Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: elution

47 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan

Abstract:

The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: gold, temperature, contact time, agitation speed, recovery

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46 Microbial Effects of Iron Elution from Hematite into Seawater Mediated via Dissolved Organic Matter

Authors: Apichaya Aneksampant, Xuefei Tu, Masami Fukushima, Mitsuo Yamamoto

Abstract:

The restoration of seaweed beds recovery has been developed using a fertilization technique for supplying dissolved iron to barren coastal areas. The fertilizer is composed of iron oxides as a source of iron and compost as humic substance (HS) source, which can serve as chelator of iron to stabilize the dissolved species under oxic seawater condition. However, elution mechanisms of iron from iron oxide surfaces have not sufficiently elucidated. In particular, roles of microbial activities in the elution of iron from the fertilizer are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, a fertilizer (iron oxide/compost = 1/1, v/v) was incubated in a water tank at Mashike coast, Hokkaido Japan. Microorganisms in the 6-month fertilizer were isolated and identified as Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans sp. (T-2-2). The identified bacteria were inoculated to perform iron elution test in a postgate B medium, prepared in artificial seawater. Hematite was used as a model iron oxide and anthraquinone-2,7-disolfonate (AQDS) as a model for HSs. The elution test performed in presence and absence of bacteria inoculation. ICP-AES was used to analyze total iron and a colorimetric technique using ferrozine employed for the determination of ferrous ion. During the incubation period, sample contained hematite and T-2-2 in both presence and absence of AQDS continuously showed the iron elution and reached at the highest concentration after 9 days of incubation and then slightly decrease to stabilize within 20 days. Comparison to the sample without T-2-2, trace amount of iron was observed, suggesting that iron elution to seawater can be attributed to bacterial activities. The levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in the culture solution with hematite decreased. This may be to the adsorption of organic compound, AQDS, to hematite surfaces. The decrease in UV-vis absorption of AQDS in the culture solution also support the results of TOC that AQDS was adsorbed to hematite surfaces. AQDS can enhance the iron elution, while the adsorption of organic matter suppresses the iron elution from hematite.

Keywords: anthraquinone-2, 7-disolfonate, barren ground, E.oxidotolerans sp., hematite, humic substances, iron elution

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45 High Temperature in Caustic Pretreatment of Gold Locked in the Residue after Filtration from Gold Cyanidation Leaching

Authors: K. L. Kabemba, R. F. Sandenberg

Abstract:

The usual way to desorb gold is by elution with a hot concentrated alkaline solution of sodium cyanide. The high temperature is necessary because the dielectric constant of water decreases with increasing temperature hence the electrostatic forces between charcoal and the gold cyanide complex decreases. High alkalinity and a high concentration of cyanide are necessary for gold desorption because both OH- and CN- ions are preferentially adsorbed. The rate of elution increases with increasing anion concentration but decreases with increasing cation concentration that means the rate of elution passes through a maximum as the concentration of the eluting salt (NaCN, for example) is increased. The anion that gives the best results, the cyanide ion, decomposes fairly rapidly at elevated temperatures (40% in 6 hours, 90% in 24 hours at 95°C).

Keywords: caustic, cyanide, gold, temperature

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44 Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials

Authors: Steffen Happel

Abstract:

Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.

Keywords: elution, extraction chromatography, radiopharmacy, decontamination factors

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43 Recycling of Sclareolide in the Crystallization Mother Liquid of Sclareolide by Adsorption and Chromatography

Authors: Xiang Li, Kui Chen, Bin Wu, Min Zhou

Abstract:

Sclareolide is made from sclareol by oxidiative synthesis and subsequent crystallization, while the crystallization mother liquor still contains 15%~30%wt of sclareolide to be reclaimed. With the reaction material of sclareol is provided as plant extract, many sorts of complex impurities exist in the mother liquor. Due to the difficulty in recycling sclareolide after solvent recovery, it is common practice for the factories to discard the mother liquor, which not only results in loss of sclareolide, but also contributes extra environmental burden. In this paper, a process based on adsorption and elution has been presented for recycling of sclareolide from mother liquor. After pretreatment of the crystallization mother liquor by HZ-845 resin to remove parts of impurities, sclareolide is adsorbed by HZ-816 resin. The HZ-816 resin loaded with sclareolide is then eluted by elution solvent. Finally, the eluent containing sclareolide is concentrated and fed into the crystallization step in the process. By adoption of the recycle from mother liquor, total yield of sclareolide increases from 86% to 90% with a stable purity of the final sclareolide products maintained.

Keywords: sclareolide, resin, adsorption, chromatography

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42 An UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Norfloxacin, Metronidazole, and Tinidazole Using Monolithic Column-Stability Indicating Application

Authors: Asmaa Mandour, Ramzia El-Bagary, Asmaa El-Zaher, Ehab Elkady

Abstract:

Background: An UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) method for the simultaneous determination of norfloxacin (NOR), metronidazole (MET) and tinidazole (TNZ) using monolithic column is presented. Purpose: The method is considered an environmentally friendly method with relatively low organic composition of the mobile phase. Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed using Phenomenex® Onyex Monolithic C18 (50mmx 20mm) column. An elution program of mobile phase consisted of 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid : methanol (85:15, v/v). Where elution of all drugs was completed within 3.5 min with 1µL injection volume. The UHPLC method was applied for the stability indication of NOR in the presence of its acid degradation product ND. Results: Retention times were 0.69, 1.19 and 3.23 min for MET, TNZ and NOR, respectively. While ND retention time was 1.06 min. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were acceptable over the concentration range of 5-50µg mL-1for all drugs. Conclusions: The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for the routine quality control and dosage form assay of the three drugs and can also be used for the stability indication of NOR in the presence of its acid degradation product.

Keywords: antibacterial, monolithic cilumn, simultaneous determination, UHPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
41 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu

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Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: lanthanide, peptide, labeling, purification, radionuclide, radiopharmaceutical, synthesis

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40 Revealing Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Distinctive Oligo-and Polisaccharides of Prebiotic Relevance

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár

Abstract:

As natural prebiotic (non-digestible) carbohydrates stimulate the growth of colon microflora and contribute to maintain the health of the host, analytical studies aiming at revealing the chemical behavior of these beneficial food components came to the forefront of interest. Food processing (especially baking) may lead to a significant conversion of the parent compounds, hence it is of utmost importance to characterize the transformation patterns and the plausible decomposition products formed by thermal degradation. The relevance of this work is confirmed by the wide-spread use of these carbohydrates (fructo-oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, raffinose and resistant starch) in the food industry. More and more functional foodstuffs are being developed based on prebiotics as bioactive components. 12 different types of oligosaccharides have been investigated in order to reveal their thermal degradation characteristics. Different carbohydrate derivatives (D-fructose and D-glucose oligomers and polymers) have been exposed to elevated temperatures (150 °C 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C, and 220 °C) for 10 min. An advanced HPLC method was developed and used to identify the decomposition products of carbohydrates formed as a consequence of thermal treatment. Gradient elution was applied with binary solvent elution (acetonitrile, water) through amine based carbohydrate column. Evaporative light scattering (ELS) proved to be suitable for the reliable detection of the UV/VIS inactive carbohydrate degradation products. These experimental conditions and applied advanced techniques made it possible to survey all the formed intermediers. Change in oligomer distribution was established in cases of all studied prebiotics throughout the thermal treatments. The obtained results indicate increased extent of chain degradation of the carbohydrate moiety at elevated temperatures. Prevalence of oligomers with shorter chain length and even the formation of monomer sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) might be observed at higher temperatures. Unique oligomer distributions, which have not been described previously are revealed in the case of each studied, specific carbohydrate, which might result in various prebiotic activities. Resistant starches exhibited high stability when being thermal treated. The degradation process has been modeled by a plausible reaction mechanism, in which proton catalyzed degradation and chain cleavage take place.

Keywords: prebiotics, thermal degradation, fructo-oligosaccharide, HPLC, ELS detection

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39 Bioconversion of Orange Wastes for Pectinase Production Using Aspergillus niger under Solid State Fermentation

Authors: N. Hachemi, A. Nouani, A. Benchabane

Abstract:

The influence of cultivation factors such as content of ammonium sulfate, glucose and water in the culture medium and particle size of dry orange waste, on their bioconversion for pectinase production was studied using complete factorial design. a polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated using ion exchange chromatography under gradient elution 0-0,5 m/l NaCl (column equilibrate with acetate buffer pH 4,5), subsequently by sephadex G75 column chromatography was applied and the molecular weight was obtained about 51,28 KDa . Purified PG enzyme exhibits a pH and temperature optima of activity at 5 and 35°C respectively. Treatment of apple juice by purified enzyme extract yielded a clear juice, which was competitive with juice yielded by pure Sigma Aldrich Aspergillus niger enzyme.

Keywords: bioconversion, orange wastes, optimization, pectinase

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38 Estimation of Enantioresolution of Multiple Stereogenic Drugs Using Mobilized and/or Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based HPLC Chiral Stationary Phases

Authors: Mohamed Hefnawy, Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Aymen Al-Suwailem

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Enantioseparation of drugs with multiple stereogenic centers is challenging. This study objectives to evaluate the efficiency of different mobilized and/or immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases to separate enantiomers of some drugs containing multiple stereogenic centers namely indenolol, nadolol, labetalol. The critical mobile phase variables (composition of organic solvents, acid/base ratios) were carefully studied to compare the retention time and elution order of all isomers. Different chromatographic parameters such as capacity factor (k), selectivity (α) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Experimental conditions and the possible chiral recognition mechanisms have been discussed.

Keywords: HPLC, polysaccharide columns, enantio-resolution, indenolol, nadolol, labetalol

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37 Quality by Design in the Optimization of a Fast HPLC Method for Quantification of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Fabiana L. A. Santos, Pablo A. Ferreira, Ricardo T. L. Maia-Jr., Magaly A. M. Lyra, Danilo A F. Fonte, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim

Abstract:

Initially developed as an antimalarial agent, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) sulfate is often used as a slow-acting antirheumatic drug in the treatment of disorders of connective tissue. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 37 provides a reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of HCQ. However, this method was not reproducible, producing asymmetric peaks in a long analysis time. The asymmetry of the peak may cause an incorrect calculation of the concentration of the sample. Furthermore, the analysis time is unacceptable, especially regarding the routine of a pharmaceutical industry. The aiming of this study was to develop a fast, easy and efficient method for quantification of HCQ sulfate by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based on the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology. This method was optimized in terms of peak symmetry using the surface area graphic as the Design of Experiments (DoE) and the tailing factor (TF) as an indicator to the Design Space (DS). The reference method used was that described at USP 37 to the quantification of the drug. For the optimized method, was proposed a 33 factorial design, based on the QbD concepts. The DS was created with the TF (in a range between 0.98 and 1.2) in order to demonstrate the ideal analytical conditions. Changes were made in the composition of the USP mobile-phase (USP-MP): USP-MP: Methanol (90:10 v/v, 80:20 v/v and 70:30 v/v), in the flow (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mL) and in the oven temperature (30, 35, and 40ºC). The USP method allowed the quantification of drug in a long time (40-50 minutes). In addition, the method uses a high flow rate (1,5 mL.min-1) which increases the consumption of expensive solvents HPLC grade. The main problem observed was the TF value (1,8) that would be accepted if the drug was not a racemic mixture, since the co-elution of the isomers can become an unreliable peak integration. Therefore, the optimization was suggested in order to reduce the analysis time, aiming a better peak resolution and TF. For the optimization method, by the analysis of the surface-response plot it was possible to confirm the ideal setting analytical condition: 45 °C, 0,8 mL.min-1 and 80:20 USP-MP: Methanol. The optimized HPLC method enabled the quantification of HCQ sulfate, with a peak of high resolution, showing a TF value of 1,17. This promotes good co-elution of isomers of the HCQ, ensuring an accurate quantification of the raw material as racemic mixture. This method also proved to be 18 times faster, approximately, compared to the reference method, using a lower flow rate, reducing even more the consumption of the solvents and, consequently, the analysis cost. Thus, an analytical method for the quantification of HCQ sulfate was optimized using QbD methodology. This method proved to be faster and more efficient than the USP method, regarding the retention time and, especially, the peak resolution. The higher resolution in the chromatogram peaks supports the implementation of the method for quantification of the drug as racemic mixture, not requiring the separation of isomers.

Keywords: analytical method, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, quality by design, surface area graphic

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36 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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35 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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34 Ruta graveolens Fingerprints Obtained with Reversed-Phase Gradient Thin-Layer Chromatography with Controlled Solvent Velocity

Authors: Adrian Szczyrba, Aneta Halka-Grysinska, Tomasz Baj, Tadeusz H. Dzido

Abstract:

Since prehistory, plants were constituted as an essential source of biologically active substances in folk medicine. One of the examples of medicinal plants is Ruta graveolens L. For a long time, Ruta g. herb has been famous for its spasmolytic, diuretic, or anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. The wide spectrum of secondary metabolites produced by Ruta g. includes flavonoids (eg. rutin, quercetin), coumarins (eg. bergapten, umbelliferone) phenolic acids (eg. rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid), and limonoids. Unfortunately, the presence of produced substances is highly dependent on environmental factors like temperature, humidity, or soil acidity; therefore standardization is necessary. There were many attempts of characterization of various phytochemical groups (eg. coumarins) of Ruta graveolens using the normal – phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC). However, due to the so-called general elution problem, usually, some components remained unseparated near the start or finish line. Therefore Ruta graveolens is a very good model plant. Methanol and petroleum ether extract from its aerial parts were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the new device for gradient thin-layer chromatogram development. The development of gradient thin-layer chromatograms in the reversed-phase system in conventional horizontal chambers can be disrupted by problems associated with an excessive flux of the mobile phase to the surface of the adsorbent layer. This phenomenon is most likely caused by significant differences between the surface tension of the subsequent fractions of the mobile phase. An excessive flux of the mobile phase onto the surface of the adsorbent layer distorts the flow of the mobile phase. The described effect produces unreliable, and unrepeatable results, causing blurring and deformation of the substance zones. In the prototype device, the mobile phase solution is delivered onto the surface of the adsorbent layer with controlled velocity (by moving pipette driven by 3D machine). The delivery of the solvent to the adsorbent layer is equal to or lower than that of conventional development. Therefore chromatograms can be developed with optimal linear mobile phase velocity. Furthermore, under such conditions, there is no excess of eluent solution on the surface of the adsorbent layer so the higher performance of the chromatographic system can be obtained. Directly feeding the adsorbent layer with eluent also enables to perform convenient continuous gradient elution practically without the so-called gradient delay. In the study, unique fingerprints of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Ruta graveolens aerial parts were obtained with stepwise gradient reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. Obtained fingerprints under different chromatographic conditions will be compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach to chromatogram development with controlled solvent velocity will be discussed.

Keywords: fingerprints, gradient thin-layer chromatography, reversed-phase TLC, Ruta graveolens

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33 Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Glimepiride and Ilaprazole in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

Authors: Anil P. Dewani, Alok S. Tripathi, Anil V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Present manuscript reports the development and validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of Glimepiride (GLM) and Ilaprazole (ILA) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were involved with Solid phase extraction process (SPE). The analytes were resolved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm× 250 mm; 5 µm particle size) using a isocratic elution mode comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to 3 using Formic acid, the total run time was 10 min at 225 nm as common wavelength, the flow rate throughout was 1ml/min. The method was validated over the concentration range from 10 to 600 ng/mL for GLM and ILA, in rat plasma. Metformin (MET) was used as Internal Standard. Validation data demonstrated the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise. The limit of detection was 1.54 and 4.08 and limit of quantification was 5.15 and 13.62 for GLM and ILA respectively, the method demonstrated excellent linearity with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.999. The intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were < 2.0% for both ILA and GLM. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration in rats.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, glimepiride, ilaprazole, HPLC, SPE

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32 A Simple Colorimetric Assay for Paraquat Detection Using Negatively Charged Silver Nanopaticles

Authors: Weena Siangphro, Orawon Chailapakul, Kriangsak Songsrirote

Abstract:

A simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method based on colorimetry for the determination of paraquat, a widely used herbicide, was developed. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized as colorimetric probe. The mechanism of the assay is related to aggregation of negatively charged AgNPs induced by positively-charged paraquat resulting from coulombic attraction which causes the color change from deep greenish yellow to pale yellow upon the concentrations of paraquat. Silica gel was exploited as paraquat adsorbent for purification and pre-concentration prior to the direct determination with negatively charged AgNPs without elution step required. The validity of the proposed approach was evaluated by spiking standard paraquat in water and plant samples. Recoveries of paraquat in water samples were 93.6-95.4%, while those in plant samples were 86.6-89.5% by using the optimized extraction procedure. The absorbance of AgNPs at 400 nm was linearly related to the concentration of paraquat over the range of 0.05-50 mg/L with detection limits of 0.05 ppm for water samples, and 0.10 ppm for plant samples.

Keywords: colorimetric assay, paraquat, silica gel, silver nanoparticles

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31 Development of Column-Filters of Sulfur Limonene Polysulfide to Mercury Removal from Contaminated Effluents

Authors: Galo D. Soria, Jenny S. Casame, Eddy F. Pazmino

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In Ecuador, mining operations have significantly impacted water sources. Artisanal mining extensively relies in mercury amalgamation. Mercury is a neurotoxic substance even at low concentrations. The objective of this investigation is to exploit Hg-removal capacity of sulfur-limonene polysulfide (SLP), which is a low-cost polymer, in order to prepare granular media (sand) coated with SLP to be used in laboratory scale column-filtration systems. Preliminary results achieved 85% removal of Hg⁺⁺ from synthetic effluents using 20-cm length and 5-cm diameter columns at 119m/day average pore water velocity. During elution of the column, the SLP-coated sand indicated that Hg⁺⁺ is permanently fixed to the collector surface, in contrast, uncoated sand showed reversible retention in Hg⁺⁺ in the solid phase. Injection of 50 pore volumes decreased Hg⁺⁺ removal to 46%. Ongoing work has been focused in optimizing the synthesis of SLP and the polymer content in the porous media coating process to improve Hg⁺⁺ removal and extend the lifetime of the column-filter.

Keywords: column-filter, mercury, mining, polysulfide, water treatment

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30 Simultaneous Determination of p-Phenylenediamine, N-Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine and N,N-Diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

Authors: Khaled M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is used in the manufacture of hair dyes and skin decoration. In some developing countries, suicidal, homicidal and accidental cases by PPD were recorded. In this work, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of PPD and its metabolites N-acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N,N-diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD) in human urine has been developed and validated. Methods: PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were extracted from urine by methylene chloride at alkaline pH. Acetanilide was used as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were separated on an Eclipse XDB- C18 column (150 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1% formic acid in gradient elution. Detection was performed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray positive ionization under multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The transition ions m/z 109 → 92, m/z 151 → 92, m/z 193 → 92, and m/z 136 → 77 were selected for the quantification of PPD, MAPPD, DAPPD, and IS, respectively. Results: Calibration curves were linear in the range 10–2000 ng/mL for all analytes. The mean recoveries for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were 57.62, 74.19 and 50.99%, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were within 1.58–9.52% and 5.43–9.45% respectively for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD. Inter-assay accuracies were within -7.43 and 7.36 for all compounds. PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were stable in urine at –20 degrees for 24 hours. Conclusions: The method was successfully applied to the analysis of PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD in urine samples collected from suicidal cases.

Keywords: p-Phenylenediamine, metabolites, urine, LC-MS/MS, validation

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29 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka

Abstract:

Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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28 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed.

Abstract:

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20-60 and 6-18 µg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 µg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 µg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol

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27 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi

Abstract:

Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, bacillus thuringiensis, biosorption, cu and mn ions, fixed bed

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26 Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Purifications to Improving the Production of Hepatitis B Vaccines on Pichia pastoris

Authors: Rizky Kusuma Cahyani

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Hepatitis B is a liver inflammatory disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection can be prevented by vaccination which contains HBV surface protein (sHBsAg). However, vaccine supply is limited. Several attempts have been conducted to produce local sHBsAg. However, the purity degree and protein yield are still inadequate. Therefore optimization of HBsAg purification steps is required to obtain high yield with better purification fold. In this study, optimization of purification was done in 2 steps, precipitation using variation of NaCl concentration (0,3 M; 0,5 M; 0,7 M) and PEG (3%, 5%, 7%); ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using NaCl 300-500 mM elution buffer concentration.To determine HBsAg protein, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study. Visualization of HBsAg protein was done by SDS-PAGE analysis. Based on quantitative analysis, optimal condition at precipitation step was given 0,3 M NaCl and PEG 3%, while in ion exchange chromatography step, the optimum condition when protein eluted with NaCl 500 mM. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates that the presence of protein HBsAg with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (monomer) and 50 kDa (dimer). The optimum condition for purification of sHBsAg produced in Pichia pastoris gave a yield of 47% and purification fold 17x so that it would increase the production of hepatitis B vaccine to be more optimal.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen, Pichia pastoris, purification

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25 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Polyphenol Content in the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Flaczyk Ewa, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Przeor Monika, Marcinkowska Agata

Abstract:

In recent years, proceed to the attractiveness of typical bakery products. Expanding the education and nutrition knowledge society will develop the production of functional foods, which has a positive impact on human health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of white mulberry fruit on the content of biologically active compounds in the new designed functional bread premixes designed for selected disease: anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. For flavonols and phenolic acids content UPLC was conducted, using an NovaPack C18 column and a gradient elution system. It was found that all attempts bread characterized by a high content of biologically active compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. The highest total content of polyphenolic compounds found in the samples of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease both before and after storage. The analyzed sample differed in content of phenolic acids. The highest content of these compounds were found in samples of bread for anemia and diabetes. It was found that the analyzed sample contained phenolic acids that are derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid. The new designed bread contained significant amounts of flavonols, of which the dominant was routine.

Keywords: mulberry, antioxidant, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonols

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24 Isolation, Characterization and Quantitation of Anticancer Constituent from Chloroform Extract of N. arbortristis L. Leaves

Authors: Parul Grover, K. A. Suri, Raj Kumar, Gulshan Bansal

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Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is traditionally used as anticancer herb in Indian system of medicine, but its introduction into modern system of medicine is still awaited due to lack of systematic scientific studies. Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize anticancer phytoconstituents from N. arbortristis L. leaves based on bioactivity guided fractionation. Method: Different extracts of the leaves of the plant were prepared by Soxhlet extractor. Each extract was evaluated for anticancer activity against HL-60 cell lines. Chloroform and HA extract showed potent anticancer activity and hence were selected for fractionation. Fraction C1 from chloroform extract was found to be most potent amongst all when tested against three cell lines (HL-60, A-549, and HCT-116) and thus was selected for further fractionation and a pure compound CP-01 was isolated. RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of isolated compound by using Kinetex C-18 column with gradient elution at 0.7 mL/min using mobile phase containing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.01 M, pH 3.0) with acetonitrile. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λₘₐₓ) selected was 210 nm. Results: The structure of potent anticancer CP-01 was determined on the basis spectroscopic methods like IR, 1H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry and it was characterized as 1,1,2-tris(2’,4’-di-tert-butylbenzene)-4,4-dimethyl-pent-1-ene. The content of CP-01 was found to be 0.88 %w/w of chloroform extract and 0.08 %w/w of N.arbortristis leaves. Conclusion: The study supports the traditional use of N. arbortristis as anticancer herb & the identified compound CP-01 can serve as an excellent lead to develop potent and safe anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, HL-60 cell lines, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, RP-HPLC

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23 Feasibilities for Recovering of Precious Metals from Printed Circuit Board Waste

Authors: Simona Ziukaite, Remigijus Ivanauskas, Gintaras Denafas

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Market development of electrical and electronic equipment and a short life cycle is driven by the increasing waste streams. Gold Au, copper Cu, silver Ag and palladium Pd can be found on printed circuit board. These metals make up the largest value of printed circuit board. Therefore, the printed circuit boards scrap is valuable as potential raw material for precious metals recovery. A comparison of Cu, Au, Ag, Pd recovery from waste printed circuit techniques was selected metals leaching of chemical reagents. The study was conducted using the selected multistage technique for Au, Cu, Ag, Pd recovery of printed circuit board. In the first and second metals leaching stages, as the elution reagent, 2M H2SO4 and H2O2 (35%) was used. In the third stage, leaching of precious metals used solution of 20 g/l of thiourea and 6 g/l of Fe2 (SO4)3. Verify the efficiency of the method was carried out the metals leaching test with aqua regia. Based on the experimental study, the leaching efficiency, using the preferred methodology, 60 % of Au and 85,5 % of Cu dissolution was achieved. Metals leaching efficiency after waste mechanical crushing and thermal treatment have been increased by 1,7 times (40 %) for copper, 1,6 times (37 %) for gold and 1,8 times (44 %) for silver. It was noticed that, the Au amount in old (> 20 years) waste is 17 times more, Cu amount - 4 times more, and Ag - 2 times more than in the new (< 1 years) waste. Palladium in the new printed circuit board waste has not been found, however, it was established that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Pd (leaching with aqua regia). It was found that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Ag. Precious metals recovery in Lithuania was estimated in this study. Given the amounts of generated printed circuit board waste, the limits for recovery of precious metals were identified.

Keywords: leaching efficiency, limits for recovery, precious metals recovery, printed circuit board waste

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22 Application of Biopolymer for Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Simulated Effluent: A Green Method for Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rabiya, Ramkrishna Sen

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The textile industry releases huge volume of effluent containing reactive dyes in the nearby water bodies. These effluents are significant source of water pollution since most of the dyes are toxic in nature. Moreover, it scavenges the dissolved oxygen essential to the aquatic species. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the dye effluent before it is discharged in the nearby water bodies. The present study focuses on removing the basic dye methylene blue from simulated wastewater using biopolymer. The biopolymer was partially purified from the culture of Bacillus licheniformis by ultrafiltration. Based on the elution profile of the biopolymer from ion exchange column, it was found to be a negatively charged molecule. Its net anionic nature allows the biopolymer to adsorb positively charged molecule, methylene blue. The major factors which influence the removal of dye by the biopolymer such as incubation time, pH, initial dye concentration were evaluated. The methylene blue uptake by the biopolymer is more (14.84 mg/g) near neutral pH than in acidic pH (12.05mg/g) of the water. At low pH, the lower dissociation of the dye molecule as well as the low negative charge available on the biopolymer reduces the interaction between the biopolymer and dye. The optimum incubation time for maximum removal of dye was found to be 60 min. The entire study was done with 25 mL of dye solution in 100 mL flask at 25 °C with an amount of 11g/L of biopolymer. To study the adsorption isotherm, the dye concentration was varied in the range of 25mg/L to 205mg/L. The dye uptake by the biopolymer against the equilibrium concentration was plotted. The plot indicates that the adsorption of dye by biopolymer follows the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R-square 0.99). Hence, these studies indicate the potential use of biopolymer for the removal of basic dye from textile wastewater in an ecofriendly and sustainable way.

Keywords: biopolymer, methylene blue dye, textile industry, wastewater

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21 Comparative Study of Stability of Crude and Purified Red Pigments of Pokeberry (Phytolacca Americana L.) Fruits

Authors: Nani Mchedlishvili, Nino Omiadze, Marine Abutidze, Jose Neptuno Rodriguez-Lopez, Tinatin Sadunishvili, Nikoloz Pruidze, Giorgi Kvesitadze

Abstract:

Recently, there is an increased interest in the development of food natural colorants as alternatives to synthetic dyes because of both legislative action and consumer concern. Betalains are widely used in the food industry as an alternative of synthetic colorants. The interest of betalains are caused not only by their coloring effect but also by their beneficial properties. The aim of the work was to study of stability of crude and purified red pigments of pokeberry (Phytolacca america L.). The pokeberry fruit juice was filtrated and concentrated by rotary vacuum evaporator up to 25% and the concentrated juice was passed through the Sepadex-25(fine) column (20×1.1 cm). From the column the pigment elution rate was 18 ml/hr. 1.5ml fractions of pigment were collected. In the fractions the coloring substances were determined using CuS04 x 7 H2O as a standard. From the Sephadex G-25 column only one fraction of the betalain red pigment was eluted with the absorption maximum at 538 nm. The degree of pigment purification was 1.6 and pigment yield from the column was 15 %. It was shown that thermostability of pokeberry fruit red pigment was significantly decreased after the purification. For example, during incubation at 100C for 10 min crude pigment retained 98 % of its color while under the same conditions only 72% of the color of purified pigment was retained. The purified pigment was found to be characterized by less storage stability too. The storage of the initial crude juice and the pigment fraction obtained after the gelfiltration for 10 days at 4°C showed the lost of color by 29 and 74 % respectively. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that during the gelfiltration the pokeberry fruit red pigment gets separated from such substances that cause its stabilization in the crude juice.

Keywords: betalains, gelfiltration, pokeberry fruit, stability

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20 Development and Validation of Selective Methods for Estimation of Valaciclovir in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: Eman M. Morgan, Hayam M. Lotfy, Yasmin M. Fayez, Mohamed Abdelkawy, Engy Shokry

Abstract:

Two simple, selective, economic, safe, accurate, precise and environmentally friendly methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of valaciclovir (VAL) in the presence of its related substances R1 (acyclovir), R2 (guanine) in bulk powder and in the commercial pharmaceutical product containing the drug. Method A is a colorimetric method where VAL selectively reacts with ferric hydroxamate and the developed color was measured at 490 nm over a concentration range of 0.4-2 mg/mL with percentage recovery 100.05 ± 0.58 and correlation coefficient 0.9999. Method B is a reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic technique (UPLC) which is considered superior in technology to the high-performance liquid chromatography with respect to speed, resolution, solvent consumption, time, and cost of analysis. Efficient separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax CN column using ammonium acetate (0.1%) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a linear gradient program. Elution time for the separation was less than 5 min and ultraviolet detection was carried out at 256 nm over a concentration range of 2-50 μg/mL with mean percentage recovery 100.11±0.55 and correlation coefficient 0.9999. The proposed methods were fully validated as per International Conference on Harmonization specifications and effectively applied for the analysis of valaciclovir in pure form and tablets dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results obtained by the proposed and official or reported methods revealed no significant difference in the performance of these methods regarding the accuracy and precision respectively.

Keywords: hydroxamic acid, related substances, UPLC, valaciclovir

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19 Geochemical Baseline and Origin of Trace Elements in Soils and Sediments around Selibe-Phikwe Cu-Ni Mining Town, Botswana

Authors: Fiona S. Motswaiso, Kengo Nakamura, Takeshi Komai

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Heavy metals may occur naturally in rocks and soils, but elevated quantities of them are being gradually released into the environment by anthropogenic activities such as mining. In order to address issues of heavy metal water and soil pollution, a distinction needs to be made between natural and anthropogenic anomalies. The current study aims at characterizing the spatial distribution of trace elements and evaluate site-specific geochemical background concentrations of trace elements in the mine soils examined, and also to discriminate between lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of enrichment around a copper-nickel mining town in Selibe-Phikwe, Botswana. A total of 20 Soil samples, 11 river sediment, and 9 river water samples were collected from an area of 625m² within the precincts of the mine and the smelter. The concentrations of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, As, Pb, and Co) were determined by using an ICP-MS after digestion with aqua regia. Major elements were also determined using ED-XRF. Water pH and EC were measured on site and recorded while soil pH and EC were also determined in the laboratory after performing water elution tests. The highest Cu and Ni concentrations in soil are 593mg/kg and 453mg/kg respectively, which is 3 times higher than the crustal composition values and 2 times higher than the South African minimum allowable levels of heavy metals in soils. The level of copper contamination was higher than that of nickel and other contaminants. Water pH levels ranged from basic (9) to very acidic (3) in areas closer to the mine/smelter. There is high variation in heavy metal concentration, eg. Cu suggesting that some sites depict regional natural background concentrations while other depict anthropogenic sources.

Keywords: contamination, geochemical baseline, heavy metals, soils

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18 Synthesis of (S)-Naproxen Based Amide Bond Forming Chiral Reagent and Application for Liquid Chromatographic Resolution of (RS)-Salbutamol

Authors: Poonam Malik, Ravi Bhushan

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This work describes a very efficient approach for synthesis of activated ester of (S)-naproxen which was characterized by UV, IR, ¹HNMR, elemental analysis and polarimetric studies. It was used as a C-N bond forming chiral derivatizing reagent for further synthesis of diastereomeric amides of (RS)-salbutamol (a β₂ agonist that belongs to the group β-adrenolytic and is marketed as racamate) under microwave irradiation. The diastereomeric pair was separated by achiral phase HPLC, using mobile phase in gradient mode containing methanol and aqueous triethylaminephosphate (TEAP); separation conditions were optimized with respect to pH, flow rate, and buffer concentration and the method of separation was validated as per International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The reagent proved to be very effective for on-line sensitive detection of the diastereomers with very low limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.69 and 0.57 ng mL⁻¹ for diastereomeric derivatives of (S)- and (R)-salbutamol, respectively. The retention times were greatly reduced (2.7 min) with less consumption of organic solvents and large (α) as compared to literature reports. Besides, the diastereomeric derivatives were separated and isolated by preparative HPLC; these were characterized and were used as standard reference samples for recording ¹HNMR and IR spectra for determining absolute configuration and elution order; it ensured the success of diastereomeric synthesis and established the reliability of enantioseparation and eliminated the requirement of pure enantiomer of the analyte which is generally not available. The newly developed reagent can suitably be applied to several other amino group containing compounds either from organic syntheses or pharmaceutical industries because the presence of (S)-Npx as a strong chromophore would allow sensitive detection.This work is significant not only in the area of enantioseparation and determination of absolute configuration of diastereomeric derivatives but also in the area of developing new chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs).

Keywords: chiral derivatizing reagent, naproxen, salbutamol, synthesis

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