Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1981

Search results for: semi-arid regions

1981 Some Aspects of Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, Case Study of Western Iran

Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

Abstract:

Water resource management is of global significance as it plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of all nations. On account of the fact that Iran is situated in a highly pressurized belt in the world, precipitation is limited, so that the average annual precipitation in the country is about 250 mm, only about one third to one quarter of the world average for rainfall. Karkheh basin is located in the semiarid and arid regions of Western Iran, an area with severe water scarcity. 70 % of rainfall is directly evaporated. The potential annual evaporation of the southern and northern regions is 3,600 mm 1,800 mm, respectively. In this paper, Some aspects of water resources management for this region, the specifications of the Karkheh reservoir dam & hydroelectric power plant as the biggest dam in history of Iran with total volume of reservoir 7.3 Bm3 are illustrated. Also the situation of water availability in the basin, surface and groundwater potential are considered.

Keywords: Iran, water availability, water resources, Zagros

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
1980 Tillage System without Residue Retention Affects Soil Water and Photosynthesis of Plastic-Mulched Maize on the Semiarid

Authors: Shirley Lamptey, Lingling Li, Junhong Xie, Stephen Yeboah, Jeffrey. A Coulter

Abstract:

Water deficit is a threat to agricultural sustainability in semiarid Loess Plateau of China due to low and variable rainfall. Technologies to improve soil water content (SWC) are necessary for sustainable improvement in maize grain yield. The potential of plastic film mulch and reduced tillage to improve SWC has been reported in the Loess Plateau. However, there has been little research on how tillage management can be integrated with plastic mulch as an approach to improve SWC and maize photosynthesis. A three-year field experiment was conducted to investigate how tillage system influences SWC, photosynthetic performance, grain yield, and grain water use efficiency (WUEg) of plastic-mulched maize in a semiarid condition. Treatments were conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT), subsoiling (SS), and no-till (NT). Soil water content in the 0–30 cm depth with SS was 24, 31, and 13% greater at the flowering (R1), milking (R3), and physiological maturity (R6) stages of maize phenological development, respectively, compared to CT. These improvements in SWC were associated with increased leaf water potential (17%), net assimilation rate (41%), transpiration rate (54%), and stomatal conductance (42%), and decreased intercellular CO₂ concentration (15%) and stomatal limitation (20%) with SS compared to CT. Subsoiling used more water (9%) and increased grain yield by 21% compared to CT, thus enhancing WUEg by 11%. On average, reduced tillage systems performed better (SS > NT > RT > CT) for almost all parameters measured. These results show that SS is a viable option for increasing grain production of plastic-mulched maize in semiarid areas.

Keywords: conservation tillage, maize, plastic mulch, photosynthetic activities, water use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1979 Automatic Slider Design in Injection Moldings

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tran Anh Son

Abstract:

This study proposes an approach to determine the undercut regions and their releasing directions for slider design of complex parts represented by the file format of STL (STereoLithography). In order to delineate the border of undercut regions, orthogonal cutting planes are firstly employed to automatically find the inner loops of a part model. To discover the facets belonging to undercut regions, attributes are then assigned to the facets of the part model based on the topological relationship of adjacent facets of each inner loop. After that, the undercut regions are separated from other facets in the model. Through the recognized facets of the undercut regions, the concept of 'visibility map (V-map)' is further applied to determine feasible releasing directions for each of the undercut regions. The undercut regions having the same releasing direction are finally grouped to form a slider in the injection mold.

Keywords: solid model, STL data, injection mold design, visibility map

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1978 Study and Modeling of Flood Watershed in Arid and Semi Arid Regions of Algeria

Authors: Belagoune Fares, Boutoutaou Djamel

Abstract:

The study on floods in Algeria established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH) shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semiarid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm).The duration of the flood is of the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damage caused by these floods were still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid and arid south and Algeria. THERE are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2), highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2) and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2). The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2.Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc.) require the raw data which is often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas. This makes it very difficult to schedules and managers working in the field of hydraulic studies. The objective of this study and propose a methodology for determining flows in the absence of observations in the semi-arid and arid south eastern Algeria. The objective of the study is to propose a methodology for these areas of flood calculation for ungauged rivers.

Keywords: flood, watershed, specific flow, coefficient of variation, arid

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1977 The Use of a Geographical Information System in the Field of Irrigation (Moyen-Chéliff)

Authors: Benhenni Abdellaziz

Abstract:

Irrigation is a limiting factor for agricultural production and socio-economic development of many countries in arid and semiarid in the world. However, the sustainability of irrigation systems requires a rational management of the water resource that is becoming increasingly rare in these regions. The objective of this work is to apply a geographic information system (GIS) coupled to a model for calculating crop water requirements (CROPWATER) for the management of irrigation water in irrigated area and offer managers with an effective tool to better manage water resources in these areas. The application area of GIS is the irrigated perimeter of Western Middle Cheliff which is located in a semi-arid region (Middle Cheliff). The scope in question is a considerable agrarian dynamics and an increased need for irrigation of most crops.

Keywords: geographical information, irrigation, economical, use rational

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
1976 A Statistical Approach to Classification of Agricultural Regions

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

Turkey is a favorable country to produce a great variety of agricultural products because of her different geographic and climatic conditions which have been used to divide the country into four main and seven sub regions. This classification into seven regions traditionally has been used in order to data collection and publication especially related with agricultural production. Afterwards, nine agricultural regions were considered. Recently, the governmental body which is responsible of data collection and dissemination (Turkish Institute of Statistics-TIS) has used 12 classes which include 11 sub regions and Istanbul province. This study aims to evaluate these classification efforts based on the acreage of ten main crops in a ten years time period (1996-2005). The panel data grouped in 11 subregions has been evaluated by cluster and multivariate statistical methods. It was concluded that from the agricultural production point of view, it will be rather meaningful to consider three main and eight sub-agricultural regions throughout the country.

Keywords: agricultural region, factorial analysis, cluster analysis,

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1975 Location Quotients Model in Turkey’s Provinces and Nuts II Regions

Authors: Semih Sözer

Abstract:

One of the most common issues in economic systems is understanding characteristics of economic activities in cities and regions. Although there are critics to economic base models in conceptual and empirical aspects, these models are useful tools to examining the economic structure of a nation, regions or cities. This paper uses one of the methodologies of economic base models namely the location quotients model. Data for this model includes employment numbers of provinces and NUTS II regions in Turkey. Time series of data covers the years of 1990, 2000, 2003, and 2009. Aim of this study is finding which sectors are export-base and which sectors are import-base in provinces and regions. Model results show that big provinces or powerful regions (population, size etc.) mostly have basic sectors in their economic system. However, interesting facts came from different sectors in different provinces and regions in the model results.

Keywords: economic base, location quotients model, regional economics, regional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1974 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise

Abstract:

Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: soil, carbon storage, acidity, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
1973 Characterizing Multivariate Thresholds in Industrial Engineering

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

Abstract:

This paper highlights some of the normative issues that might result by setting independent thresholds in risk analyses and particularly with safety regions. A second objective is to explain how such regions can be specified appropriately in a meaningful way. We start with a review of the importance of setting deterministic trade-offs among target requirements. We then show how to determine safety regions for risk analysis appropriately using utility functions.

Keywords: decision analysis, thresholds, risk, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1972 Climate Change and Rural-Urban Migration in Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Linda Márcia Mendes Delazeri, Dênis Antônio Da Cunha

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the evidence that human activities have altered the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have become stronger, indicating that this accumulation is the most likely cause of climate change observed so far. The risks associated with climate change, although uncertain, have the potential to increase social vulnerability, exacerbating existing socioeconomic challenges. Developing countries are potentially the most affected by climate change, since they have less potential to adapt and are those most dependent on agricultural activities, one of the sectors in which the major negative impacts are expected. In Brazil, specifically, it is expected that the localities which form the semiarid region are among the most affected, due to existing irregularity in rainfall and high temperatures, in addition to economic and social factors endemic to the region. Given the strategic limitations to handle the environmental shocks caused by climate change, an alternative adopted in response to these shocks is migration. Understanding the specific features of migration flows, such as duration, destination and composition is essential to understand the impacts of migration on origin and destination locations and to develop appropriate policies. Thus, this study aims to examine whether climatic factors have contributed to rural-urban migration in semiarid municipalities in the recent past and how these migration flows will be affected by future scenarios of climate change. The study was based on microeconomic theory of utility maximization, in which, to decide to leave the countryside and move on to the urban area, the individual seeks to maximize its utility. Analytically, we estimated an econometric model using the modeling of Fixed Effects and the results confirmed the expectation that climate drivers are crucial for the occurrence of the rural-urban migration. Also, other drivers of the migration process, as economic, social and demographic factors were also important. Additionally, predictions about the rural-urban migration motivated by variations in temperature and precipitation in the climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5 were made for the periods 2016-2035 and 2046-2065, defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The results indicate that there will be increased rural-urban migration in the semiarid region in both scenarios and in both periods. In general, the results of this study reinforce the need for formulations of public policies to avoid migration for climatic reasons, such as policies that give support to the productive activities generating income in rural areas. By providing greater incentives for family agriculture and expanding sources of credit for the farmer, it will have a better position to face climate adversities and to settle in rural areas. Ultimately, if migration becomes necessary, there must be the adoption of policies that seek an organized and planned development of urban areas, considering migration as an adaptation strategy to adverse climate effects. Thus, policies that act to absorb migrants in urban areas and ensure that they have access to basic services offered to the urban population would contribute to the social costs reduction of climate variability.

Keywords: climate change, migration, rural productivity, semiarid region

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1971 Mixed Effects Models for Short-Term Load Forecasting for the Spanish Regions: Castilla-Leon, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalucia

Authors: C. Senabre, S. Valero, M. Lopez, E. Velasco, M. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper focuses on an application of linear mixed models to short-term load forecasting. The challenge of this research is to improve a currently working model at the Spanish Transport System Operator, programmed by us, and based on linear autoregressive techniques and neural networks. The forecasting system currently forecasts each of the regions within the Spanish grid separately, even though the behavior of the load in each region is affected by the same factors in a similar way. A load forecasting system has been verified in this work by using the real data from a utility. In this research it has been used an integration of several regions into a linear mixed model as starting point to obtain the information from other regions. Firstly, the systems to learn general behaviors present in all regions, and secondly, it is identified individual deviation in each regions. The technique can be especially useful when modeling the effect of special days with scarce information from the past. The three most relevant regions of the system have been used to test the model, focusing on special day and improving the performance of both currently working models used as benchmark. A range of comparisons with different forecasting models has been conducted. The forecasting results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, mixed effects models, neural networks, mixed effects models

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
1970 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1969 Thermal Regions for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Route Planning

Authors: Resul Fikir

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) become indispensable parts of modern air power as force multiplier. One of the main advantages of UAS is long endurance. UAS have to take extra payloads to accomplish different missions but these payloads decrease endurance of aircraft because of increasing drag. There are continuing researches to increase the capability of UAS. There are some vertical thermal air currents, which can cause climb and increase endurance, in nature. Birds and gliders use thermals to gain altitude with no effort. UAS have wide wing which can use of thermals like birds and gliders. Thermal regions, which is area of 2000-3000 meter (1 NM), exist all around the world. It is free and clean source. This study analyses if thermal regions can be adopted and implemented as an assistant tool for UAS route planning. First and second part of study will contain information about the thermal regions and current applications about UAS in aviation and climbing performance with a real example. Continuing parts will analyze the contribution of thermal regions to UAS endurance. Contribution is important because planning declaration of UAS navigation rules will be in 2015.

Keywords: airways, thermals, UAS, UAS roadmap

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1968 The Usage of Thermal Regions as a Air Navigation Rule for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Authors: Resul Fikir

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) become indispensable parts of modern airpower as force multiplier .One of the main advantages of UAS is long endurance. UAS have to take extra payloads to accomplish different missions but these payloads decrease endurance of aircraft because of increasing drug. There are continuing researches to increase the capability of UAS. There are some vertical thermal air currents, which can cause climb and increase endurance, in nature. Birds and gliders use thermals to gain altitude with no effort. UAS have wide wing which can use of thermals like birds and gliders. Thermal regions, which is area of 2-3 NM, exist all around the world. It is free and clean source. This study analyses if thermal regions can be adopted and implemented as an assistant tool for UAS route planning. First and second part of study will contain information about the thermal regions and current applications about UAS in aviation and climbing performance with a real example. Continuing parts will analyze the contribution of thermal regions to UAS endurance. Contribution is important because planning declaration of UAS navigation rules will be in 2015.

Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, Air4All, thermals, gliders

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1967 A Systematic Review on Assistive Technology Robotics in Lower and Middle-Income Settings

Authors: Sumudu Sameera Perera Kimmantudawage, Chapal Khasnabis

Abstract:

Technology is changing at a rapid rate, with innovations in robotics being hailed and tested in countries such as Japan, the United States and Australia, however the conversation in a public health context is stagnant. While obvious barriers to robotics use in low and middle-income countries and regions exist, the avoidance of attempting to address these regions of the world may potentially lead to an ever-increasing divide between those of high income countries and those of less. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the number of projects involving research, development and testing of robotics considered low and middle-income regions. Major findings indicate that an overwhelmingly significant number of projects failed to consider low and middle-income countries or regions. These results are unsurprising however alarming, as bridging the divide is an important step forward in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It is hoped that this research would spawn future robotics research that focusses on lower and middle-income regions.

Keywords: assistive technology, health equality, robotics, socioeconomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1966 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Innovation of Firms in Metropolitan Regions: The Case of Mashhad Metropolitan Region, Iran

Authors: Hashem Dadashpoor, Sadegh Saeidi Shirvan

Abstract:

While with the evolution of the economy towards a knowledge-based economy, innovation is a requirement for metropolitan regions, the adoption of an open innovation strategy is an option and a requirement for many industrial firms in these regions. Studies show that investing in research and development units cannot alone increase innovation. Within the framework of the theory of learning regions, this gap, which scholars call it the ‘innovation gap’, is filled with regional features of firms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors affecting the open innovation of firms in metropolitan regions, and it searches for these in territorial innovation models and, in particular, the theory of learning regions. In the next step, the effect of identified factors which is considered as regional learning factors in this research is analyzed on the innovation of sample firms by SPSS software using multiple linear regression. The case study of this research is constituted of industrial enterprises from two groups of food industry and auto parts in Toos industrial town in Mashhad metropolitan region. For data gathering of this research, interviews were conducted with managers of industrial firms using structured questionnaires. Based on this study, the effect of factors such as size of firms, inter-firm competition, the use of local labor force and institutional infrastructures were significant in the innovation of the firms studied, and 44% of the changes in the firms’ innovation occurred as a result of the change in these factors.

Keywords: regional knowledge networks, learning regions, interactive learning, innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1965 Earthquake Classification in Molluca Collision Zone Using Conventional Statistical Methods

Authors: H. J. Wattimanela, U. S. Passaribu, A. N. T. Puspito, S. W. Indratno

Abstract:

Molluca Collision Zone is located at the junction of the Eurasian plate, Australian, Pacific, and the Philippines. Between the Sangihe arc, west of the collision zone, and to the east of Halmahera arc is active collision and convex toward the Molluca Sea. This research will analyze the behavior of earthquake occurrence in Molluca Collision Zone related to the distributions of an earthquake in each partition regions, determining the type of distribution of a occurrence earthquake of partition regions, and the mean occurrence of earthquakes each partition regions, and the correlation between the partitions region. We calculate number of earthquakes using partition method and its behavioral using conventional statistical methods. The data used is the data type of shallow earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 4 SR for the period 1964-2013 in the Molluca Collision Zone. From the results, we can classify partitioned regions based on the correlation into two classes: strong and very strong. This classification can be used for early warning system in disaster management.

Keywords: molluca collision zone, partition regions, conventional statistical methods, earthquakes, classifications, disaster management

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1964 Thickness Dependence of AC Conductivity in Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films

Authors: S. Yakut, D. Deger, K. Ulutas, D. Bozoglu

Abstract:

Plasma poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films were deposited between Aluminum (Al) electrodes on glass substrates by plasma assisted physical vapor deposition (PAPVD). The deposition was operated inside Argon plasma under 10⁻³ Torr and the thicknesses of samples were determined as 20, 100, 250, 500 nm. The plasma was produced at 5 W by magnetron connected to RF power supply. The capacitance C and dielectric loss factor tan δ were measured by Novovontrol Alpha-A high frequency empedance analyzer at freqquency and temperature intervals of 0,1 Hz and 1MHz, 193-353K, respectively. AC conductivity was derived from these values. AC conductivity results exhibited three different conductivity regions except for 20 nm. These regions can be classified as low, mid and high frequency regions. Low frequency region is observed at around 10 Hz and 300 K while mid frequency region is observed at around 1 kHz and 300 K. The last one, high frequency region, is observed at around 1 kHz and 200 K. There are some coinciding definitions for conduction regions, because these regions shift depending on temperature. Low frequency region behaves as DC-like conductivity while mid and high frequency regions show conductivities corresponding to mechanisms such as classical hopping, tunneling, etc. which are observed for amorphous materials. Unlike other thicknesses, for 20 nm sample low frequency region can not be detected in the investigated freuency range. It is thought that this is arised because of the presence of dead layer behavior.

Keywords: plasma polymers, dead layer, dielectric spectroscopy, AC conductivity

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1963 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Authors: Emna Bahri Hammami, Zammouri Mounira, Tarhouni Jamila

Abstract:

The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously.

Keywords: pumping, depletion, groundwater modeling system GMS, Nadhour Saouaf

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1962 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1961 DNA-Based Analysis of Gut Content of Zygoribatula sp (Acari: Oribatida) and Scheloribates sp (Acari: Oribatida), under the Canopy of Prosopis Laevigata, in a Semiarid Land

Authors: Daniel Isaac Sanchez Chavez, Salvador Rodríguez Zaragoza, Patricia Velez Aguilar

Abstract:

In arid and semi-arid regions, plants are essential in the functional activity and productivity, modifying the microclimatic conditions of their environment, which allows many organisms to grow under them. Within these organisms, oribatid mites play a key role in reintegrating nutrients into the soil through the consumption of soil fungi. However, oribatid mites feed on a vast array of fungal species, which is likely to have strong impacts on their population dynamics and their environment. So, in this study, the aim was to determine the gut content of the abundant oribatid mites Zygoribatula sp and Scheloribates sp, under the canopy of the bush P. laevigata in a semi-arid zone through DNA-based analysis. The results showed the presence in the gut of both mites of different fungal taxa. Fungi, such as Aspergillus sp and Mortierella sp, probably served as a food despite the production of deterrent compounds or structures from both fungal species. Saccharomyces sp might serve as well as a food source; however, it might be part of their microbial endosymbionts. On the other hand, the presence of Beauveria sp indicates a probable pathogenicity interaction, instead of fungal consumption, since this fungus is known to be entomopathogenic. Finally, the results might indicate a feeding preference to certain soil fungi according to diverse features from both taxa.

Keywords: microenvironment, endosymbionts, Oribatida, fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1960 Preserved Relative Differences between Regions of Different Thermal Scans

Authors: Tahir Majeed, Michael Handschuh, René Meier

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis patients have swelling and pain at the joints of the hand. The regions where the patient feels pain also show increased body temperature. Thermal cameras can be used to detect the rise in temperature of the affected regions. To monitor the disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis patients, they must visit the clinic regularly for scanning and examination. After scanning and evaluation, the dosage of the medicine is regulated accordingly. To monitor the disease progression over time, the correlation between the images between different visits must be established. It has been observed that by using low-cost thermal cameras, the thermal measurements do not remain the same over time, even within a single scanning. In some situations, temperatures can vary as much as 2°C within the same scanning sequence. In this paper, it has been shown that although the absolute temperature varies over time, the relative difference between the different regions remains similar. Results have been computed over four scanning sequences and are presented.

Keywords: relative thermal difference, rheumatoid arthritis, thermal imaging, thermal sensors

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1959 A GIS-Based Study on Geographical Divisions of Sustainable Human Settlements in China

Authors: Wu Yiqun, Weng Jiantao

Abstract:

The human settlements of China are picked up from the land use vector map by interpreting the Thematic Map of 2014. This paper established the sustainable human settlements geographical division evaluation system and division model using GIS. The results show that: The density of human residential areas in China is different, and the density of sustainable human areas is higher, and the west is lower than that in the West. The regional differences of sustainable human settlements are obvious: the north is larger than that the south, the plain regions are larger than those of the hilly regions, and the developed regions are larger than the economically developed regions. The geographical distribution of the sustainable human settlements is measured by the degree of porosity. The degree of porosity correlates with the sustainable human settlement density. In the area where the sustainable human settlement density is high the porosity is low, the distribution is even and the gap between the settlements is low.

Keywords: GIS, geographical division, sustainable human settlements, China

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1958 Structural and Microstructural Investigation into Causes of Rail Squat Defects and Their Correlation with White Etching Layers

Authors: A. Al-Juboori, D. Wexler, H. Li, H. Zhu, C. Lu, A. McCusker, J. McLeod, S. Pannila, Z. Wang

Abstract:

Squats are a type railhead defect related to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage and are considered serious problem affecting a wide range of railway networks across the world. Squats can lead to partial or complete rail failure. Formation mechanics of squats on the surface of rail steel is still a matter of debate. In this work, structural and microstructural observations from ex-service damaged rail both confirms the phases present in white etching layer (WEL) regions and relationship between cracking in WEL and squat defect formation. XRD synchrotron results obtained from the top surfaces of rail regions containing both WEL and squat defects reveal that these regions contain both martensite and retained austenite. Microstructural analysis of these regions revealed the occurrence cracks extending from WEL down into the rail through the squat region. These findings obtained from field rail specimen support the view that WEL contains regions of austenite and martensitic transformation product, and that cracks in this brittle surface layer propagate deeper into the rail as squats originate and grow.

Keywords: squat, white etching layer, rolling contact fatigue, synchrotron diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1957 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga

Abstract:

In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.

Keywords: aroma, honey, semiarid, stingless, volatiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1956 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung

Abstract:

This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock production

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1955 A Comparative Study of Innovative Regions in the World Based on the Theory of Innovation Ecosystem: Cases of the Silicon Valley, Cambridge, Tsukuba and Zhongguancun

Authors: Xinlan Zhang, Dandong Ge, Bingying Liu, Haoyang Liang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of technology and urbanization, innovation has become an important driving force for urban development. Since the late 20th Century, a number of cities and regions have emerged in the world with innovation as the main driving force, and many of them are still the most important innovation centers in the world. Based on the perspective of innovation ecosystem theory, this paper compares Silicon Valley in the United States, Cambridge in the United Kingdom, Tsukuba in Japan and Zhongguancun in China to explore the reasons for the success of innovative regions and their respective characteristics, hoping to provide a reference for the development of other innovative cities. The main conclusions of this study are the following; firstly, different countries have different social backgrounds. The development model of innovative regions is closely related to the regional backgrounds. Secondly, the market force and the government power have important significance for the development of the innovation regions. The influence of the government power in the early stage of development is great, and in the latter stage, development is dominated by the market force. In addition, the self-organizing ability of the region has a great impact on the innovation ability of the region. Strong self-organizing ability is conducive to the development of innovation economy.

Keywords: contrastive study, development model, innovation ecosystem, innovative regions

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1954 Hull Detection from Handwritten Digit Image

Authors: Sriraman Kothuri, Komal Teja Mattupalli

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm for recognizing hulls in a hand written digits. This is an extension to the work on “Digit Recognition Using Freeman Chain code”. In order to find out the hulls in a user given digit it is necessary to follow three steps. Those are pre-processing, Boundary Extraction and at last apply the Hull Detection system in a way to attain the better results. The detection of Hull Regions is mainly intended to increase the machine learning capability in detection of characters or digits. This can also extend this in order to get the hull regions and their intensities in Black Holes in Space Exploration.

Keywords: chain code, machine learning, hull regions, hull recognition system, SASK algorithm

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1953 Local Gambling Attitudes, Corporate R&D Investment and Long-Term Financial Performance

Authors: Hong Fan, Lifang Gao, Feng Zhan

Abstract:

This paper examines the influence of local gambling attitudes on a firm's long-term financial performance. Firms located in gambling-prone regions may be more willing to take risks, thus spending more on innovative projects. However, firms in such regions may also be likely to choose projects impulsively and allocate resources inefficiently. By studying Chinese publicly listed firms from 2010 to 2017, we find that firms in more gambling-prone regions invest more in R&D. Both local gambling attitudes and firms’ R&D spending are positively associated with firms’ long-term financial performance. More importantly, our study reveals that the positive impact of R&D spending on firms’ long-term financial performance is weakened by gambling-friendly attitudes, probably because firms in gambling-prone regions are more likely to overinvest in risky projects. This effect is stronger for larger firms, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), firms with more government subsidies, and firms with weaker internal control.

Keywords: regional gambling attitudes, long-term financial performance, R&D, risk, local bias

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1952 The Quality of Economic Growth Regency and Cities in West Java Province: Inclusive Economic Growth

Authors: Fryanto Anugrah Rhamdhani Rhamdhani, Hana Riana Permatasari

Abstract:

The aim of this study analyzes the inclusive of economic growth and analyzes the inclusive of economic growth determinant in regency and city (West Java Province). The background this study Economic Growth can do not afford to reduce poverty, Disparity and expand The Workforce. Referring Central Bureau Of Statistic West Java Province report in 2015 recorded only 5 regions able reduce poverty, 3 regions able reduce Gini Ratio and 7 regions able Workforce Absorption, meanwhile, 11 regions was improved Economic Growth. The Inclusive of Economic Growth definition based on various literature means the quality Economic Growth able reduce Poverty, Gini Ratio, and Workforce absorption. This study adopted the measurement Inclusive Economic of Growth Klassen and analyzes factor in Term Reducing Poverty, Gini Ratio, and the workforce Absorption. Data used panels data composite time series and cross-section including 25 regency and cities regions from Central Bureau Of Statistic West Java Province during 2014-2015. As a result, the measurement inclusive economic of growth Klassen 2014-2015 from 25 regency and cities shows all region does not inclusive reducing Poverty, only 2 regions able reduce Gini Ratio and 3 regions able increase Workforce absorption. Different from the result the measurement Inclusive Economic of Growth for workforce absorption, several regions shows a negative coefficient indicates Economic Growth decline Workforce absorption. The outcome of this study analyzes factor of Inclusive economic of Growth, so that give recommendations for government achieve inclusive economic of growth toward Sustainable Economic. Can be Concluded above low-quality Economic Growth, that due to all region does not inclusive Economic of Growth.

Keywords: inclusive economic growth, Gini ratio, poverty, workforce

Procedia PDF Downloads 172