Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21291

Search results for: economical analysis

21291 Economical Dependency Evolution and Complexity

Authors: Allé Dieng, Mamadou Bousso, Latif Dramani


The purpose of this work is to show the complexity behind economical interrelations in a country and provide a linear dynamic model of economical dependency evolution in a country. The model is based on National Transfer Account which is one of the most robust methodology developed in order to measure a level of demographic dividend captured in a country. It is built upon three major factors: demography, economical dependency and migration. The established mathematical model has been simulated using Netlogo software. The innovation of this study is in describing economical dependency as a complex system and simulating using mathematical equation the evolution of the two populations: the economical dependent and the non-economical dependent as defined in the National Transfer Account methodology. It also allows us to see the interactions and behaviors of both populations. The model can track individual characteristics and look at the effect of birth and death rates on the evolution of these two populations. The developed model is useful to understand how demographic and economic phenomenon are related

Keywords: ABM, demographic dividend, National Transfer Accounts (NTA), ODE

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21290 An Analysis of the Five Most Used Numerals and a Proposal for the Adoption of a Universally Acceptable Numeral (UAN)

Authors: Mufutau Ayinla Abdul-Yakeen


An analysis of the five most used numerals and a proposal for the adoption of a Universally Acceptable Numerals (UAN), came up as a result of the researchers inquisitiveses of the need for a set of numerals that is universally accepted. The researcher sought for the meaning of the first letter, “Nun”, “ن”, of the first verse of Suratul-Kalam (Chapter of the Pen), the Sixty-Eighth Chapter of the Holy Qur'an. It was observed that there was no universally accepted, economical, explainable, linkable and consistent set of numerals used by all scientists up till the moment of making this enquiry. As a theoretical paper, explanatory method is used to review five of the most used numerals (Tally Marks, Roman Figure, Hindu-Arabic, Arabic, and Chinese) and the urgent need for a universally accepted, economical, explainable, linkable and consistent set of numerals arises. The study discovers: ., I, \, _, L, U, =, C, O, 9, and 1.; to be used as numeral 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively; as a set of universally acceptable, economical, explainable, linkable, sustainable, convertible and consistent set of numerals that originates from Islam. They can be called Islameconumerals or UAN. With UAN, everything dropped, written, drawn and/or scribbled has meaning(s) as postulated by the first verse of Qur'an 68 and everyone can easily document all figures within the shortest period. It is suggested that there should be a discipline called Numeralnomics (Study of optimum utilization of Numerals) and everybody should start using the UAN, now, in order in know their strengths and weaknesses so as to suggest a better and acceptable set of numerals for the interested readers. Similarly study can be conducted for the alphabets.

Keywords: acceptable, economical, explainable, Islameconumerals, numeralnomics

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21289 Technical and Economical Evaluation of Electricity Generation and Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Energy

Authors: A. Hany A. Khater, G. M. Mostafa, M. R. Badawy


The techno-economic analysis of the nuclear desalination is a very important tool that enables studying of the mutual effects between the nuclear power plant and the coupled desalination plant under different operating conditions, and hence investigating the feasibility of safe and economical production of potable water. For this purpose, a comprehensive model for both technical and economic performance evaluation of the nuclear desalination has been prepared. The developed model has the capability to be used in performing a parametric study for the performance measuring parameters of the nuclear desalination system. Also a sensitivity analysis of varying important factors such as interest/discount rate, power plant availability, fossil fuel prices, purchased electricity price, nuclear fuel cost, and specific base cost for both power and water plant has been conducted.

Keywords: uclear desalination, PWR, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, RO

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21288 Comparison of Steel and Composite Analysis of a Multi-Storey Building

Authors: Çiğdem Avcı Karataş


Mitigation of structural damage caused by earthquake and reduction of fatality is one of the main concerns of engineers in seismic prone zones of the world. To achieve this aim many technologies have been developed in the last decades and applied in construction and retrofit of structures. On the one hand Turkey is well-known a country of high level of seismicity; on the other hand steel-composite structures appear competitive today in this country by comparison with other types of structures, for example only-steel or concrete structures. Composite construction is the dominant form of construction for the multi-storey building sector. The reason why composite construction is often so good can be expressed in one simple way - concrete is good in compression and steel is good in tension. By joining the two materials together structurally these strengths can be exploited to result in a highly efficient design. The reduced self-weight of composite elements has a knock-on effect by reducing the forces in those elements supporting them, including the foundations. The floor depth reductions that can be achieved using composite construction can also provide significant benefits in terms of the costs of services and the building envelope. The scope of this paper covers analysis, materials take-off, cost analysis and economic comparisons of a multi-storey building with composite and steel frames. The aim of this work is to show that designing load carrying systems as composite is more economical than designing as steel. Design of the nine stories building which is under consideration is done according to the regulation of the 2007, Turkish Earthquake Code and by using static and dynamic analysis methods. For the analyses of the steel and composite systems, plastic analysis methods have been used and whereas steel system analyses have been checked in compliance with EC3 and composite system analyses have been checked in compliance with EC4. At the end of the comparisons, it is revealed that composite load carrying systems analysis is more economical than the steel load carrying systems analysis considering the materials to be used in the load carrying system and the workmanship to be spent for this job.

Keywords: composite analysis, earthquake, steel, multi-storey building

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21287 Study of Influencing Factors of Shrinking Cities Based on Factor Analysis: The Example of Halle Germany

Authors: Fang Yao, Minglei Chen


City shrinkage is one of the thorny problems that many European cities have to face with nowadays. It is mainly expressed as the decrease of population in these cities. Eastern Germany is one of the pioneers of European shrinking cities with long shrinking history. Selecting one representative shrinking city Halle(Saale) in eastern Germany as research objective, collecting and investigating nearly 20 years (1993-2010) municipal data after the reunification of Germany. These data based on five dimensions, which are demographic, economic, social, spatial and environmental and total 16 eligible variables. Using Factor Analysis to dealing with these variables in order to assess the most important factors affecting shrinking Halle. The Factor Analysis shows that there are three main factors determine the shrinkage of Halle, namely demographical and economical factor, social stability factor, and city vitality factor. Three factors acts at different period of Halle’s shrinkage: from 1993 to 1997 the demographical and economical factor played an important role; from 1997 to 2004 the social stability is significant to city shrinkage; since 2005 city vitality factors determines the shrinkage of Halle. In recent years, the shrinkage in Halle mitigates that shows the sign of growing population. Thus the city Halle should focus on attaching more importance on the city vitality factor to prevent the city from shrinkage. Meanwhile, the city should possess a positive perspective that to shift the growth-oriented development to tap the potential of shrinking cities. This method is expected to apply to further research and other shrinking cities.

Keywords: demography, factor analysis, Halle, shrinking cities

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21286 Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Hatami


This experiment was included two cultivars i.e. Habbit and L17 (Main factor) with six fertilizer treatments i.e. control, seed inoculated with rhyzobium, base nitrogen + top-dress urea at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed inoculated with rhyzobium + top-dress nitrogen at R2 stage, seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage (sub factors ), as split-plot on the basis of RCBD with 3 replications at 2014. Treatment fertilizer of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top- dress humax at R2 stage and base nitrogen + top-dress urea in R2 stage had a significant superiority than the other fertilizer treatment in biological yield. L17 and Habbit with base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and yield economical 5600 and 5767 kg/ha respectively, showed the most economical yield and Habbit cultivar with control and economical yield 3085 kg/ha showed the least economical yield among all the treatments. Results showed that fertilizer treatment of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and Habbit variety were suitable in this study.

Keywords: soybean, humax, rhyzobium, habbit

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21285 Comparative Study of R.C.C. Steel and Concrete Building

Authors: Mahesh Suresh Kumawat


Steel concrete composite construction means the concrete slab is connected to the steel beam with the help of shear connectors so that they act as a single unit. In the present work, steel concrete composite with RCC options are considered for comparative study of G+9 story commercial building which is situated in earthquake zone-III and for earthquake loading, the provisions of IS: 1893(Part1)-2002 is considered. A three dimensional modeling and analysis of the structure are carried out with the help of SAP 2000 software. Equivalent Static Method of Analysis and Response spectrum analysis method are used for the analysis of both Composite & R.C.C. structures. The results are compared and it was found that composite structure is more economical.

Keywords: composite beam, column, RCC column, RCC beam, shear connector, SAP 2000 software

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21284 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Aaron Aboshio, Jianqiao Ye


In this study, static and dynamic responses of a typical reinforced concrete flat slab, designed to British Standard (BS 8110, 1997) and under self and live loadings for dance halls are reported. Linear perturbation analysis using finite element method was employed for modal, impulse loading and frequency response analyses of the slab under the aforementioned loading condition. Results from the static and dynamic analyses, comprising of the slab fundamental frequencies and mode shapes, dynamic amplification factor, maximum deflection, stress distributions among other valuable outcomes are presented and discussed. These were gauged with the limiting provisions in the design code with a view to optimise the structure and ensure both adequate strength and economical section for large clear span slabs. This is necessary owing to the continued increase in cost of erecting building structures and the squeeze on public finance globally.

Keywords: economical design, finite element method, modal dynamics, reinforced concrete, slab

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21283 Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design

Authors: Arash Rafiei, Carroll Moore


Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.

Keywords: titanium leaching, optimization, experimental design, performance analysis

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21282 Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Fatih Iscan, Ceren Yagci


Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization are known as the most important factors of environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes are also within the most important environment problems. One of the main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS has the ability of imitating necessary economical, environmental and political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for engineering/economical factors for site selection of landfill areas and using GIS for an decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/TURKEY city, Güzelyurt district practice.

Keywords: GIS, landfill, solid waste, spatial analysis

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21281 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan


In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

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21280 A Vision Making Exercise for Twente Region; Development and Assesment

Authors: Gelareh Ghaderi


the overall objective of this study is to develop two alternative plans of spatial and infrastructural development for the Netwerkstad Twente (Twente region) until 2040 and to assess the impacts of those two alternative plans. This region is located on the eastern border of the Netherlands, and it comprises of five municipalities. Based on the strengths and opportunities of the five municipalities of the Netwerkstad Twente, and in order develop the region internationally, strengthen the job market and retain skilled and knowledgeable young population, two alternative visions have been developed; environmental oriented vision, and economical oriented vision. Environmental oriented vision is based mostly on preserving beautiful landscapes. Twente would be recognized as an educational center, driven by green technologies and environment-friendly economy. Market-oriented vision is based on attracting and developing different economic activities in the region based on visions of the five cities of Netwerkstad Twente, in order to improve the competitiveness of the region in national and international scale. On the basis of the two developed visions and strategies for achieving the visions, land use and infrastructural development are modeled and assessed. Based on the SWOT analysis, criteria were formulated and employed in modeling the two contrasting land use visions by the year 2040. Land use modeling consists of determination of future land use demand, assessment of suitability land (Suitability analysis), and allocation of land uses on suitable land. Suitability analysis aims to determine the available supply of land for future development as well as assessing their suitability for specific type of land uses on the basis of the formulated set of criteria. Suitability analysis was operated using CommunityViz, a Planning Support System application for spatially explicit land suitability and allocation. Netwerkstad Twente has highly developed transportation infrastructure, consists of highways network, national road network, regional road network, street network, local road network, railway network and bike-path network. Based on the assumptions of speed limitations on different types of roads provided, infrastructure accessibility level of predicted land use parcels by four different transport modes is investigated. For evaluation of the two development scenarios, the Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is used. The first step was to determine criteria used for evaluation of each vision. All factors were categorized as economical, ecological and social. Results of Multi-criteria Evaluation show that Environmental oriented cities scenario has higher overall score. Environment-oriented scenario has impressive scores in relation to economical and ecological factors. This is due to the fact that a large percentage of housing tends towards compact housing. Twente region has immense potential, and the success of this project will define the Eastern part of The Netherlands and create a real competitive local economy with innovations and attractive environment as its backbone.

Keywords: economical oriented vision, environmental oriented vision, infrastructure, land use, multi criteria assesment, vision

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21279 Analysis of Determinate and Indeterminate Structures: Applications of Non-Economic Structure

Authors: Toral Khalpada, Kanhai Joshi


Generally, constructions of structures built in India are indeterminate structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of a structure that is proved to be non-economical. The testing practice involves the application of different types of loads on both, determinate and indeterminate structure by computing it on a software system named Staad and also inspecting them practically on the construction site, analyzing the most efficient structure and diagnosing the utilization of the structure which is not so beneficial as compared to other. Redundant structures (indeterminate structure) are found to be more reasonable. All types of loads were applied on the beams of both determinate and indeterminate structures parallelly on the software and the same was done on the site practically which proved that maximum stresses in statically indeterminate structures are generally lower than those in comparable determinate structures. These structures are found to have higher stiffness resulting in lesser deformations so indeterminate structures are economical and are better than determinate structures to use for construction. On the other hand, statically determinate structures have the benefit of not producing stresses because of temperature changes. Therefore, our study tells that indeterminate structure is more beneficial but determinate structure also has used as it can be used in many areas; it can be used for the construction of two hinged arch bridges where two supports are sufficient and where there is no need for expensive indeterminate structure. Further investigation is needed to contrive more implementation of the determinate structure.

Keywords: construction, determinate structure, indeterminate structure, stress

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21278 Landfill Site Selection Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis A Case Study for Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi

Authors: Javeria Arain, Saad Malik


The management of solid waste is a crucial and essential aspect of urban environmental management especially in a city with an ever increasing population such as Karachi. The total amount of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e Iqbal town on average is 444.48 tons per day and landfill sites are a widely accepted solution for final disposal of this waste. However, an improperly selected site can have immense environmental, economical and ecological impacts. To select an appropriate landfill site a number of factors should be kept into consideration to minimize the potential hazards of solid waste. The purpose of this research is to analyse the study area for the construction of an appropriate landfill site for disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e-Iqbal Town by using geospatial techniques considering hydrological, geological, social and geomorphological factors. This was achieved using analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy analysis as a decision support tool with integration of geographic information sciences techniques. Eight most critical parameters, relevant to the study area, were selected. After generation of thematic layers for each parameter, overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS 10.0 software. The results produced by both methods were then compared with each other and the final suitability map using AHP shows that 19% of the total area is Least Suitable, 6% is Suitable but avoided, 46% is Moderately Suitable, 26% is Suitable, 2% is Most Suitable and 1% is Restricted. In comparison the output map of fuzzy set theory is not in crisp logic rather it provides an output map with a range of 0-1, where 0 indicates least suitable and 1 indicates most suitable site. Considering the results it is deduced that the northern part of the city is appropriate for constructing the landfill site though a final decision for an optimal site could be made after field survey and considering economical and political factors.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy set theory, Geographic Information Sciences (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)

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21277 Experimental Modal Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Square Slabs

Authors: M. S. Ahmed, F. A. Mohammad


The aim of this paper is to perform experimental modal analysis (EMA) of reinforced concrete (RC) square slabs. EMA is the process of determining the modal parameters (Natural Frequencies, damping factors, modal vectors) of a structure from a set of frequency response functions FRFs (curve fitting). Although experimental modal analysis (or modal testing) has grown steadily in popularity since the advent of the digital FFT spectrum analyzer in the early 1970’s, studying all members and materials using such method have not yet been well documented. Therefore, in this work, experimental tests were conducted on RC square specimens (0.6m x 0.6m with 40 mm). Experimental analysis is based on freely supported boundary condition. Moreover, impact testing as a fast and economical means of finding the modes of vibration of a structure was used during the experiments. In addition, Pico Scope 6 device and MATLAB software were used to acquire data, analyze and plot Frequency Response Function (FRF). The experimental natural frequencies which were extracted from measurements exhibit good agreement with analytical predictions. It is showed that EMA method can be usefully employed to perform the dynamic behavior of RC slabs.

Keywords: natural frequencies, mode shapes, modal analysis, RC slabs

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21276 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran

Authors: A. Gharib, M. Moradi


The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping system

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21275 Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Energy for Cathodic Protection of Oil and Gas Buried Pipelines in Southwestern of Iran

Authors: M. Goodarzi, M. Mohammadi, A. Gharib


Solar energy is a renewable energy which has attracted special attention in many countries. Solar cathodic protectionsystems harness the sun’senergy to protect underground pipelinesand tanks from galvanic corrosion. The object of this study is to design and the economic analysis a cathodic protection system by impressed current supplied with solar energy panels applied to underground pipelines. In the present study, the technical and economic analysis of using solar energy for cathodic protection system in southwestern of Iran (Khuzestan province) is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The economic analyses were done using computer code to investigate the feasibility analysis from the using of various energy sources in order to cathodic protection system. The overall research methodology is divided into four components: Data collection, design of elements, techno economical evaluation, and output analysis. According to the results, solar renewable energy systems can supply adequate power for cathodic protection system purposes.

Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar cathodic protection station, lifecycle cost method

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21274 Hybrid Diagrid System for High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Seyed Saeid Tabaee, Mohammad Afshari, Bahador Ziaeemehr, Omid Bahar


Nowadays, using modern structural systems with specific capabilities, like Diagrid, is emerging around the world. In this paper, a new resisting system, a combination of both Diagrid axial behavior and proper seismic performance of regular moment frames in tall buildings, named 'Hybrid Diagrid' is presented. The scaled specimen of the suggested hybrid system was built and tested using IIEES shaking table. The natural frequency and structural response of the analytical model were updated with the real experimental results. In order to compare its performance with the traditional Diagrid and moment frame systems, time history analysis was carried out. Extensive analysis shows the efficient seismic responses and economical behavior of Hybrid Diagrid structure with respect to the other two systems.

Keywords: hybrid diagrid system, moment frame, shaking table, tall buildings, time history analysis

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21273 Railway Accidents: Using the Global Railway Accident Database and Evaluation for Risk Analysis

Authors: Mathias Linden, André Schneider, Harald F. O. von Korflesch


The risk of train accidents is an ongoing concern for railway organizations, governments, insurance companies and other depended sectors. Safety technologies are installed to reduce and to prevent potential damages of train accidents. Since the budgetary for the safety of railway organizations is limited, it is necessary not only to achieve a high availability and high safety standard but also to be cost effective. Therefore, an economic assessment of safety technologies is fundamental to create an accurate risk analysis. In order to conduct an economical assessment of a railway safety technology and a quantification of the costs of the accident causes, the Global Railway Accident Database & Evaluation (GRADE) has been developed. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of this accident database and to show how it can be used for risk analyses. A number of risk analysis methods, such as the probabilistic safety assessment method (PSA), was used to demonstrate this accident database’s different possibilities of risk analysis. In conclusion, it can be noted that these analyses would not be as accurate without GRADE. The information gathered in the accident database was not available in this way before. Our findings are relevant for railway operators, safety technology suppliers, assurances, governments and other concerned railway organizations.

Keywords: accident causes, accident costs, accident database, global railway accident database & evaluation, GRADE, probabilistic safety assessment, PSA, railway accidents, risk analysis

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21272 Design of Rigid L-Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: Ahmed Rouili


Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0,5 to 0,7, ensure the stability requirements in most cases. However, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work, the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: cantilever wall, proportioning, numerical analysis, lateral pressure estimation

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21271 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz


Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

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21270 Drivers, Patterns and Economic Consequences of Cities’ Globalization

Authors: Denis Ushakov


Cities are the main actors of global production and trade, and dominant share of international business activity is now concentrating within a frame of global urban net. This trend transforms mechanisms and patterns of market economy institutes’ (such as competition, division of labor, international movement of capital and labor force) functioning; stimulates an appearance of new economical (development of rural areas), social (urbanization) and political (political and economical unity of the big countries) problems. All these reasons identified relevance and importance of purpose of this study – to consider a modern role of cities’ business systems in the global economy, to identify sources for global urban competitive advantages, to clear inter-cities economic relationships and patterns of cities’ positioning within a frame of global net.

Keywords: globalization, urban business system, global city, transnationalization, networking

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21269 Demographic and Socio-Economical Status of Children with Lead Exposure in Venezuela

Authors: Espinosa Carlos, Nobrega Doris


Children are at high risk for lead (Pb) exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to high blood lead (PbB) levels in Venezuelan children. The concentration of PbB was determined in 60 children (ages 4-9 years old), coming from the Michelena sector, Valencia District, Carabobo State. The relationship between these concentrations and socio-economical parameters (A: high quality life; B: fair quality life; C: critic poverty), Pb levels of faucet water (Pb-water) and dust Pb levels of floor (Pb-dust) of their houses, was established. Living areas were classified according to sectors and socio-economical status. Forty [40=66.7%] children resulted with PbB levels above the permissible concentration (LAPC). Average PbB was not significantly higher than the permissible levels. Odds ratio proved that children from status C are 7.28 times more likely to have LAPC of PbB than the ones coming from A or B. Thirty-four percent (34%) of the children with LAPC come from status C which could be considered the most critical status from the exposure risk point of view. The 76,3% of the sampled houses reported VSLP of Pb-water, being the Pb-water average in 35 ± 25.5 ug/L. This average significantly went superior to the permissible limit established by Venezuela and international organisms (10 ug/L). When grouping the results of PbB and Pb-water by sex, were that 50,8% of the children who presented/displayed VSLP of Pb-water and PbB. Was a significant relation (p ≤ 0.05), between masculine sex and the VSLP of PbB and Pb-water (x² = 3,672). In relation to the Pb-Dust analyses, were not statistically significant differences with respect to their permissible limit value (40 ug/pie²). This study shows that by correlating geographical and health data, we can identify 'high risk' areas, leading to a proactive public health action. The results of this study are excellent, in order to take preventive measures for the care from the health. Later studies are suggested predicting main to determine of more conclusive form of levels elevated of PbB in the investigated population.

Keywords: demographic, lead, risk, socio-economical status

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21268 The Problem of Reconciling the Principle of Confidentiality in Foreign Investment Arbitration with the Public Interest

Authors: Bárbara Magalhães Bravo, Cláudia Figueiras


The economical globalization through the liberalization of the markets and capitals boosted the economical development of the nations and the needs for sorting out the disputes arising from the foreign investment. The arbitration, for all the inherent advantages, such as swiftness, arbitrators’ specialise skills and impartiality sets a pacifier tool for the interest in account. Safeguarded the public interest, we face the problem of the confidentiality in the arbitration. The urgent development of impelling mechanisms concerning transparency, guaranty and protection of the interest in account, reveals itself urgent. Through a bibliography review, we will dense the state of art, by going through the several solutions concerning, and pointing out the most suitable. Through the jurisprudential analysis we will point out the solution for the conflict confidentiality/public interest. The transparency, inextricable from the public interest, imposes the arbitration process can be open to all citizens. Transparency rules have been considered at the UNCITRAL in attempting to conciliate the necessity of publicity and the public interest, however still insufficient. The arbitration of foreign investment carries consequences to the citizens of the State. Articulating mechanisms between the arbitral procedures secrecy and the public interest should be adopted. The arbitration of foreign investment, being a tertius genius between the international arbitration and the administrative arbitration would claim its own regulation in each and every States where the confidentiality rules and its exceptions could be identified. One should enquiry where the limit of the citizens’ individual rights protection and the public interest should give way to the principle of transparency

Keywords: arbitration, foreign investment, transparency, confidenciality, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes UNCITRAL

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21267 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari


In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

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21266 Value Engineering and Its Impact on Drainage Design Optimization for Penang International Airport Expansion

Authors: R.M. Asyraf, A. Norazah, S.M. Khairuddin, B. Noraziah


Designing a system at present requires a vital, challenging task; to ensure the design philosophy is maintained in economical ways. This paper perceived the value engineering (VE) approach applied in infrastructure works, namely stormwater drainage. This method is adopted in line as consultants have completed the detailed design. Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram and VE job plan, information, function analysis, creative judgement, development, and recommendation phase are used to scrutinize the initial design of stormwater drainage. An estimated cost reduction using the VE approach of 2% over the initial proposal was obtained. This cost reduction is obtained from the design optimization of the drainage foundation and structural system, where the pile design and drainage base structure are optimized. Likewise, the design of the on-site detention tank (OSD) pump was revised and contribute to the cost reduction obtained. This case study shows that the VE approach can be an important tool in optimizing the design to reduce costs.

Keywords: value engineering, function analysis system technique, stormwater drainage, cost reduction

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21265 A Critical Analysis of Environmental Investment in India

Authors: K. Y. Chen, H. Chua, C. W. Kan


Environmental investment is an important issue in many countries. In this study, we will first review the environmental issues related to India and their effect on the economical development. Secondly, economic data would be collected from government yearly statistics. The statistics would also include the environmental investment information of India. Finally, we would co-relate the data in order to find out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in India. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of an environmental investment on the sustainable development in India. Based on the economic data collected, India is in development status with fast population and GDP growth speed. India is facing the environment problems due to its high-speed development. However, the environment investment could give a positive impact on the sustainable development in India. The environmental investment is keeping in the same growth rate with GDP. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: India, environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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21264 A Novel Stator Resistance Estimation Method and Control Design of Speed-Sensorless Induction Motor Drives

Authors: N. Ben Si Ali, N. Benalia, N. Zarzouri


Speed sensorless systems are intensively studied during recent years; this is mainly due to their economical benefit and fragility of mechanical sensors and also the difficulty of installing this type of sensor in many applications. These systems suffer from instability problems and sensitivity to parameter mismatch at low speed operation. In this paper an analysis of adaptive observer stability with stator resistance estimation is given.

Keywords: motor drive, sensorless control, adaptive observer, stator resistance estimation

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21263 Transmission Network Expansion Planning in Deregulated Power Systems to Facilitate Competition under Uncertainties

Authors: Hooshang Mohammad Alikhani, Javad Nikoukar


Restructuring and deregulation of power industry have changed the objectives of transmission expansion planning and increased the uncertainties. Due to these changes, new approaches and criteria are needed for transmission planning in deregulated power systems. The objective of this research work is to present a new approach for transmission expansion planning with considering new objectives and uncertainties in deregulated power systems. The approach must take into account the desires of all stakeholders in transmission expansion planning. Market based criteria must be defined to achieve the new objectives. Combination of market based criteria, technical criteria and economical criteria must be used for measuring the goodness of expansion plans to achieve market requirements, technical requirements, and economical requirements altogether.

Keywords: deregulated power systems, transmission network, stakeholder, energy systems

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21262 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli


Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: earth pressure, earthquake, 2-DOF model, Plaxis, retaining walls, wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 411