Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: interdisciplinarity

12 Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity in Peace Education and Peace Studies: A Content Analysis

Authors: Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz

Abstract:

Demonstrating the ability to build social justice and peace is integral in undergraduate and graduate education. Many disciplines are involved in peace education and peace studies, and the collaboration of those disciplines are examined in this paper. To the author’s best knowledge, no content analysis research previously existed regarding peace studies and peace education from a multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity perspective. Peacebuilding is taught through these approaches, which adds to the depth, breadth, and richness of peace education and peace studies. This paper presents a content analysis of academic peace studies programs and course descriptions. Variables studied include contributions and foci of disciplines in peace studies programs and students’ engagement in community peacebuilding. The social work discipline, for example, focuses on social and economic justice as one of the nine competencies that undergraduate and graduate students must attain before earning a Bachelor of Social Work degree or a Master of Social Work degree and becoming social work practitioners. Demonstrating the ability to build social justice and peace is integral in social work education. Peacebuilding is taught through such social work courses as conflict resolution, and social work practice with communities and organizations, and these courses are examined in this research through multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity approach. Peace and social justice are linked terms in various fields, including social work. Social justice is of paramount importance in social work programs, and social workers are trained to advocate for human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice. Social workers use knowledge of oppression, globally as well as nationally, in the practice of peace education and peace studies. Social work is at the forefront in advocating for social justice as a discipline and joins with other educators in strengthening the peacebuilding opportunities for students. The content analysis, conducted through a random sample of peace studies and peace education university and college programs in the United States, found that although courses teach the concepts of peace education and peace studies, courses often are not given these titles in the social work discipline. Therefore, this analysis also includes a discussion of the multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity approach to peace education, peace studies, and peacebuilding and the importance of these approaches in educating students about peace. The content analysis further found great variability in the number of disciplines involved in peace studies programs, the focus of those disciplines in peace education, the placement of peace studies and peace education within the university or college, and the number of courses and concentrations available in peace studies and peace education. In conclusion, the research points toward very robust and diverse approaches to peace education with opportunities for further research and discussion.

Keywords: content analysis, interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, peace education programs

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11 Differences in Production of Knowledge between Internationally Mobile versus Nationally Mobile and Non-Mobile Scientists

Authors: Valeria Aman

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The presented study examines the impact of international mobility on knowledge production among mobile scientists and within the sending and receiving research groups. Scientists are relevant to the dynamics of knowledge production because scientific knowledge is mainly characterized by embeddedness and tacitness. International mobility enables the dissemination of scientific knowledge to other places and encourages new combinations of knowledge. It can also increase the interdisciplinarity of research by forming synergetic combinations of knowledge. Particularly innovative ideas can have their roots in related research domains and are sometimes transferred only through the physical mobility of scientists. Diversity among scientists with respect to their knowledge base can act as an engine for the creation of knowledge. It is therefore relevant to study how knowledge acquired through international mobility affects the knowledge production process. In certain research domains, international mobility may be essential to contextualize knowledge and to gain access to knowledge located at distant places. The knowledge production process contingent on the type of international mobility and the epistemic culture of a research field is examined. The production of scientific knowledge is a multi-faceted process, the output of which is mainly published in scholarly journals. Therefore, the study builds upon publication and citation data covered in Elsevier’s Scopus database for the period of 1996 to 2015. To analyse these data, bibliometric and social network analysis techniques are used. A basic analysis of scientific output using publication data, citation data and data on co-authored publications is combined with a content map analysis. Abstracts of publications indicate whether a research stay abroad makes an original contribution methodologically, theoretically or empirically. Moreover, co-citations are analysed to map linkages among scientists and emerging research domains. Finally, acknowledgements are studied that can function as channels of formal and informal communication between the actors involved in the process of knowledge production. The results provide better understanding of how the international mobility of scientists contributes to the production of knowledge, by contrasting the knowledge production dynamics of internationally mobile scientists with those being nationally mobile or immobile. Findings also allow indicating whether international mobility accelerates the production of knowledge and the emergence of new research fields.

Keywords: bibliometrics, diversity, interdisciplinarity, international mobility, knowledge production

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10 Creativity and Innovation in Postgraduate Supervision

Authors: Rajendra Chetty

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The paper aims to address two aspects of postgraduate studies: interdisciplinary research and creative models of supervision. Interdisciplinary research can be viewed as a key imperative to solve complex problems. While excellent research requires a context of disciplinary strength, the cutting edge is often found at the intersection between disciplines. Interdisciplinary research foregrounds a team approach and information, methodologies, designs, and theories from different disciplines are integrated to advance fundamental understanding or to solve problems whose solutions are beyond the scope of a single discipline. Our aim should also be to generate research that transcends the original disciplines i.e. transdisciplinary research. Complexity is characteristic of the knowledge economy, hence, postgraduate research and engaged scholarship should be viewed by universities as primary vehicles through which knowledge can be generated to have a meaningful impact on society. There are far too many ‘ordinary’ studies that fall into the realm of credentialism and certification as opposed to significant studies that generate new knowledge and provide a trajectory for further academic discourse. Secondly, the paper will look at models of supervision that are different to the dominant ‘apprentice’ or individual approach. A reflective practitioner approach would be used to discuss a range of supervision models that resonate well with the principles of interdisciplinarity, growth in the postgraduate sector and a commitment to engaged scholarship. The global demand for postgraduate education has resulted in increased intake and new demands to limited supervision capacity at institutions. Team supervision lodged within large-scale research projects, working with a cohort of students within a research theme, the journal article route of doctoral studies and the professional PhD are some of the models that provide an alternative to the traditional approach. International cooperation should be encouraged in the production of high-impact research and institutions should be committed to stimulating international linkages which would result in co-supervision and mobility of postgraduate students and global significance of postgraduate research. International linkages are also valuable in increasing the capacity for supervision at new and developing universities. Innovative co-supervision and joint-degree options with global partners should be explored within strategic planning for innovative postgraduate programmes. Co-supervision of PhD students is probably the strongest driver (besides funding) for collaborative research as it provides the glue of shared interest, advantage and commitment between supervisors. The students’ field serves and informs the co-supervisors own research agendas and helps to shape over-arching research themes through shared research findings.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity, internationalisation, postgraduate, supervision

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9 Governance of Inter-Organizational Research Cooperation

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Sebastian Woelk

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Companies face increasing challenges in research due to higher costs and risks. The intensifying technology complexity and interdisciplinarity require unique know-how. Therefore, companies need to decide whether research shall be conducted internally or externally with partners. On the other hand, research institutes meet increasing efforts to achieve good financing and to maintain high research reputation. Therefore, relevant research topics need to be identified and specialization of competency is necessary. However, additional competences for solving interdisciplinary research projects are also often required. Secured financing can be achieved by bonding industry partners as well as public fundings. The realization of faster and better research drives companies and research institutes to cooperate in organized research networks, which are managed by an administrative organization. For an effective and efficient cooperation, necessary processes, roles, tools and a set of rules need to be determined. The goal of this paper is to show the state-of-art research and to propose a governance framework for organized research networks.

Keywords: interorganizational cooperation, design of network governance, research network

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8 The Special Testimony as a Methodology for Social Workers to Ensure the Rights of Children and Adolescents Who Are Victims of Sexual Violence

Authors: Natany Rodrigues De Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the Special Testimony as a methodology for social workers to ensure the rights of children and adolescents who are victims of sexual violence. The specific objectives are: a) to contextualize, through the specialized literature, the social history of childhood and adolescence; b) to investigate, in the scientific literature, the sexual violence against children and adolescents as an analytical category; c) identify, with the social workers, if there is any defense of children and adolescents in the special testimony. To answer the research objectives we use qualitative research, in three axes that complement each other: a) participant observation through the insertion in the research field (supervised internship I and II); b) survey of literature on the subject; c) semi-structured interviews with social workers of the TJDFT. We used content analysis to systematize and interpret the collected data. The results of the research were organized into three chapters with the following contents: a) literature review, contextualizing the social history of childhood and adolescence to the present; b) sexual violence against children and adolescents and their categories of analysis; c) understanding of the special testimony in the Federal District and Territories in guaranteeing the rights of children and adolescents, identifying their main points from the perspective of social workers. The results showed how the lack of interdisciplinarity in the Special Testimony can lead to the non-integral protection of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence.

Keywords: childhood and adolescence, sexual violence, special testimony, social work

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7 Performing the Landscape: Temporary and Performative Practices in Landscape Production

Authors: Miguel Costa

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Despite the "time" element being an intrinsic characteristic of the work with the landscape, its execution and completion are also often dependent on external factors, i.e., the slow bureaucratic procedures required for the implementation of a project. In the urban areas of the city, these conditions are even more present — some landscape projects are articulated with the architectural/urban design, transporting itself long, expensive and inflexible processes related with the constant transformations of contemporary urban culture, where the needs and expectations could change before the project is finished. However, despite the renewed interest and growing concern for issues related to the landscapes (particularly since the European Landscape Convention, its scope and fields of action, extended to all the landscapes and not just the selected ones), still lacks the need for a greater inclusion of citizens in its protection and construction processes as well as a greater transparency and clarity of the consequences and results of their active participation. This article aims to reflect on the production processes of urban landscapes, on its completion runtime and its relationship with the citizens by introducing temporary projects as a fieldwork methodology, as well as using the contribution of different professional practices and knowledge for its monitoring, execution, and implementation. These strategies address a more interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary and performative approach, not only from the ephemeral experience of objects and actions but also from the processes and the dynamic events that are organized from these objects and actions over the landscape. The goal is to discuss the results of these approaches on its different dimensions: critical dimension; experimental and strategic dimension; pedagogical dimension; political dimension; cultural.

Keywords: landscape fieldwork, interdisciplinarity, public inclusion, public participation, temporary projects, transdisciplinarity

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6 Teaching Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC): Hybrid French/English Courses and their Dual Impact on Interdisciplinarity and L2 Competency

Authors: M. Caporale

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French Curricula across the US have recently suffered low enrollment and have experienced difficulties with retention, thus resulting in fewer students minoring and majoring in French and enrolling in upper-level classes. Successful undergraduate programs offer French courses with a strong cultural and interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary component. The World Language Curriculum in liberal arts colleges in America needs to take into account the cultural aspects of the language and encourage students to think critically about the country or countries they are studying. Limiting the critical inquiry to language or literature narrowly defined provides and incomplete and stagnant picture of France and the Francophone world in today's global community. This essay discusses the creation and implementation of a hybrid interdisciplinary L1/L2 course titled "Topics in Francophone Cinema" (subtitle "Francophone Women on Screen and Behind the Camera"). Content-based interdisciplinary courses undoubtedly increase the profile of French and Francophone cultural Studies by introducing students of other disciplines to fundamental questions relating to the French and Francophone cultures (in this case, women's rights in the Francophone world). At the same time, this study determines that through targeted reading and writing assignments, sustained aural exposure to L2 through film,and student participation in a one-credit supplementary weekly practicum (creative film writing workshop), significant advances in L2 competence are achieved with students' oral and written production levels evolving from Advanced Low to Advanced-mid, as defined by the ACFL guidelines. Use of differentiated assessment methods for L1/L2 and student learning outcomes for both groups will also be addressed.

Keywords: interdisciplinary, Francophone cultural studies, language competency, content-based

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5 Development of a Program for the Evaluation of Thermal Performance Applying the Centre Scientifique et Techniques du Bâtiment Method Case Study: Classroom

Authors: Iara Rezende, Djalma Silva, Alcino Costa Neto

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Considering the transformations of the contemporary world linked to globalization and climate changes caused by global warming, the environmental and energy issues have been increasingly present in the decisions of the world scenario. Thus, the aim of reducing the impacts caused by human activities there are the energy efficiency measures, which are also applicable in the scope of Civil Engineering. Considering that a large part of the energy demand from buildings is related to the need to adapt the internal environment to the users comfort and productivity, measures capable of reducing this need can minimize the climate changes impacts and also the energy consumption of the building. However, these important measures are currently little used by civil engineers, either because of the interdisciplinarity of the subject, the time required to apply certain methods or the difficult interpretation of the results obtained by computational programs that often have a complex and little applied approach. Thus, it was proposed the development of a Java application with a simpler and applied approach to evaluate the thermal performance of a building in order to obtain results capable of assisting the civil engineers in the decision making related to the users thermal comfort. The program was built in Java programming language and the method used for the evaluation was the Center Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB) method. The program was used to evaluate the thermal performance of a university classroom. The analysis was carried out from simulations considering the worst climatic situation of the building occupation. Thus, at the end of the process, the favorable result was obtained regarding the classroom comfort zone and the feasibility of using the program, thus achieving the proposed objectives.

Keywords: building occupation, CSTB method, energy efficiency measures, Java application, thermal comfort

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4 Advanced Palliative Aquatics Care Multi-Device AuBento for Symptom and Pain Management by Sensorial Integration and Electromagnetic Fields: A Preliminary Design Study

Authors: J. F. Pollo Gaspary, F. Peron Gaspary, E. M. Simão, R. Concatto Beltrame, G. Orengo de Oliveira, M. S. Ristow Ferreira, J.C. Mairesse Siluk, I. F. Minello, F. dos Santos de Oliveira

Abstract:

Background: Although palliative care policies and services have been developed, research in this area continues to lag. An integrated model of palliative care is suggested, which includes complementary and alternative services aimed at improving the well-being of patients and their families. The palliative aquatics care multi-device (AuBento) uses several electromagnetic techniques to decrease pain and promote well-being through relaxation and interaction among patients, specialists, and family members. Aim: The scope of this paper is to present a preliminary design study of a device capable of exploring the various existing theories on the biomedical application of magnetic fields. This will be achieved by standardizing clinical data collection with sensory integration, and adding new therapeutic options to develop an advanced palliative aquatics care, innovating in symptom and pain management. Methods: The research methodology was based on the Work Package Methodology for the development of projects, separating the activities into seven different Work Packages. The theoretical basis was carried out through an integrative literature review according to the specific objectives of each Work Package and provided a broad analysis, which, together with the multiplicity of proposals and the interdisciplinarity of the research team involved, generated consistent and understandable complex concepts in the biomedical application of magnetic fields for palliative care. Results: Aubento ambience was idealized with restricted electromagnetic exposure (avoiding data collection bias) and sensory integration (allowing relaxation associated with hydrotherapy, music therapy, and chromotherapy or like floating tank). This device has a multipurpose configuration enabling classic or exploratory options on the use of the biomedical application of magnetic fields at the researcher's discretion. Conclusions: Several patients in diverse therapeutic contexts may benefit from the use of magnetic fields or fluids, thus validating the stimuli to clinical research in this area. A device in controlled and multipurpose environments may contribute to standardizing research and exploring new theories. Future research may demonstrate the possible benefits of the aquatics care multi-device AuBento to improve the well-being and symptom control in palliative care patients and their families.

Keywords: advanced palliative aquatics care, magnetic field therapy, medical device, research design

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3 University Curriculum Policy Processes in Chile: A Case Study

Authors: Victoria C. Valdebenito

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Located within the context of accelerating globalization in the 21st-century knowledge society, this paper focuses on one selected university in Chile at which radical curriculum policy changes have been taking place, diverging from the traditional curriculum in Chile at the undergraduate level as a section of a larger investigation. Using a ‘policy trajectory’ framework, and guided by the interpretivist approach to research, interview transcripts and institutional documents were analyzed in relation to the meso (university administration) and the micro (academics) level. Inside the case study, participants from the university administration and academic levels were selected both via snow-ball technique and purposive selection, thus they had different levels of seniority, with some participating actively in the curriculum reform processes. Guided by an interpretivist approach to research, documents and interview transcripts were analyzed to reveal major themes emerging from the data. A further ‘bigger picture’ analysis guided by critical theory was then undertaken, involving interrogation of underlying ideologies and how political and economic interests influence the cultural production of policy. The case-study university was selected because it represents a traditional and old case of university setting in the country, undergoing curriculum changes based on international trends such as the competency model and the liberal arts. Also, it is representative of a particular socioeconomic sector of the country. Access to the university was gained through email contact. Qualitative research methods were used, namely interviews and analysis of institutional documents. In all, 18 people were interviewed. The number was defined by when the saturation criterion was met. Semi-structured interview schedules were based on the four research questions about influences, policy texts, policy enactment and longer-term outcomes. Triangulation of information was used for the analysis. While there was no intention to generalize the specific findings of the case study, the results of the research were used as a focus for engagement with broader themes, often evident in global higher education policy developments. The research results were organized around major themes in three of the four contexts of the ‘policy trajectory’. Regarding the context of influences and the context of policy text production, themes relate to hegemony exercised by first world countries’ universities in the higher education field, its associated neoliberal ideology, with accountability and the discourse of continuous improvement, the local responses to those pressures, and the value of interdisciplinarity. Finally, regarding the context of policy practices and effects (enactment), themes emerged around the impacts of the curriculum changes on university staff, students, and resistance amongst academics. The research concluded with a few recommendations that potentially provide ‘food for thought’ beyond the localized settings of this study, as well as possibilities for further research.

Keywords: curriculum, global-local dynamics, higher education, policy, sociology of education

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2 From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing

Authors: Mona Salah El-Din Hassanein

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Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in "speechless terror", while images, feelings and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to "secondary victimhood". Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of "working through" a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a "survivor mission". This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of "vicarious traumatization" and "survivor mission", as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.

Keywords: ballad of reading of reading, post-traumatic writing, trauma theory, Wilde

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1 Inhabitants’ Adaptation to the Climate's Evolutions in Cities: a Survey of City Dwellers’ Climatic Experiences’ Construction

Authors: Geraldine Molina, Malou Allagnat

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Entry through meteorological and climatic phenomena, technical knowledge and engineering sciences has long been favored by the research and local public action to analyze the urban climate, develop strategies to reduce its changes and adapt their spaces. However, in their daily practices and sensitive experiences, city dwellers are confronted with the climate and constantly deal with its fluctuations. In this way, these actors develop knowledge, skills and tactics to regulate their comfort and adapt to climatic variations. Therefore, the empirical observation and analysis of these living experiences represent major scientific and social challenges. This contribution proposes to question these relationships of the inhabitants to urban climate. It tackles the construction of inhabitants’ climatic experiences to answer a central question: how do city dwellers’ deal with the urban climate and adapt to its different variations? Indeed, the city raises the question of how populations adapt to different spatial and temporal climatic variations. Local impacts of global climate change are combined with the urban heat island phenomenon and other microclimatic effects, as well as seasonal, daytime and night-time fluctuations. To provide answers, the presentation will be focused on the results of a CNRS research project (Géraldine Molina), part of which is linked to the European project Nature For Cities (H2020, Marjorie Musy, Scientific Director). From a theoretical point of view, the contribution is based on a renewed definition of adaptation centered on the capacity of individuals and social groups, a recently opened entry from a theoretical point of view by social scientists. The research adopts a "radical interdisciplinary" approach to shed light on the links between social dynamics of climate (inhabitants’ perceptions, representations and practices) and physical processes that characterize urban climate. To do so, it relied on a methodological combination of different survey techniques borrowed from the social sciences (geography, anthropology, sociology) and linked to the work, methodologies and results of the engineering sciences. From 2016 to 2019, a survey was carried out in two districts of Lyon whose morphological, micro-climatic and social characteristics differ greatly, namely the 6th arrondissement and the Guillotière district. To explore the construction of climate experiences over the long term by putting it into perspective with the life trajectories of individuals, 70 semi-directive interviews were conducted with inhabitants. In order to also punctually survey the climate experiments as they unfold in a given time and moment, observation and measurement campaigns of physical phenomena and questionnaires have been conducted in public spaces by an interdisciplinary research team1. The contribution at the ICUC 2020 will mainly focus on the presentation of the presentation of the qualitative survey conducted thanks to the inhabitants’ interviews.

Keywords: sensitive experiences, ways of life, thermal comfort, radical interdisciplinarity

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