polarization, optical activity, multidisciplinary education, science and art

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5070 A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Authors: Mingde Du, Dong Han

Abstract:

A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

Keywords: dual polarized, patch antenna, slot coupled, base station antenna

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5069 Dual Reconfigurable Antenna Using Capacitive Coupling Slot and Parasitic Square Ring

Authors: M. Abou Al-alaa, H. A. Elsadek, E. A. Abdallah, E. A. Hashish

Abstract:

A square patch antenna with both frequency and polarization reconfigurability is presented. The antenna consists of a square patch with coplanar feed on the ground plane. On the patch side, there is a parasitic square ring that is responsible for changing the antenna polarization. On the ground plane, there is a rectangular slot. By changing of length of this slot, the antenna resonance frequency can be changed. The antenna operates at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz that used in GPS and Bluetooth applications, respectively. The length of the slot in the proposed antenna is 40 mm, and the antenna operates at the lower frequency (1.57 GHz). By using switches in the ground plane the slot length can be adjust to 24 mm, so the antenna operates at upper frequency (2.45 GHz). Two switches are mounted on the parasitic ring at optimized positions. By switching between the different states of these two switches, the proposed antenna operates with linear polarization (LP) and circular polarization (CP) at each operating frequency. The antenna gain at 1.57 and 2.45 GHz are 5.9 and 7.64 dBi, respectively. The antenna is analyzed using the CST Microwave Studio. The proposed antenna was fabricated and measured. Results comparison shows good agreement. The antenna has applications in several wireless communication systems.

Keywords: microstrip patch antenna, reconfigurable antenna, frequency reconfigurability, polarization reconfigurability, parasitic square ring, linear polarization, circular polarization

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5068 Evaluation of Pelargonium Extract and Oil as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Chloride Solutions and Pharmacological Properties

Authors: Ahmed Chetouani

Abstract:

Corrosion is a natural occurring process where it can be defined as the deterioration of materials properties due to its interaction with its environment. Corrosion can lead to failures in plant infrastructure and machines which are usually costly to repair. In terms of loss of contaminated products which will cause environmental damage and possibly costly in terms of human health. The driving force that causes metals to corrode is due to the natural consequence of their temporary existence in metallic form. There is a growing trend in utilizing plant extracts and pharmaceutical compounds as corrosion inhibitors. Exquisite identification of the essential oil of aerial parts of Pelargonium was obtained using hydrodistillation and identification using GC (gas chromatography) and GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The oil was predominated by Citronellol (22.8%). The inhibitory effect of essential oil and extract of Pelargonium was estimated on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) using weight loss, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization curves. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in 1M HCl with addition of essential oil and extract was also studied and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. Values of inhibition efficiency were calculated from weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, and EIS. All results are in good agreement. Polarization curves showed that essential oil and extract of Pelargonium behave as mixed type inhibitors in hydrochloric acid. The results obtained showed that the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in Hydrochloric acid solution. To avoid any surprise of toxicity, the majority compounds have been studied by using POM analyses.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, mild steel, pelargonium oil, extract, electrochemical system, hydrodistillation, side effects, POM Analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
5067 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
5066 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Calcium Gluconate in Magnesium Chloride Solution

Authors: Olaitan Akanji, Cleophas Loto, Patricia Popoola, Andrei Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Studies involving performance of corrosion inhibitors had been identified as one of the critical research needs for improving the durability of mild steel used in various industrial applications. This paper investigates the inhibiting effect of calcium gluconate against the corrosion of mild steel in 2.5M magnesium chloride using weight loss method and linear polarization technique, calculated corrosion rates from the obtained weight loss data, potentiodynamic polarization measurements are in good agreement. Results revealed calcium gluconate has strong inhibitory effects with inhibitor efficiency increasing with increase in inhibitor concentration at ambient temperature, the efficiency of the inhibitor increased in the following order of concentrations 2%g/vol,1.5%g/vol,1%g/vol,0.5%g/vol. Further results obtained from potentiodynamics experiments had good correlation with those of the gravimetric methods, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface from the chloride has been found to obey Langmuir, Frumkin and Freudlich adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed the existence of an absorbed protective film on the metal surface.

Keywords: calcium gluconate, corrosion, magnesium chloride, mild steel

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5065 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

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5064 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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5063 Spin Resolved Electronic Behavior of Zno Nanoribbons

Authors: Serkan Caliskan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to understand the spin-resolved properties of ZnO armchair and zigzag nanoribbons. The spin polarization can be induced by either geometry of the nanoribbons or ferromagnetic electrodes. Hence, spin-dependent behavior is revealed in these nanostructures in the absence of external magnetic field. Both electronic structure and magnetic properties of the nanoribbons are analyzed, employing first-principles calculations through Density Functional Theory. The relevant properties using the spin-dependent band structure, conductance, transmission, density of states and magnetic moment are elucidated. These results can be utilized to describe the nanoscale structures and stimulate the experimental works.

Keywords: first principles, spin polarized transport, ZnO device, ZnO nanoribbons

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5062 Investigation of Acidizing Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran derivatives (AP) on mild steel in 15% HCl was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, weight loss, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, DFT and molecular dynamic simulation. The adsorption of APs on the surface of mild steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitors are mixed type with cathodic predominance. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface. The theoretical data obtained are, in most cases, in agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: acidizing inhibitor, pyran derivatives, DFT, molecular simulation, mild steel, EIS

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5061 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in Al-Khoms City-Libya

Authors: Mustafa S. Agha, Asma M. Eshahriy

Abstract:

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter band is severely affected by rain, and dust particles in terms of attenuation and de-polarization. The computations of dust and/or sand storms require knowledge of electrical properties of the scattering particles and climate conditions at the studied region in the west north region of Libya. (Al -Khoms) To compute the effect of dust and sand particles on the propagation of electromagnetic waves, it is required to collect the sand particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The main object of this paper is to study the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication, such as microwave links, in the north region of Libya (Al -Khoms) of Libya (Nagaza stations, Al-khoms center stations, Al-khoms gateway stations) by determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change due to the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication systems (GSM signal). The result showed that there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget .

Keywords: attenuation, scattering, transmission loss, electromagnetic waves

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5060 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

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5059 Relaxor Ferroelectric Lead-Free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ Ceramic: Giant Electromechanical Response with Intrinsic Polarization and Resistive Leakage Analyses

Authors: Abid Hussain, Binay Kumar

Abstract:

Environment-friendly lead-free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ (NKLNTS) ceramic was synthesized by solid-state reaction method in search of a potential candidate to replace lead-based ceramics such as PbZrO₃-PbTiO₃ (PZT), Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) etc., for various applications. The ceramic was calcined at temperature 850 ᵒC and sintered at 1090 ᵒC. The powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of pure perovskite phase having tetragonal symmetry with space group P4mm of the synthesized ceramic. The surface morphology of the ceramic was studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) technique. The well-defined grains with homogeneous microstructure were observed. The average grain size was found to be ~ 0.6 µm. A very large value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d₃₃ ~ 754 pm/V) was obtained for the synthesized ceramic which indicated its potential for use in transducers and actuators. In dielectric measurements, a high value of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tm~305 ᵒC), a high value of maximum dielectric permittivity ~ 2110 (at 1 kHz) and a very small value of dielectric loss ( < 0.6) were obtained which suggested the utility of NKLNTS ceramic in high-temperature ferroelectric devices. Also, the degree of diffuseness (γ) was found to be 1.61 which confirmed a relaxor ferroelectric behavior in NKLNTS ceramic. P-E hysteresis loop was traced and the value of spontaneous polarization was found to be ~11μC/cm² at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient was obtained to be very high (p ∼ 1870 μCm⁻² ᵒC⁻¹) for the present case indicating its applicability in pyroelectric detector applications including fire and burglar alarms, infrared imaging, etc. NKLNTS ceramic showed fatigue free behavior over 107 switching cycles. Remanent hysteresis task was performed to determine the true-remanent (or intrinsic) polarization of NKLNTS ceramic by eliminating non-switchable components which showed that a major portion (83.10 %) of the remanent polarization (Pr) is switchable in the sample which makes NKLNTS ceramic a suitable material for memory switching devices applications. Time-Dependent Compensated (TDC) hysteresis task was carried out which revealed resistive leakage free nature of the ceramic. The performance of NKLNTS ceramic was found to be superior to many lead based piezoceramics and hence can effectively replace them for use in piezoelectric, pyroelectric and long duration ferroelectric applications.

Keywords: dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties , lead free ceramic, piezoelectric property, solid state reaction, true-remanent polarization

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5058 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik

Abstract:

We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: GaN, flexible, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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5057 Greatly Improved Dielectric Properties of Poly'vinylidene fluoride' Nanocomposites Using Ag-BaTiO₃ Hybrid Nanoparticles as Filler

Authors: K. Silakaew, P. Thongbai

Abstract:

There is an increasing need for high–permittivity polymer–matrix composites (PMC) owing to the rapid development of the electronics industry. Unfortunately, the dielectric permittivity of PMC is still too low ( < 80). Moreover, the dielectric loss tangent is usually high (tan > 0.1) when the dielectric permittivity of PMC increased. In this research work, the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)–based nanocomposites can be significantly improved by incorporating by silver–BaTiO3 (Ag–BT) ceramic hybrid nanoparticles. The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were fabricated using various volume fractions of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles (fAg–BT = 0–0.5). The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were characterized using several techniques. The main phase of Ag and BT can be detected by the XRD technique. The microstructure of the Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites was investigated to reveal the dispersion of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles because the dispersion state of a filler can have an effect on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. It was found that the filler hybrid nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PVDF matrix. The phase formation of PVDF phases was identified using the XRD and FTIR techniques. We found that the fillers can increase the polar phase of a PVDF polymer. The fabricated Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites are systematically characterized to explain the dielectric behavior in Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites. Interestingly, largely enhanced dielectric permittivity (>240) and suppressed loss tangent (tan<0.08) over a wide frequency range (102 – 105 Hz) are obtained. Notably, the dielectric permittivity is slightly dependent on temperature. The greatly enhanced dielectric permittivity was explained by the interfacial polarization between the Ag and PVDF interface, and due to a high permittivity of BT particles.

Keywords: BaTiO3, PVDF, polymer composite, dielectric properties

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5056 Mass Polarization in Three-Body System with Two Identical Particles

Authors: Igor Filikhin, Vladimir M. Suslov, Roman Ya. Kezerashvili, Branislav Vlahivic

Abstract:

The mass-polarization term of the three-body kinetic energy operator is evaluated for different systems which include two identical particles: A+A+B. The term has to be taken into account for the analysis of AB- and AA-interactions based on experimental data for two- and three-body ground state energies. In this study, we present three-body calculations within the framework of a potential model for the kaonic clusters K−K−p and ppK−, nucleus 3H and hypernucleus 6 ΛΛHe. The systems are well clustering as A+ (A+B) with a ground state energy E2 for the pair A+B. The calculations are performed using the method of the Faddeev equations in configuration space. The phenomenological pair potentials were used. We show a correlation between the mass ratio mA/mB and the value δB of the mass-polarization term. For bosonic-like systems, this value is defined as δB = 2E2 − E3, where E3 is three-body energy when VAA = 0. For the systems including three particles with spin(isospin), the models with average AB-potentials are used. In this case, the Faddeev equations become a scalar one like for the bosonic-like system αΛΛ. We show that the additional energy conected with the mass-polarization term can be decomposite to a sum of the two parts: exchenge related and reduced mass related. The state of the system can be described as the following: the particle A1 is bound within the A + B pair with the energy E2, and the second particle A2 is bound with the pair with the energy E3 − E2. Due to the identity of A particles, the particles A1 and A2 are interchangeable in the pair A + B. We shown that the mass polarization δB correlates with a type of AB potential using the system αΛΛ as an example.

Keywords: three-body systems, mass polarization, Faddeev equations, nuclear interactions

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5055 Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Aziz

Abstract:

The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.

Keywords: biodegradable, electrochemical polarization means, orthopedics, immersion test, simulated body fluid

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5054 Mechanism of Dual Ferroic Properties Formation in Substituted M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: A. V. Trukhanov, S. V. Trukhanov, L. V. Panina, V. G. Kostishin, V. A. Turchenko

Abstract:

It has been shown that BaFe12O19 is a perspective room-temperature multiferroic material. A large spontaneous polarization was observed for the BaFe12O19 ceramics revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum polarization was estimated to be approximately 11.8 μC/cm2. The FeO6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe12O19. The magnetic field induced electric polarization has been also observed in the doped BaFe12-x-δScxMδO19 (δ=0.05) at 10 K and in the BaScxFe12−xO19 and SrScxFe12−xO19 (x = 1.3–1.7) M-type hexaferrites. The investigated BaFe12-xDxO19 (x=0.1, D-Al3+, In3+) samples have been obtained by two-step “topotactic” reactions. The powder neutron investigations of the samples were performed by neutron time of flight method at High Resolution Fourier Diffractometer.

Keywords: substituted hexaferrites, ferrimagnetics, ferroelectrics, neutron powder diffraction, crystal and magnetic structures

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5053 Political Polarization May Be Distorted When It Comes to Police Reform

Authors: Nancy Bartekian, Christine Reyna

Abstract:

Republicans and Democrats are often polarized when it comes to important topics, but the portrayal of polarization of key issues might be distorted and exaggerated. We examined Republicans' and Democrats’ attitudes about police reform policy during the 2020 racial justice protests and calls to ‘defund the police’. We hypothesized that a) Republicans and Democrats will be polarized on the “defund police'' question; however, b) they will have similar overall attitudes towards specific police reform policies (will be on the same side of the scale--disagree vs. agree), but c) will differ in their extent of agreement or disagreement (main effect of political party ID, but located on the same side of the scale). Using one-way, Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlling for race, education, and income, we found an overall effect of political party ID. Six out of the nine policies studied were, in fact, not polarizing; both groups were in consensus on whether they disagreed or agreed with the policy, including “defund police''. Results suggest that polarization might be exaggerated.

Keywords: political psychology, social, ideology, polarization

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5052 Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry

Authors: M. A. Deyab

Abstract:

The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactant, oil sands slurry, erosion-corrosion

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