Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: cynicism

16 Determination of Organizational Cynicism Levels of Health Care Workers

Authors: Murat İskender Aktaş, Selma Söyük


The aim of this work is to specify the levels of organizational cynicism health workers. Organizational cynicism concept is evaluated in three sub-branches and these are cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The main objective of the work is to answer the questions about the relationship of demographic characteristics like sub-branches of cynicism and age, marital status, education level, total working hours, occupational groups and income levels. As works in our country are analyzed, there have been studies about cynicism in health and other sectors. However, there were no master’s thesis or organizational cynicism research found about the public health professionals. This is why the aim was chosen as to specify the levels of organizational cynicism of public health professionals. The average of the answers of the health workers to the questions about cynicism levels are 2.86. As organizational cynicism is evaluated according to the sub-branches, cognitive subscale average score is 3.21 affective subscale average score is 2.68 and behavioral subscale average score is counted as 2.67. As the results are analyzed, it is seen that the behavioral subscale has the highest average. This shows that the workers are often criticizing the internal complaints and organizational information with their friends out of the organization.

Keywords: cynicism, organizational cynicism, health care workers

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15 The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Burn out on Organizational Cynicism: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Aykut Bedük, Kemalettin Eryeşil, Osman Eşmen


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational commitment which is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, and burnout syndrome and organizational cynicism. Accordingly, a field research based on survey method was conducted on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. The findings of the research show that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational cynicism and burnout while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and burnout. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism.

Keywords: burnout, organizational commitment, organizational cynicism, healthcare management

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14 A Study of Police Culture Themes Towards the Public Among South African Police Service

Authors: Nkosingiphile M. Mbhele, Jean Steyn


A focus group discussion was implemented, which comprised of senior South African Police Service managers and police academics in South Africa. The measurement of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among functional South African Police Service officials and a thirty-item questionnaire came about by reviewing the literature. This research uses a survey format to assess the police culture theme of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among South African Police Service officers in 9 South African provinces. Although a survey format is used in research, it engages in a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test repeated measures research (longitudinal) design. Although there are differences among South African Police Service police (SAPS) officers, overall, there are signs of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism among SAPS members. Attitudes of solidarity, isolation, and cynicism are present among most police officials and have been presented from the start of training and held, maintained, or strengthened for the next years of their SAPS careers. This issue is problematic to society with regard to community-orientated policing since they have to interact with the members of the community. To author’s best knowledge, longitudinal studies of police culture are rare to find; not much has been researched on this topic. However, this paper offers to bridge that gap by providing answers to longitudinal police attitudes towards the public within the police culture themes of isolation and cynicism attitudes.

Keywords: South African police service, police culture, solidarity, isolation, cynicism, public

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13 Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Cynicism among Millennials

Authors: Paridhi Agarwal, Kusum M. George


A cynic is someone upset about the future prematurely. In today’s highly competitive workplace, cynicism has become a prominent concern. It is a controversial issue that brings about psychological disengagement and antagonism towards the management. In organizational sciences, scientific investigation of this negative work behavior is lacking, and so there is no universal definition so far. But most commonly, Organizational Cynicism (OC) has been characterized as an unfavorable attitude towards the organization, encompassing a belief that the organization has low integrity, negative affect, and depreciative behavioral tendencies. Given its prevalence, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on OC. This research examines the predictability of OC from two factors- Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) among millennials in India as well as identify contradictions in today’s scenario. Standardized Organizational Cynicism Scale comprising of three components, Perceived Organizational Support Questionnaire and Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Test are used on a convenient sample of 104 corporate sector employees in the age range 22-35 years. Correlation test elucidated the relationships, and regression analysis revealed the level of influence of the above variables on OC. Surprisingly, Emotional-Social Awareness had stronger relationships with all dimensions of OC in males as compared to females. It was also seen that EI and POS, together with predicted OC, but separately, only POS accounted for variability in OC, and this impact was much stronger for males, implying that there are other important factors that make females cynical at work. Thus, the over-emphasis on EI training for the millennial generation has also been challenged in this study. It can be said that there are avertible preconditions to the negative attitude- OC. This research has important managerial implications in areas of recruitment, training, and organizational environment.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, millennials, organizational cynicism, perceived organizational support.

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12 Psychological Contract and Job Embeddedness Perspectives to Understand Cynicism as a Behavioural Response to Pressures in the Workplace

Authors: Merkouche Wassila, Marchand Alain, Renaud Stéphane


Organizations are facing competitive pressures constraining them to modify their practices and change initial work conditions of employees, however, these modifications have to sustain initial quality of work and engagements toward the workforce. We focus on the importance of promises in the perspective of psychological contract. According to this perspective, employees perceiving a breach of the expected obligations from the employer may become unsatisfied at work and develop organizational withdrawal behaviors. These are negative counterproductive behaviours aiming to damage the organisation according to the principle of reciprocity and social exchange. We present an integrative model of the determinants and manifestations of organizational withdrawal (OW), a set of behaviors allowing the employee to leave his job or avoid his assigned work. OW contains two main components often studied in silos: work withdrawal (delays, absenteeism and other adverse behaviors) and job withdrawal (turnover). We use the systemic micro, meso and macro sociological approach designing the individual at the heart of a system containing individual, organizational, and environmental determinants. Under the influence of these different factors, the individual assesses the type of behavior to adopt. We provide better lighting for understanding OW using both psychological contract approach through the perception of its respect by the organization and job embeddedness approach which explains why the employee does not leave the organization and then remains in his post while practicing negative and counterproductive behaviors such as OW. We study specifically cynicism as a type of OW as it is a dimension of burnout. We focus on the antecedents of cynicism to try to prevent it in the workplace.

Keywords: burnout, cynicism, job embeddedness, organizational withdrawal, psychological contract

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11 The Use of Manipulative Strategies: Machiavellianism among the University Students

Authors: Karla Hrbackova, Anna Petr Safrankova, Jakub Hladik


Machiavellianism as social phenomenon reveals certain methods of communication that man puts in contact with other people in both personal and working life (and work with clients). Especially at the helping-profession students is honesty, openness or low motivation for personal benefit important part of the profession. The aim of a study is to expose intercultural differences influence of Machiavellianism between Czech and Slovak university students and to determine whether these differences manifest themselves differently among students focusing on management and social profession (by helping degrees). The research involved 1120 university students from the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The measurement of Machiavellianism used a test Mach IV. The test contained 20 statements divided into four central dimensions of Machiavellianism: flattery, deception and falsehood, immorality and cynicism. We found out, that Czech and Slovak's student expressed a similar attitude toward Machiavellianism as a means of manipulation in the interpersonal relationship, but this is not true in all dimensions. Czech and Slovak's students perceive differently flattery, deception and falsehood and cynicism too. In addition to specific features of cultural conditionality, we found out differences depending on the helping profession. Students focusing on managerial occupation (lower level of helping) tend towards greater acceptance of the use flattery as a means of communication than students specializing in the social profession (high-grade assisting). If they are an intercultural and interdisciplinary influences combined and effect on the perception of Machiavellianism together, then their significant importance for the perception of flattery and cynicism. The result will help us to reveal certain specific traits that students apply communication and with whom we can continue to work during their training.

Keywords: use of manipulative strategies, Machiavellianism, helping-profession students, professional training of students

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10 The Role of Meaningful Work in Transformational Leadership and Work Outcomes Relationship

Authors: Zainur Rahman


Meaningful work is the topic that will be discussed in this article, especially in changing period. It has an important role because by reaching meaningful work, it will drive to be positive in the workplace. Therefore, task performance will be increased and cynicism about organizational change (CAOC) will be reduced. Moreover, it is influenced by situational factor, which is transformational leadership. In this conceptual paper, the author discusses how the construct of meaningful work influenced by transformational leadership that will have impact on the follower’ work outcomes in the organizational change. It is proposed that the construct of meaningful work are susceptible with situational variable. Transformational leaders who are respectful on the process of humanizing the followers affect task performance and reduce CAOC in organizational change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, meaningful work, task performance, CAOC

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9 Mediating Role of Burnout in Personality and Marital Satisfaction of Single and Dual Career Couples

Authors: Sara Subhan


Married couples tend to experience various bio-psycho-social issues that may eventually impact the quality of their marital relationship and mental wellbeing. This study aimed to find out the comparison between the single and dual-career couples’ personality, burnout and marital satisfaction. For that purpose Big Five Inventory, Couple Satisfaction Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure the relationship between variables. The main study was carried out on 200 samples of single and dual-earner couples with the age range of 23-52 (mean= 34.58; standard deviation= 6.51) by using a purposive sampling strategy. The results showed that burnout tendencies like exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy are playing a mediation role between the personality and marital satisfaction of both single and dual career couples. Also, the results revealed that dual-career couples are more likely to have marital satisfaction as compared to single career couples. The results were further discussed in the light of its implications in its cultural context and counseling areas.

Keywords: dual career couples, marital satisfaction, burnout tendencies, personality

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8 School-Related Variables and Adolescents Substance Use

Authors: Nicolas Meylan, Eric Tardif


Many studies have highlighted the links between substance use and school difficulties. However, most of these studies address only the consumption in terms of frequency without considering the different types of behavior (use, abuse, dependence). Moreover, little is known about the associations between substance use and variables such as school engagement and school burnout recently described as a positive state of mind and an exhaustion syndrome related to school, respectively. Through this study, we wish to describe and compare school-related variables in adolescents with different type of substance use. Our study focuses on 402 Swiss adolescents, aged between 14 and 19 years old. They responded collectively and anonymously to a set of scales assessing substance use and several school variables (social support, stress, burnout, engagement and school climate). First, results on frequency and severity of substance use are relatively close to those observed in other studies. Second, it also appears that certain dimensions of stress, burnout, engagement and school climate are associated with the frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption. Finally, adolescents’ substance abusers show particularly high scores of burnout, cynicism and stress related to workload, which can be understand as self-medication behavior. Additional analyzes are underway to clarify these associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and clinical practice in academic burnout.

Keywords: school burnout, school engagement, adolescence, substance use, self-medication

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7 The Paradox of Decentralization and Civic Culture: An Exploratory Study Applied to Local Governments in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Francis Wargirai


Since gaining independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea`s core challenge has been the consolidation of democracy against a backdrop of enormous social, political and territorial diversity. Consequently, the government has implemented several political reforms including decentralization. Constitutional planners believed that national unity, would be better achieved by sharing state power over centralization. They anticipated that this would institutionalize a democratic civic culture by providing opportunities to groups and individuals to make political decisions within their jurisdiction. This would then eventually lead to confidence and participation in the larger entity of the state. In retrospect, civil society and community based groups are largely underrated and have had minimal influence on decisions at the local level, consequently contributing to nepotism, patronism and cynicism. By applying an elitist approach to analyze how national political leaders exert their influence and power within the local government system and local communities, this paper argues that decentralization has fragmented local communities. With an absence of political party roots and deeply divided ethnic groups, national political leaders have used divide and rule tactics resulting in mistrust among citizens. Through their influence and power within local governments to dictate projects and services to certain areas, this has resulted in skepticism and divisions among civil society along different cultural cleavages. This has been a contributing factor to anomalies in democratic consolidation and democratic political culture in Papua New Guinea.

Keywords: civic culture, cultural cleavages, decentralization, democratic consolidation

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6 Managing Food Waste Behaviour in Saudi Arabia: Investigating the Role of Social Marketing

Authors: Suliman Al Balawi


Food waste is a significant problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). About SR13 billion worth of food is wasted per year in the KSA. From moral, social, and economic perspectives, it is essential to reduce the wastage of food. Although studies have identified the amount of food waste in the KSA, there is a lack of research on why people in the KSA waste food; thus, it is difficult to design efficient intervention programs to reduce food waste. This research investigates the key factors that influence the food waste behavior of the people of the KSA. A food waste behavior model is proposed in this study that has moral disengagement at the center of the model. Following a literature survey, it is hypothesised that religiosity, hedonic value, frugality, and trait cynicism are the antecedents of moral disengagement that are likely to impact the food waste behavior of the people of the KSA. The study further posits that an intervention strategy in the form of a social marketing campaign that focuses on lowering the level of moral disengagement could reduce the food waste behavior of the people of the KSA. This study will apply a pre-test/post-test experimental design (control group). A random sampling method will be used to select participants from the (employees of a chosen firm) in the KSA. The social marketing campaign will be run for six months through the Corporate Social Responsibility Department of the Company, and to analyse the experimental data, structural equation modeling (SEM) will be used. The outcomes of the study will demonstrate the effectiveness of a social marketing campaign for improving the food waste behavior of the people of the KSA and will ultimately lay the foundation for designing efficient intervention programs in the future. This study will contribute to the knowledge on food waste behavior by testing a newly proposed food waste behavior model in the KSA.

Keywords: food waste, social marketing, Saudi Arabia, moral disengagement

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5 Boosting the Chance of Organizational Change Success: The Role of Individuals’ Goal Orientation, Affectivity and Psychological Capital

Authors: P. P. L. Kwan, D. K. S. Chan


Organizations are constantly changing in today’s business environment. Research findings have revealed that overcoming resistance and getting employees ready for change is a crucial driver for organizational change success. Thus, change adaptability has become a more prominent selection criterion used in many organizations. Although change readiness could be situation-specific, employees’ personality, emotion, and cognition should also be crucial factors in shaping their readiness. However, relatively little research has focused on the roles of individual characteristics in organizational changes. The present study examines the relations between individual characteristics and change readiness with the aim to validate a model, which proposes three types of individual attributes as antecedents to change readiness. The three attributes considered are trait cynicism, positive affectivity, and personal valence covering personality, emotional, and cognitive aspects respectively. The model also hypothesizes that relations between the three antecedents and change readiness will be moderated by a positive mental resource known as psychological capital (PsyCap), which consists of hope, optimism, efficacy and resilience; and a learning culture within the organization. We are currently collecting data from a targeted sample size of 300 Hong Kong employees. Specifically, participants complete a questionnaire which was designed to measure their perceived change efficacy in response to three scenarios commonly happened in the workplace (i.e., business acquisition, team restructuring, and information system change) as a measure of change readiness, as well as the aforementioned individual characteristics. Preliminary analysis provides some support to the hypotheses. That is, employees who are less cynical in personality and more positive in their cognition and affectivity particularly welcome the potential changes in their organizations. Further data collection and analyses are continuously carried out for a more definitive conclusion. Our findings will shed light on employee selection; and on how strengthening positive psychological resources and promoting the culture of learning organization among employees may enhance the chance to succeed for organizations undergoing change.

Keywords: learning organization, psychological capital, readiness for change, employee selection

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4 Critical Evaluation of the Transformative Potential of Artificial Intelligence in Law: A Focus on the Judicial System

Authors: Abisha Isaac Mohanlal


Amidst all suspicions and cynicism raised by the legal fraternity, Artificial Intelligence has found its way into the legal system and has revolutionized the conventional forms of legal services delivery. Be it legal argumentation and research or resolution of complex legal disputes; artificial intelligence has crept into all legs of modern day legal services. Its impact has been largely felt by way of big data, legal expert systems, prediction tools, e-lawyering, automated mediation, etc., and lawyers around the world are forced to upgrade themselves and their firms to stay in line with the growth of technology in law. Researchers predict that the future of legal services would belong to artificial intelligence and that the age of human lawyers will soon rust. But as far as the Judiciary is concerned, even in the developed countries, the system has not fully drifted away from the orthodoxy of preferring Natural Intelligence over Artificial Intelligence. Since Judicial decision-making involves a lot of unstructured and rather unprecedented situations which have no single correct answer, and looming questions of legal interpretation arise in most of the cases, discretion and Emotional Intelligence play an unavoidable role. Added to that, there are several ethical, moral and policy issues to be confronted before permitting the intrusion of Artificial Intelligence into the judicial system. As of today, the human judge is the unrivalled master of most of the judicial systems around the globe. Yet, scientists of Artificial Intelligence claim that robot judges can replace human judges irrespective of how daunting the complexity of issues is and how sophisticated the cognitive competence required is. They go on to contend that even if the system is too rigid to allow robot judges to substitute human judges in the recent future, Artificial Intelligence may still aid in other judicial tasks such as drafting judicial documents, intelligent document assembly, case retrieval, etc., and also promote overall flexibility, efficiency, and accuracy in the disposal of cases. By deconstructing the major challenges that Artificial Intelligence has to overcome in order to successfully invade the human- dominated judicial sphere, and critically evaluating the potential differences it would make in the system of justice delivery, the author tries to argue that penetration of Artificial Intelligence into the Judiciary could surely be enhancive and reparative, if not fully transformative.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, judicial decision making, judicial systems, legal services delivery

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3 Achieving Them Both: Business and Wellness Outcomes in Health Organizations – the 'Tip' Laser Intervention

Authors: Shosh Kazaz, Shmuel Banai, Vered Zilberberg


Optimizing high business performance and employee's well-being simultaneously often challenges organizations. 'TIP' intervention enables achieving them both as the given project demonstrates. Increasing outcomes and improving performance were the initial motivators for this explorative project, followed by a request of the head of the Cardiology department: 'I know we are the best at our clinical practice, but we need to take it further and break our own glass ceiling.' Two guided interventions were conducted in two different units within the department, designed to implement advanced managerial and business-oriented tools, along with 'soft tools' based on coaching psychology and particularly wellness coaching. The organ department multi-disciplinary teams were assembled, aiming to manage and lead the process: mapping the patients' flow, creating solutions, implementing, assessing, improving and assimilating them. Approximately four months later, without additional external resources, meaningful results emerged by the teams in terms of business and performance: shortening the hospitalization length at a given procedure (from 7 to 2.1 days); increasing the availability of Catheterization laboratory by 16% daily – resulting profitability raise; improving patients' journey and experience. A year later, those results are maintained. Furthermore, interviews with the participants revealed positive perceptions regarding the department; a higher sense of joyfulness, connectedness, belonging and a better department climate were reported. Additionally, participants reported a higher sense of fulfillment as opposed to their earliest skepticism and cynicism about their ability to enhance outcomes without more resources (budget and/or manpower), experiencing a mindset change toward the possibility of leading personal and professional growth processes. These reports were supported by analyzing a set of questionnaires that the participants completed, parallel to a control group of non-participating colleagues. Although the assessment was taken a year after the completion of the project and during 'covid-19th-3rd national quarantine, the results indicated a significant impact on several personal parameters associated with wellness, compared to the control group. The participants were higher in self-efficacy and organizational commitment; men were higher in resilience and optimism and women were higher in well-being. In conclusion, the 'TIP' relatively short intervention integrates advanced managerial and wellness coaching tools, empowers organizational resources: Team, Individual and Process and by that generates multi-impact measurable results in terms of employee's wellness parameters along with business performance and patient care.

Keywords: coaching, health and wellness, health management, leadership and well-being

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2 The Beauty and the Cruel: The Price of Ethics

Authors: Camila Lee Park, Mauro Fracarolli Nunes


Understood as the preference for products and services that do not involve moral dilemmas, ethical consumption has been increasingly discussed by scholars, practitioners, and consumers. Among its diverse trends, the defense of animal rights and welfare seems to have gained particular momentum in past decades. Not surprisingly, companies, governments, ideologues, and virtually any institution or group interested in (re)shaping society invest in the building of narratives oriented to influence consumption behavior. The animal rights movement, for example, is devoted to the elimination of the use of animals in science, as well as of commercial animal agriculture and hunting activities. Although advances in ethical consumption may be observed in practice, it still seems more popular as rhetoric. Diverse scholars have addressed the disparities between self-professed ethical consumers and their actual purchase patterns, with differences being attributed to factors such as price sensitivity, lack of information, quality, cynicism, and limited availability. The gap is also linked to the 'consumer sovereignty myth', according to which consumers are only able to choose from a pre-determined range of choices made before products reach them. On the other hand, academics also debate ethical consumption behavior as more likely to occur when it assumes compliance with social norms. As sustainability becomes a permanent issue, customers may tend to adhere to ethical consumption, either because of an individual value or due to a social one. Regardless of these efforts, the actual value attributed to ethical businesses remains unclear. Likewise, the power of stakeholders’ initiatives to influence corporate strategies is dubious. In search to offer new perspectives on these matters, the present study concentrates on the following research questions: Do customers value products/companies that respect animal rights? If so, does such enhanced value convert into actions from the part of the companies? Broadly, we aim to understand if customers’ perception holds performative traits (i.e., are capable of either trigger or contribute to changes in organizational behaviour around the respect for animal rights). In addressing these issues, two preliminary behavioral vignette-based experiments were conducted, with the perspectives of 307 participants being assessed. Building on a case of the cosmetics industry, social, emotional, and functional values were hypothesized as directly impacting positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, would carry direct effects on purchase intention. A first structural equation model was analyzed with the combined samples of studies I and II. Results suggest that emotional value strongly impacts both positive word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Data confirms initial expectations on customers valuing products and companies that comply with ethical postures concerning animals, especially if social-oriented practices are also present.

Keywords: animal rights, business ethics, emotional value, ethical consumption

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1 Implementation of a Web-Based Clinical Outcomes Monitoring and Reporting Platform across the Fortis Network

Authors: Narottam Puri, Bishnu Panigrahi, Narayan Pendse


Background: Clinical Outcomes are the globally agreed upon, evidence-based measurable changes in health or quality of life resulting from the patient care. Reporting of outcomes and its continuous monitoring provides an opportunity for both assessing and improving the quality of patient care. In 2012, International Consortium Of HealthCare Outcome Measurement (ICHOM) was founded which has defined global Standard Sets for measuring the outcome of various treatments. Method: Monitoring of Clinical Outcomes was identified as a pillar of Fortis’ core value of Patient Centricity. The project was started as an in-house developed Clinical Outcomes Reporting Portal by the Fortis Medical IT team. Standard sets of Outcome measurement developed by ICHOM were used. A pilot was run at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute from Aug’13 – Dec’13.Starting Jan’14, it was implemented across 11 hospitals of the group. The scope was hospital-wide and major clinical specialties: Cardiac Sciences, Orthopedics & Joint Replacement were covered. The internally developed portal had its limitations of report generation and also capturing of Patient related outcomes was restricted. A year later, the company provisioned for an ICHOM Certified Software product which could provide a platform for data capturing and reporting to ensure compliance with all ICHOM requirements. Post a year of the launch of the software; Fortis Healthcare has become the 1st Healthcare Provider in Asia to publish Clinical Outcomes data for the Coronary Artery Disease Standard Set comprising of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) in the public domain. (Jan 2016). Results: This project has helped in firmly establishing a culture of monitoring and reporting Clinical Outcomes across Fortis Hospitals. Given the diverse nature of the healthcare delivery model at Fortis Network, which comprises of hospitals of varying size and specialty-mix and practically covering the entire span of the country, standardization of data collection and reporting methodology is a huge achievement in itself. 95% case reporting was achieved with more than 90% data completion at the end of Phase 1 (March 2016). Post implementation the group now has one year of data from its own hospitals. This has helped identify the gaps and plan towards ways to bridge them and also establish internal benchmarks for continual improvement. Besides the value created for the group includes: 1. Entire Fortis community has been sensitized on the importance of Clinical Outcomes monitoring for patient centric care. Initial skepticism and cynicism has been countered by effective stakeholder engagement and automation of processes. 2. Measuring quality is the first step in improving quality. Data analysis has helped compare clinical results with best-in-class hospitals and identify improvement opportunities. 3. Clinical fraternity is extremely pleased to be part of this initiative and has taken ownership of the project. Conclusion: Fortis Healthcare is the pioneer in the monitoring of Clinical Outcomes. Implementation of ICHOM standards has helped Fortis Clinical Excellence Program in improving patient engagement and strengthening its commitment to its core value of Patient Centricity. Validation and certification of the Clinical Outcomes data by an ICHOM Certified Supplier adds confidence to its claim of being leaders in this space.

Keywords: clinical outcomes, healthcare delivery, patient centricity, ICHOM

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