Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2273

Search results for: the magnetized quantum breathing mode

2273 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2272 Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum

Authors: Li Li, Lei Wang, Chenglin Du, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Wei Cai, Jingjun Xu


Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.

Keywords: breathing mode, plasmonics, quantum dot, strong coupling, ultraviolet

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2271 Non Linear Dynamic Analysis of Cantilever Beam with Breathing Crack Using XFEM

Authors: K. Vigneshwaran, Manoj Pandey


In this paper, breathing crack is considered for the non linear dynamic analysis. The stiffness of the cracked beam is found out by using influence coefficients. The influence coefficients are calculated by using Castigliano’s theorem and strain energy release rate (SERR). The equation of motion of the beam was derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The stiffness and natural frequencies for the cracked beam has been calculated using XFEM and Eigen approach. It is seen that due to presence of cracks, the stiffness and natural frequency changes. The mode shapes and the FRF for the uncracked and breathing cracked cantilever beam also obtained and compared.

Keywords: breathing crack, XFEM, mode shape, FRF, non linear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2270 Academic Performance and Therapeutic Breathing

Authors: Abha Gupta, Seema Maira, Smita Sinha


This paper explores using breathing techniques to boost the academic performance of students and describes how teachers can foster the technique in their classrooms. The innovative study examines the differential impact of therapeutic breathing exercises, called pranayama, on students’ academic performance. The paper introduces approaches to therapeutic breathing exercises as an alternative to improve school performance, as well as the self-regulatory behavior, which is known to correlate with academic performance. The study was conducted in a school-wide pranayama program with positive outcomes. The intervention consisted of two breathing exercises, (1) deep breathing, and (2) alternate nostril breathing. It is a quantitative study spanning over a year with about 100 third graders was conducted using daily breathing exercises to investigate the impact of pranayama on academic performance. Significant cumulative gain-scores were found for students who practiced the approach.

Keywords: academic performance, pranayama, therapeutic breathing, yoga

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
2269 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya


Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
2268 Simulation Study of Enhanced Terahertz Radiation Generation by Two-Color Laser Plasma Interaction

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha


Terahertz (THz) radiation generation by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization and spectroscopic techniques. Due to non ionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser - plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the simulation study of the enhanced THz radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through magnetized plasma. The two laser pulses orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, terahertz radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
2267 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: bifurcation theory, phase portrait, magnetized electron-positron plasma, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2266 Electromagnetic Radiation Generation by Two-Color Sinusoidal Laser Pulses Propagating in Plasma

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha


Generation of the electromagnetic radiation oscillating at the frequencies in the terahertz range by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization, and spectroscopic techniques. Due to nonionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals, when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser-plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the study of the enhanced electromagnetic radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through the magnetized plasma. The two lasers pulse orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through the homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, electromagnetic radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2265 Training Isolated Respiration in Rehabilitation

Authors: Marketa Kotova, Jana Kolarova, Ludek Zalud, Petr Dobsak


A game for training of breath (TRABR) for continuous monitoring of pulmonary ventilation during the patients’ therapy focuses especially on monitoring of their ventilation processes. It is necessary to detect, monitor and differentiate abdominal and thoracic breathing during the therapy. It is a fun form of rehabilitation where the patient plays and also practicing isolated breathing. Finally the game to practice breath was designed to evaluate whether the patient uses two types of breathing or not.

Keywords: pulmonary ventilation, thoracic breathing, abdominal breathing, breath monitoring using pressure sensors, game TRABR TRAining of BReath)

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2264 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao


In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2263 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachaï


Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: InGaAsP, laser, quantum well, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2262 Bilateral Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex during Voluntary Regulated Breathing (Pranayama) Practices: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, Suhas Vinchurkar


Similar to neuroimaging findings through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessing regional cerebral blood oxygenation, the functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has also been used to assess hemodynamic responses in the imaged region of the brain. The present study assessed hemodynamic responses in terms of changes in oxygenation (HbO), deoxygenation (HbR) and total hemoglobin (THb) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilaterally, using fNIRS in 10 participants who performed three voluntary regulated breathing (pranayama) practices viz. (i) Left nostril breathing (LNB), (ii) Right nostril breathing (RNB); and (iii) Alternating nostril breathing (ANB) and compared with normal breathing as baseline (BS). For this, we used 64 channel NIRS system covering left and the right prefrontal cortex. The normal breathing kept as baseline (BS) measures as regressors in the investigation of hemodynamic responses when compared with LNB, RNB and ANB. In the results, we found greater oxygenation in contralateral side i.e., higher activation on the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during RNB, and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) during LNB, whereas ANB showed greater deoxygenation responses on both sides of PFC. Interestingly, LNB showed increased oxygenation on ipsilateral side i.e., lPFC but not during RNB. This suggests that voluntary regulated breathing produced an immediate effect not only on contralateral but ipsilateral sides of the brain as well. In conclusion, breathing practices are tightly coupled to cerebral rhythms of alternating cerebral hemispheric activity during particular nostril breathing. These results of the specific nostril breathing do not support previous findings of contralateral hemispheric improvement while left or right nostril breathing only.

Keywords: hemodynamic responses, brain, pranayama, voluntary regulated breathing practices, prefrontal cortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2261 Simulation for the Magnetized Plasma Compression Study

Authors: Victor V. Kuzenov, Sergei V. Ryzhkov


Ongoing experimental and theoretical studies on magneto-inertial confinement fusion (Angara, C-2, CJS-100, General Fusion, MagLIF, MAGPIE, MC-1, YG-1, Omega) and new constructing facilities (Baikal, C-2W, Z300 and Z800) require adequate modeling and description of the physical processes occurring in high-temperature dense plasma in a strong magnetic field. This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method, and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The computer simulation of the compression process of the magnetized target by the high-power laser pulse and the high-speed plasma jets is presented. The characteristic patterns of the two methods of the target compression are being analysed.

Keywords: magnetized target, magneto-inertial fusion, mathematical model, plasma and laser beams

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2260 Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models

Authors: Suren Chilingaryan


We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.

Keywords: quantum optics, quantum phase transition, cavity QED, circuit QED

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2259 Ion-Acoustic Double Layers in a Non-Thermal Electronegative Magnetized Plasma

Authors: J. K. Chawla, S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Ion-acoustic double layers have been studied in magnetized plasma. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (m-KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method is derived. It is found that for the selected set of parameters, the system supports rarefactive double layers depending upon the value of nonthermal parameters. It is also found that the magnetization affects only the width of the double layer. For a given set of parameter values, increases in the magnetization and the obliqueness angle (θ) between wave vector and magnetic field, affect the width of the double layers, however the amplitude of the double layers have no effect. An increase in the values of nonthermal parameter decreases the amplitude of the rarefactive double layer. The effect of the ion temperature ratio on the amplitude and width of the double layers are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: ion-acoustic double layers, magnetized electronegative plasma, reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2258 Smart Oxygen Deprivation Mask: An Improved Design with Biometric Feedback

Authors: Kevin V. Bui, Richard A. Claytor, Elizabeth M. Priolo, Weihui Li


Oxygen deprivation masks operate through the use of restricting valves as a means to reduce respiratory flow where flow is inversely proportional to the resistance applied. This produces the same effect as higher altitudes where lower pressure leads to reduced respiratory flow. Both increased resistance with restricting valves and reduce the pressure of higher altitudes make breathing difficultier and force breathing muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) working harder. The process exercises these muscles, improves their strength and results in overall better breathing efficiency. Currently, these oxygen deprivation masks are purely mechanical devices without any electronic sensor to monitor the breathing condition, thus not be able to provide feedback on the breathing effort nor to evaluate the lung function. That is part of the reason that these masks are mainly used for high-level athletes to mimic training in higher altitude conditions, not suitable for patients or customers. The design aims to improve the current method of oxygen deprivation mask to include a larger scope of patients and customers while providing quantitative biometric data that the current design lacks. This will be accomplished by integrating sensors into the mask’s breathing valves along with data acquisition and Bluetooth modules for signal processing and transmission. Early stages of the sensor mask will measure breathing rate as a function of changing the air pressure in the mask, with later iterations providing feedback on flow rate. Data regarding breathing rate will be prudent in determining whether training or therapy is improving breathing function and quantify this improvement.

Keywords: oxygen deprivation mask, lung function, spirometer, Bluetooth

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
2257 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana


Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2256 Influence of Magnetized Water on the Split Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: Justine Cyril E. Nunag, Nestor B. Sabado Jr., Jienne Chester M. Tolosa


Concrete has high compressive strength but a low-tension strength. The small tensile strength of concrete is regarded as its primary weakness, which is why it is typically reinforced with steel, a material that is resistant to tension. Even with steel, however, cracking can occur. In strengthening concrete, only a few researchers have modified the water to be used in a concrete mix. This study aims to compare the split tensile strength of normal structural concrete to concrete prepared with magnetic water and a quick setting admixture. In this context, magnetic water is defined as tap water that has undergone a magnetic process to become magnetized water. To test the hypothesis that magnetized concrete leads to higher split tensile strength, twenty concrete specimens were made. There were five groups, each with five samples, that were differentiated by the number of cycles (0, 50, 100, and 150). The data from the Universal Testing Machine's split tensile strength were then analyzed using various statistical models and tests to determine the significant effect of magnetized water. The result showed a moderate (+0.579) but still significant degree of correlation. The researchers also discovered that using magnetic water for 50 cycles did not result in a significant increase in the concrete's split tensile strength, which influenced the analysis of variance. These results suggest that a concrete mix containing magnetic water and a quick-setting admixture alters the typical split tensile strength of normal concrete. Magnetic water has a significant impact on concrete tensile strength. The hardness property of magnetic water influenced the split tensile strength of concrete. In addition, a higher number of cycles results in a strong water magnetism. The laboratory test results show that a higher cycle translates to a higher tensile strength.

Keywords: hardness property, magnetic water, quick-setting admixture, split tensile strength, universal testing machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2255 Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water and Its Effect on Water Salinity

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf


The influence of magnetic field on the structure of water and aqueous solutions are similar and can alter the physical and chemical properties of water-dispersed systems. With the application of magnetic field, hydration of salt ions and other impurities slides down and improve the possible technological characteristics of the water. Magnetic field can enhance the characteristic of water i.e. better salt solubility, kinetic changes in salt crystallization, accelerated coagulation, etc. Gulf countries are facing critical problem due to depletion of water resources and increasing food demands to cover the human needs; therefore water shortage is being increasingly accepted as a major limitation for increased agricultural production and food security. In arid and semi-arid regions sustainable agricultural development is influenced to a great extent by water quality that might be used economically and effectively in developing agriculture programs. In the present study, the possibility of using magnetized water to desalinate the soil is accounted for the enhanced dissolving capacity of the magnetized water. Magnetic field has been applied to treat brackish water. The study showed that the impact of magnetic field on saline water is sustained up to three hours (with and without shaking). These results suggest that even low magnetic field can decrease the electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids which are good for the removal of salinity from the irrigated land by using magnetized water.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, saline water, hardness of water, removal of salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
2254 Phase Synchronization of Skin Blood Flow Oscillations under Deep Controlled Breathing in Human

Authors: Arina V. Tankanag, Gennady V. Krasnikov, Nikolai K. Chemeris


The development of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow may occur by at least two mechanisms. The first mechanism is related to the change of venous pressure due to mechanical activity of lungs. This phenomenon is known as ‘respiratory pump’ and is one of the mechanisms of venous return of blood from the peripheral vessels to the heart. The second mechanism is related to the vasomotor reflexes controlled by the respiratory modulation of the activity of centers of the vegetative nervous system. Early high phase synchronization of respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin in healthy volunteers at rest was shown. The aim of the work was to study the effect of deep controlled breathing on the phase synchronization of skin blood flow oscillations. 29 normotensive non-smoking young women (18-25 years old) of the normal constitution without diagnosed pathologies of skin, cardiovascular and respiratory systems participated in the study. For each of the participants six recording sessions were carried out: first, at the spontaneous breathing rate; and the next five, in the regimes of controlled breathing with fixed breathing depth and different rates of enforced breathing regime. The following rates of controlled breathing regime were used: 0.25, 0.16, 0.10, 0.07 and 0.05 Hz. The breathing depth amounted to 40% of the maximal chest excursion. Blood perfusion was registered by laser flowmeter LAKK-02 (LAZMA, Russia) with two identical channels (wavelength 0.63 µm; emission power, 0.5 mW). The first probe was fastened to the palmar surface of the distal phalanx of left forefinger; the second probe was attached to the external surface of the left forearm near the wrist joint. These skin zones were chosen as zones with different dominant mechanisms of vascular tonus regulation. The degree of phase synchronization of the registered signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. The duration of all recording was 5 min. The sampling frequency of the signals was 16 Hz. The increasing of synchronization of the respiratory-dependent skin blood flow oscillations for all controlled breathing regimes was obtained. Since the formation of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow is mainly caused by the respiratory modulation of system blood pressure, the observed effects are most likely dependent on the breathing depth. It should be noted that with spontaneous breathing depth does not exceed 15% of the maximal chest excursion, while in the present study the breathing depth was 40%. Therefore it has been suggested that the observed significant increase of the phase synchronization of blood flow oscillations in our conditions is primarily due to an increase of breathing depth. This is due to the enhancement of both potential mechanisms of respiratory oscillation generation: venous pressure and sympathetic modulation of vascular tone.

Keywords: deep controlled breathing, peripheral blood flow oscillations, phase synchronization, wavelet phase coherence

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2253 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2252 Fuzzy Logic Based Sliding Mode Controller for a New Soft Switching Boost Converter

Authors: Azam Salimi, Majid Delshad


This paper presents a modified design of a sliding mode controller based on fuzzy logic for a New ZVThigh step up DC-DC Converter . Here a proportional - integral (PI)-type current mode control is employed and a sliding mode controller is designed utilizing fuzzy algorithm. Sliding mode controller guarantees robustness against all variations and fuzzy logic helps to reduce chattering phenomenon due to sliding controller, in that way efficiency increases and error, voltage and current ripples decreases. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB / SIMULINK. This model is tested under variations of input and reference voltages and it was found that in comparison with conventional sliding mode controllers they perform better.

Keywords: switching mode power supplies, DC-DC converters, sliding mode control, robustness, fuzzy control, current mode control, non-linear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
2251 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2250 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig


Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2249 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni


The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given.

Keywords: Bargmann functions, two-mode, zeros, harmonic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
2248 A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data

Authors: Tiee-Jian Wu, Chih-Yuan Hsu


Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.

Keywords: Box-Cox transform, density estimation, mode seeking, semiparametric method

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2247 Eye Diagram for a System of Highly Mode Coupled PMD/PDL Fiber

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, Liang Chen, Saeed Hadjifaradji


To evaluate the optical eye diagram due to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and chromatic dispersion (CD) for a system of highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section at any given optical pulse sequence we present an analytical modle. We found that with considering PDL and the polarization direction correlation between PMD and PDL, a system with highly mode coupled fiber with lumped section can have either higher or lower Q-factor than a highly mode coupled system with same root mean square PDL/PMD values. Also we noticed that a system of two highly mode coupled fibers connected together is not equivalent to a system of highly mode coupled fiber when fluctuation is considered

Keywords: polarization mode dispersion, polarization dependent loss, chromatic dispersion, optical eye diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
2246 Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Controller For Quadrotor UAV

Authors: Vahid Tabrizi, Reza GHasemi, Ahmadreza Vali


This paper presents robust nonlinear control law for a quadrotor UAV using fast terminal sliding mode control. Fast terminal sliding mode idea is used for introducing a nonlinear sliding variable that guarantees the finite time convergence in sliding phase. Then, in reaching phase for removing chattering and producing smooth control signal, continuous approximation idea is used. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against parameter uncertainty and has better performance than conventional sliding mode for controlling a quadrotor UAV.

Keywords: quadrotor UAV, fast terminal sliding mode, second order sliding mode t

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
2245 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang


In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2244 Sewage Induced Behavioural Responses in an Air-Breathing Fish, Pangasius pangasius

Authors: Sasikala Govindaraj, P. Palanisamy, G. M. Natarajan


Domestic sewage poses major threats to the aquatic environment in third world countries due to lack of technical and economic sources which can have significant impacts on fish. The tolerance limits to toxicants found in domestic effluents vary among species and their integrative effects may lead to reproductive failure and reduction of survival and growth of the more sensitive fish species. The mechanism of action of toxic substances upon various concentrations of sewage was taken aiming to evaluate locomotory, physiological, neurological and morbidity response of fish. The rapid biomonitoring assessment technique for qualitative evaluation of various industrial pollutants, behavioral responses of an air-breathing fish Pangasius pangasius were used as biomarkers for water quality assessment. The present investigation concluded that sewage is highly toxic to the fish and severely affects their physiology and behavior.

Keywords: air-breathing organs, behavioral, locomotory, morbidity, neurological, physiological, sewage

Procedia PDF Downloads 213