Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: hematite

34 Top-Down Approach for Fabricating Hematite Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Seungmin Shin, Jin-Baek Kim

Abstract:

Hematite (α-Fe2O3) has very good semiconducting properties with a band gap of 2.1 eV and is antiferromagnetic. Due to its electrochemical stability, low toxicity, wide abundance, and low-cost, hematite, it is a particularly attractive material for photoelectrochemical cells. Additionally, hematite has also found applications in gas sensing, field emission, heterogeneous catalysis, and lithium-ion battery electrodes. Here, we discovered a new universal top-down method for the synthesis of one-dimensional hematite nanowire arrays. Various shapes and lengths of hematite nanowire have been easily fabricated over large areas by sequential processes. The obtained hematite nanowire arrays are promising candidates as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical solar cells.

Keywords: hematite, lithography, nanowire, top-down process

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33 Simulation Study of the Microwave Heating of the Hematite and Coal Mixture

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Sunil Yadav, Soumya Ranjan Mohantry, Ajay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Temperature distribution in the hematite ore mixed with 7.5% coal was predicted by solving a 1-D heat conduction equation using an implicit finite difference approach. In this work, it was considered a square slab of 20 cm x 20 cm, which assumed the coal to be uniformly mixed with hematite ore. It was solved the equations with the use of MATLAB 2018a software. Heat transfer effects in this 1D dimensional slab convective and the radiative boundary conditions are also considered. Temperature distribution obtained inside hematite slab by considering microwave heating time, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, carbon percentage, sample dimensions, and many other factors such as penetration depth, permittivity, and permeability of coal and hematite ore mixtures. The resulting temperature profile can be used as a guiding tool for optimizing the microwave-assisted carbothermal reduction process of hematite slab was extended to other dimensions as well, viz., 1 cm x 1 cm, 5 cm x 5 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: hematite ore, coal, microwave processing, heat transfer, implicit method, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
32 Microbial Effects of Iron Elution from Hematite into Seawater Mediated via Dissolved Organic Matter

Authors: Apichaya Aneksampant, Xuefei Tu, Masami Fukushima, Mitsuo Yamamoto

Abstract:

The restoration of seaweed beds recovery has been developed using a fertilization technique for supplying dissolved iron to barren coastal areas. The fertilizer is composed of iron oxides as a source of iron and compost as humic substance (HS) source, which can serve as chelator of iron to stabilize the dissolved species under oxic seawater condition. However, elution mechanisms of iron from iron oxide surfaces have not sufficiently elucidated. In particular, roles of microbial activities in the elution of iron from the fertilizer are not sufficiently understood. In the present study, a fertilizer (iron oxide/compost = 1/1, v/v) was incubated in a water tank at Mashike coast, Hokkaido Japan. Microorganisms in the 6-month fertilizer were isolated and identified as Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans sp. (T-2-2). The identified bacteria were inoculated to perform iron elution test in a postgate B medium, prepared in artificial seawater. Hematite was used as a model iron oxide and anthraquinone-2,7-disolfonate (AQDS) as a model for HSs. The elution test performed in presence and absence of bacteria inoculation. ICP-AES was used to analyze total iron and a colorimetric technique using ferrozine employed for the determination of ferrous ion. During the incubation period, sample contained hematite and T-2-2 in both presence and absence of AQDS continuously showed the iron elution and reached at the highest concentration after 9 days of incubation and then slightly decrease to stabilize within 20 days. Comparison to the sample without T-2-2, trace amount of iron was observed, suggesting that iron elution to seawater can be attributed to bacterial activities. The levels of total organic carbon (TOC) in the culture solution with hematite decreased. This may be to the adsorption of organic compound, AQDS, to hematite surfaces. The decrease in UV-vis absorption of AQDS in the culture solution also support the results of TOC that AQDS was adsorbed to hematite surfaces. AQDS can enhance the iron elution, while the adsorption of organic matter suppresses the iron elution from hematite.

Keywords: anthraquinone-2, 7-disolfonate, barren ground, E.oxidotolerans sp., hematite, humic substances, iron elution

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31 Synthesis and Characterization of High-Aspect-Ratio Hematite Nanostructures for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Paula Quiterio, Arlete Apolinario, Celia T. Sousa, Joao Azevedo, Paula Dias, Adelio Mendes, Joao P. Araujo

Abstract:

Nowadays one of the mankind's greatest challenges has been the supply of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy sources as an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels. Hydrogen has been considered a promising solution, representing a clean and low-cost fuel. It can be produced directly from clean and abundant resources, such as sunlight and water, using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), in a process that mimics the nature´s photosynthesis. Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) has attracted considerable attention as a promising photoanode for solar water splitting, due to its high chemical stability, nontoxicity, availability and low band gap (2.2 eV), which allows reaching a high thermodynamic solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 16.8 %. However, the main drawbacks of hematite such as the short hole diffusion length and the poor conductivity that lead to high electron-hole recombination result in significant PEC efficiency losses. One strategy to overcome these limitations and to increase the PEC efficiency is to use 1D nanostructures, such as nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs), which present high aspect ratios and large surface areas providing direct pathways for electron transport up to the charge collector and minimizing the recombination losses. In particular, due to the ultrathin walls of the NTs, the holes can reach the surface faster than in other nanostructures, representing a key factor for the NTs photoresponse. In this work, we prepared hematite NWs and NTs, respectively by hydrothermal process and electrochemical anodization. For hematite NWs growing, we studied the effect of variable hydrothermal conditions, different annealing temperatures and time, and the use of Ti and Sn dopants on the morphology and PEC performance. The crystalline phase characterization by X-ray diffraction was crucial to distinguish the formation of hematite and other iron oxide phases, alongside its effect on the photoanodes conductivity and consequent PEC efficiency. The conductivity of the as-prepared NWs is very low, in the order of 10-5 S cm-1, but after doping and annealing optimization it increased by a factor of 105. A high photocurrent density of 1.02 mA cm-2 at 1.45 VRHE was obtained under simulated sunlight, which is a very promising value for this kind of hematite nanostructures. The stability of the photoelectrodes was also tested, presenting good stability after several J-V measurements over time. The NTs, synthesized by fast anodizations with potentials ranging from 20-100 V, presented a linear growth of the NTs pore walls, with very low thicknesses from 10 - 18 nm. These preliminary results are also very promising for the use of hematite photoelectrodes on PEC hydrogen applications.

Keywords: hematite, nanotubes, nanowires, photoelectrochemical cells

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30 Absorption and Carrier Transport Properties of Doped Hematite

Authors: Adebisi Moruf Ademola

Abstract:

Hematite (Fe2O3),commonly known as ‘rust’ which usually surfaced on metal when exposed to some climatic materials. This emerges as a promising candidate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its favorable physiochemical properties of the narrow band gap (2.1–2.2 eV), chemical stability, nontoxicity, abundance, and low cost. However, inherent limitations such as short hole diffusion length (2–4 nm), high charge recombination rate, and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics inhibit the PEC performances of a-Fe2O3 photoanodes. As such, given the narrow bandgap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for a-Fe2O3 photoanodes and metal ion doping as an effective way to promote charge transfer by increasing donor density and improving the electronic conductivity of a-Fe2O3. Hematite attracts enormous efforts with a number of metal ions (Ti, Zr, Sn, Pt ,etc.) as dopants. A facile deposition-annealing process showed greatly enhanced PEC performance due to the increased donor density and reduced electron-hole recombination at the time scale beyond a few picoseconds. Zr doping was also found to enhance the PEC performance of a-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays by reducing the rate of electron-hole recombination. Slow water oxidation reaction kinetics, another main factor limiting the PEC water splitting efficiency of aFe2O3 as photoanodes, was previously found to be effectively improved by surface treatment.

Keywords: deposition-annealing, hematite, metal ion doping, nanorod

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29 Tuning Nanomechanical Properties of Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Mallikarjunachari Gangapuram

Abstract:

The design of stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films is gaining significant attention in these days due to its wide variety of applications. Soft microrobots, drug delivery, biosensors, regenerative medicine, bacterial adhesion, energy storage and wound dressing are few advanced applications in different fields. In this research work, the nanomechanical properties of composite thin films of 20 microns were tuned by applying homogeneous external DC, and AC magnetic fields of magnitudes 0.05 T and 0.1 T. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) used as a matrix material and elliptical hematite nanoparticles (ratio of the length of the major axis to the length of the minor axis is 140.59 ± 1.072 nm/52.84 ± 1.072 nm) used as filler materials to prepare the nanocomposite thin films. Both quasi-static nanoindentation, Nano Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (Nano-DMA) tests were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of PVA, PVA+Hematite (0.1% wt, 2% wt and 4% wt) nanocomposites. Different properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, hardness, and Er/H were carefully analyzed. The increase in storage modulus, hardness, Er/H and a decrease in loss modulus were observed with increasing concentration and DC magnetic field followed by AC magnetic field. Contact angle and ATR-FTIR experiments were conducted to understand the molecular mechanisms such as hydrogen bond formation, crosslinking density, and particle-particle interactions. This systematic study is helpful in design and modeling of magnetic responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films for biomedical applications.

Keywords: hematite, hydrogel, nanoindentation, nano-DMA

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28 Lithological Mapping and Iron Deposits Identification in El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Data Analysis

Authors: Safaa M. Hassan; Safwat S. Gabr, Mohamed F. Sadek

Abstract:

This study is proposed for the lithological and iron oxides detection in the old mine areas of El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, using ASTER and Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Four old iron ore occurrences, namely; El-Gedida, El-Haraa, Ghurabi, and Nasir mine areas found in the El-Bahariya area. This study aims to find new high potential areas for iron mineralization around El-Baharyia depression. Image processing methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios (b4/b5, b5/b6, b6/b7, and 4/2, 6/7, band 6) images were used for lithological identification/mapping that includes the iron content in the investigated area. ASTER and Landsat-8 visible and short-wave infrared data found to help mapping the ferruginous sandstones, iron oxides as well as the clay minerals in and around the old mines area of El-Bahariya depression. Landsat-8 band ratio and the principle component of this study showed well distribution of the lithological units, especially ferruginous sandstones and iron zones (hematite and limonite) along with detection of probable high potential areas for iron mineralization which can be used in the future and proved the ability of Landsat-8 and ASTER data in mapping these features. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), pixel purity index methods as well as Spectral Ange Mapper classifier algorithm have been successfully discriminated the hematite and limonite content within the iron zones in the study area. Various ASTER image spectra and ASD field spectra of hematite and limonite and the surrounding rocks are compared and found to be consistent in terms of the presence of absorption features at range from 1.95 to 2.3 μm for hematite and limonite. Pixel purity index algorithm and two sub-pixel spectral methods, namely Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) and matched filtering (MF) methods, are applied to ASTER bands to delineate iron oxides (hematite and limonite) rich zones within the rock units. The results are validated in the field by comparing image spectra of spectrally anomalous zone with the USGS resampled laboratory spectra of hematite and limonite samples using ASD measurements. A number of iron oxides rich zones in addition to the main surface exposures of the El-Gadidah Mine, are confirmed in the field. The proposed method is a successful application of spectral mapping of iron oxides deposits in the exposed rock units (i.e., ferruginous sandstone) and present approach of both ASTER and ASD hyperspectral data processing can be used to delineate iron-rich zones occurring within similar geological provinces in any parts of the world.

Keywords: Landsat-8, ASTER, lithological mapping, iron exploration, western desert

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27 Treatment of Low-Grade Iron Ore Using Two Stage Wet High-Intensity Magnetic Separation Technique

Authors: Moses C. Siame, Kazutoshi Haga, Atsushi Shibayama

Abstract:

This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore contains low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje low-grade ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe2O3) with 34.18 mass% as an iron grade. The ore also contains silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and alumina exist as minor mineral components. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gangue particles is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron-bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, and pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 93.08% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gangue mineral particles containing 12 mass% silica and 3.94 mass% alumna remained in the concentrate, therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage WHIMS using the same parameters from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 83.41% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass%. Accordingly, phosphorus was also reduced to 0.02 mass%. Therefore, the two stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.

Keywords: Sanje iron ore, magnetic separation, silica, alumina, recovery

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26 Mechanism of Formation, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Iron Mineralization in M'Taguinarou North Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Fakher Eddine Messaoudi

Abstract:

The M'Taguinarou North iron occurrence contains Iron and polymetallic mineralization (Fe-Zn-Cu), hosted in Turonian limestone. It manifests in metric clusters of goethite and hematite and in centimetre veins of smithsonite, malachite, and azurite. The genesis of this mineralization is clearly polyphased and results from the supergene processes superposed on hydrothermal phases where the Triassic diapirs probably generated the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the sedimentary series, and the alteration of the Turonian limestone gave the formation of the hydrothermal primary ore composed of iron carbonates (siderite). Several uplift episodes affected the mineralization and the host rocks, generating the genesis of a polymetallic supergene assembly (goethite, malachite, azurite, quartz, and calcite). In M’taguinarou North, iron oxy-hydroxides are mainly observed in the form of fibrous stalactites, stalagmites, and Botroydale structures, where hematite precipitated first, followed immediately by goethite, limonite, and smithsonite. Siderite is completely absent. Subsequently, malachite, azurite, and calcite formed in the form of small veins intersecting the surrounding limestone.

Keywords: mineralization, genetic model, hydrothermal iron, supergene, Tebessa, Algeria

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25 Production of Pig Iron by Smelting of Blended Pre-Reduced Titaniferous Magnetite Ore and Hematite Ore Using Lean Grade Coal

Authors: Bitan Kumar Sarkar, Akashdeep Agarwal, Rajib Dey, Gopes Chandra Das

Abstract:

The rapid depletion of high-grade iron ore (Fe2O3) has gained attention on the use of other sources of iron ore. Titaniferous magnetite ore (TMO) is a special type of magnetite ore having high titania content (23.23% TiO2 present in this case). Due to high TiO2 content and high density, TMO cannot be treated by the conventional smelting reduction. In this present work, the TMO has been collected from high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Precambrian Chotanagpur gneissic complex situated in the eastern part of India (Shaltora area, Bankura district, West Bengal) and the hematite ore has been collected from Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP), Visakhapatnam. At VSP, iron ore is received from Bailadila mines, Chattisgarh of M/s. National Mineral Development Corporation. The preliminary characterization of TMO and hematite ore (HMO) has been investigated by WDXRF, XRD and FESEM analyses. Similarly, good quality of coal (mainly coking coal) is also getting depleted fast. The basic purpose of this work is to find how lean grade coal can be utilised along with TMO for smelting to produce pig iron. Lean grade coal has been characterised by using TG/DTA, proximate and ultimate analyses. The boiler grade coal has been found to contain 28.08% of fixed carbon and 28.31% of volatile matter. TMO fines (below 75 μm) and HMO fines (below 75 μm) have been separately agglomerated with lean grade coal fines (below 75 μm) in the form of briquettes using binders like bentonite and molasses. These green briquettes are dried first in oven at 423 K for 30 min and then reduced isothermally in tube furnace over the temperature range of 1323 K, 1373 K and 1423 K for 30 min & 60 min. After reduction, the reduced briquettes are characterized by XRD and FESEM analyses. The best reduced TMO and HMO samples are taken and blended in three different weight percentage ratios of 1:4, 1:8 and 1:12 of TMO:HMO. The chemical analysis of three blended samples is carried out and degree of metallisation of iron is found to contain 89.38%, 92.12% and 93.12%, respectively. These three blended samples are briquetted using binder like bentonite and lime. Thereafter these blended briquettes are separately smelted in raising hearth furnace at 1773 K for 30 min. The pig iron formed is characterized using XRD, microscopic analysis. It can be concluded that 90% yield of pig iron can be achieved when the blend ratio of TMO:HMO is 1:4.5. This means for 90% yield, the maximum TMO that could be used in the blend is about 18%.

Keywords: briquetting reduction, lean grade coal, smelting reduction, TMO

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24 Oxidative Dehydrogenation and Hydrogenation of Malic Acid over Transition Metal Oxides

Authors: Gheorghiţa Mitran, Adriana Urdă, Mihaela Florea, Octavian Dumitru Pavel, Florentina Neaţu

Abstract:

Oxidative dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions of L-malic acid are interesting ways for its transformation into valuable products, including oxaloacetic, pyruvic and malonic acids but also 1,4-butanediol and 1,2,4-butanetriol. Keto acids have a range of applicationsin many chemical syntheses as pharmaceuticals, food additives and cosmetics. 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone and 1,2,4-butanetriol are used for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals, while 1,4-butanediol can be used for organic syntheses, such as polybutylene succinate (PBS), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and for production of tetrahydrofuran (THF). L-malic acid is a non-toxic and natural organic acid present in fruits, and it is the main component of wine alongside tartaric acid representing about 90% of the wine total acidity. Iron oxides dopped with cobalt (CoxFe3-xO4; x= 0; 0.05; 0.1; 0.15) were studied as catalysts in these reactions. There is no mention in the literature of non-noble transition metal catalysts for these reactions. The method used for catalysts preparation was coprecipitation, whileBET XRD, XPS, FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used for the physicochemical properties evaluation.TheXRD patterns revealed the presence of α-Fe2O3 rhombohedral hematite structure, with cobalt atoms well dispersed and embedded in this structure. The studied samples are highly crystalline, with a crystallite size ranged from 58 to 65 nm. The optical absorption properties were investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, emphasizing the presence of bands that correspond with the reported hematite nanoparticle. Likewise, the presence of bands corresponding to lattice vibration of hexagonal hematite structurehas been evidenced in DRIFT spectra. Oxidative dehydrogenation of malic acid was studied using as solvents for malic acid ethanol or water(2, 5 and 10% malic acid in 5 mL solvent)at room temperature, while the hydrogenation reaction was evaluated in water as solvent (5%), in the presence of 1% catalyst. The oxidation of malic acid into oxaloacetic acid is the first step, after that, oxaloacetic acid is rapidly decarboxylated to malonic acid or pyruvic acid, depending on the active site. The concentration of malic acid in solution, it, in turn, has an influence on conversionthis decreases when the concentration of malic acid in the solution is high. The spent catalysts after the oxidative dehydrogenation of malic acid in ethanol were characterized by DRIFT spectroscopy and the presence of oxaloacetic, pyruvic and malonicacids, along with unreacted malic acidwere observed on the surface. The increase of the ratio of Co/Fe on the surface has an influence on the malic acid conversion and on the pyruvic acid yield, while the yield of malonic acid is influenced by the percentage of iron on the surface (determined from XPS). Oxaloacetic acid yield reaches a maximumat one hour of reaction, being higher when ethanol is used as a solvent, after which it suddenly decreases. The hydrogenation of malic acid occurs by consecutive reactions with the production of 3-hydroxy-butyrolactone, 1,2,4-butanetriol and 1,4-butanediol. Malic acid conversion increases with cobalt loading increasing up to Co/Fe ratio of 0.1, after which it has a slight decrease, while the yield in 1,4-butanediol is directly proportional to the cobalt content.

Keywords: malic acid, oxidative dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxaloacetic acid

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23 High-Temperature X-Ray Powder Diffraction of Secondary Gypsum

Authors: D. Gazdič, I. Hájková, M. Fridrichová

Abstract:

This paper involved the performance of a high-temperature X-Ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) of a sample of chemical gypsum generated in the production of titanium white; this gypsum originates by neutralizing highly acidic water with limestone suspension. Specifically, it was gypsum formed in the first stage of neutralization when the resulting material contains, apart from gypsum, a number of waste products resulting from the decomposition of ilmenite by sulphuric acid. So it can be described as red titanogypsum. By conducting the experiment using XRD apparatus Bruker D8 Advance with a Cu anode (λkα=1.54184 Å) equipped with high-temperature chamber Anton Paar HTK 16, it was possible to identify clearly in the sample each phase transition in the system of CaSO4•xH2O.

Keywords: anhydrite, gypsum, bassanite, hematite, XRD, powder, high-temperature

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22 Recycling of Sintered NdFeB Magnet Waste Via Oxidative Roasting and Selective Leaching

Authors: W. Kritsarikan, T. Patcharawit, T. Yingnakorn, S. Khumkoa

Abstract:

Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets classified as high-power magnets are widely used in various applications such as electrical and medical devices and account for 13.5 % of the permanent magnet’s market. Since its typical composition of 29 - 32 % Nd, 64.2 – 68.5 % Fe and 1 – 1.2 % B contains a significant amount of rare earth metals and will be subjected to shortages in the future. Domestic NdFeB magnet waste recycling should therefore be developed in order to reduce social, environmental impacts toward a circular economy. Most research works focus on recycling the magnet wastes, both from the manufacturing process and end of life. Each type of wastes has different characteristics and compositions. As a result, these directly affect recycling efficiency as well as the types and purity of the recyclable products. This research, therefore, focused on the recycling of manufacturing NdFeB magnet waste obtained from the sintering stage of magnet production and the waste contained 23.6% Nd, 60.3% Fe and 0.261% B in order to recover high purity neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) using hybrid metallurgical process via oxidative roasting and selective leaching techniques. The sintered NdFeB waste was first ground to under 70 mesh prior to oxidative roasting at 550 - 800 °C to enable selective leaching of neodymium in the subsequent leaching step using H₂SO₄ at 2.5 M over 24 h. The leachate was then subjected to drying and roasting at 700 – 800 °C prior to precipitation by oxalic acid and calcination to obtain neodymium oxide as the recycling product. According to XRD analyses, it was found that increasing oxidative roasting temperature led to an increasing amount of hematite (Fe₂O₃) as the main composition with a smaller amount of magnetite (Fe₃O₄) found. Peaks of neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) were also observed in a lesser amount. Furthermore, neodymium iron oxide (NdFeO₃) was present and its XRD peaks were pronounced at higher oxidative roasting temperatures. When proceeded to acid leaching and drying, iron sulfate and neodymium sulfate were mainly obtained. After the roasting step prior to water leaching, iron sulfate was converted to form hematite as the main compound, while neodymium sulfate remained in the ingredient. However, a small amount of magnetite was still detected by XRD. The higher roasting temperature at 800 °C resulted in a greater Fe₂O₃ to Nd₂(SO₄)₃ ratio, indicating a more effective roasting temperature. Iron oxides were subsequently water leached and filtered out while the solution contained mainly neodymium sulfate. Therefore, low oxidative roasting temperature not exceeding 600 °C followed by acid leaching and roasting at 800 °C gave the optimum condition for further steps of precipitation and calcination to finally achieve neodymium oxide.

Keywords: NdFeB magnet waste, oxidative roasting, recycling, selective leaching

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21 Recycling of Sintered Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB) Magnet Waste via Oxidative Roasting and Selective Leaching

Authors: Woranittha Kritsarikan

Abstract:

Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets classified as high-power magnets are widely used in various applications such as electrical and medical devices and account for 13.5 % of the permanent magnet’s market. Since its typical composition of 29 - 32 % Nd, 64.2 – 68.5 % Fe and 1 – 1.2 % B contains a significant amount of rare earth metals and will be subjected to shortages in the future. Domestic NdFeB magnet waste recycling should therefore be developed in order to reduce social, environmental impacts toward the circular economy. Most research works focus on recycling the magnet wastes, both from the manufacturing process and end of life. Each type of wastes has different characteristics and compositions. As a result, these directly affect recycling efficiency as well as the types and purity of the recyclable products. This research, therefore, focused on the recycling of manufacturing NdFeB magnet waste obtained from the sintering stage of magnet production and the waste contained 23.6% Nd, 60.3% Fe and 0.261% B in order to recover high purity neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) using hybrid metallurgical process via oxidative roasting and selective leaching techniques. The sintered NdFeB waste was first ground to under 70 mesh prior to oxidative roasting at 550 - 800 ᵒC to enable selective leaching of neodymium in the subsequent leaching step using H₂SO₄ at 2.5 M over 24 hours. The leachate was then subjected to drying and roasting at 700 – 800 ᵒC prior to precipitation by oxalic acid and calcination to obtain neodymium oxide as the recycling product. According to XRD analyses, it was found that increasing oxidative roasting temperature led to the increasing amount of hematite (Fe₂O₃) as the main composition with a smaller amount of magnetite (Fe3O4) found. Peaks of neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) were also observed in a lesser amount. Furthermore, neodymium iron oxide (NdFeO₃) was present and its XRD peaks were pronounced at higher oxidative roasting temperature. When proceeded to acid leaching and drying, iron sulfate and neodymium sulfate were mainly obtained. After the roasting step prior to water leaching, iron sulfate was converted to form hematite as the main compound, while neodymium sulfate remained in the ingredient. However, a small amount of magnetite was still detected by XRD. The higher roasting temperature at 800 ᵒC resulted in a greater Fe2O3 to Nd2(SO4)3 ratio, indicating a more effective roasting temperature. Iron oxides were subsequently water leached and filtered out while the solution contained mainly neodymium sulfate. Therefore, low oxidative roasting temperature not exceeding 600 ᵒC followed by acid leaching and roasting at 800 ᵒC gave the optimum condition for further steps of precipitation and calcination to finally achieve neodymium oxide.

Keywords: NdFeB magnet waste, oxidative roasting, recycling, selective leaching

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20 Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Modified Geopolymer and Its Resistance against Chloride and Sulphate

Authors: Noor-ul-Amin, Lubna Nawab, Sabiha Sultana

Abstract:

Geopolymer with different silica to alumina ratio with iron have been synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum, and iron salts as a source of silica, alumina and iron source, and sodium/potassium hydroxide as an alkaline medium. The iron source will be taken from iron (III) salts and laterite clay samples. Laterite has been used as a natural source of iron in modified geopolymer. The synthesized iron modified geopolymer was submitted to the different aggressive environment, including chloride and sulphate solutions in different concentration. Different experimental techniques, including XRF, XRD, and FTIR, were used to study the bonding nature and effect of aggressive environment on geopolymer. The major phases formed during geopolymerization are sodalite (Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl), albite (NaAlSi₃O₈), hematite (Fe₂O₃), and chabazite as confirmed from the XRD results. The resulting geopolymer showed greater resistance to sulphate and chloride as compared to the normal geopolymer.

Keywords: modified geopolymer, laterite, chloride, sulphate

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19 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean

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Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral

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18 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian

Abstract:

The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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17 Development of Heating Elements Based on Fe₂O₃ Reduction Products by Waste Active Sludge

Authors: Abigail Parra Parra, Jorge L. Morelos Hernandez, Pedro A. Marquez Agilar, Marina Vlasova, Jesus Colin De La Cruz

Abstract:

Carbothermal reduction of metal oxides is widely used both in metallurgical processes and in the production of oxygen-free refractory ceramics. As a rule, crushed coke and graphite are used as a reducing agent. The products of carbonization of organic compounds are among the innovative reducing agents. The aim of this work was to study the process of reduction of iron oxide (hematite) down to iron by waste active sludge (WAS) carbonization products. WAS was chosen due to the accumulation of a large amount of this type of waste, soil pollution, and the relevance of the development of technologies for its disposal. The studies have shown that the temperature treatment of mixtures WAS-Fe₂O₃ in the temperature range 900-1000 ºC for 1-5 hours under oxygen deficiency is described by the following scheme: WAS + Fe₂O₃→ C,CO + Fe₂O₃→ C + FexO → Fe (amorphous and crystalline). During the heat treatment of the mixtures, strong samples are formed. The study of the electrical conductive properties of such samples showed that, depending on the ratio of the components in the initial mixtures, it is possible to change the values of electrical resistivity from 5.6 Ω‧m to 151.6 Ω‧m When a current is passed through the samples, they are heated from 240 to 378ºC. Thus, based on WAS-Fe₂O₃ mixtures, heating elements can be created that can be used to heat ceramics and concrete.

Keywords: Fe₂O₃, reduction, waste activate sludge, electroconductivity

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16 Water-Bentonite Interaction of Green Pellets through Micro-Structural Analysis

Authors: Satyananda Patra, Venugopal Rayasam

Abstract:

The quality of pellets produced is affected by quality and type of green pellets, amount of addition of binders and fluxing agents along with the provided firing conditions. The green pellet quality depends upon chemistry, mineralogy and granulometry of fines used for pellet making, the feed size, its moisture content and porosity. During firing of green pellets, ingredients present within reacts to form different phases and microstructure. So in turn, physical and metallurgical properties of pellets are influenced by amount and type of binder and flux addition, induration time and temperature. During iron making process, the metallurgical properties of fired pellets are decided by the type and amount of these phases and their chemistry. Green pelletizing and induration studies have been already carried out with magnetite and hematite ore fines but for Indian iron ores of high alumina content showing different pelletizing characters, these studies cannot be directly interpreted. The main objective of proposed research work is to understand the green pelletizing process and determine the water bentonite interaction at different levels. Swelling behavior of bentonite and microstructure of the green pellet are investigated. Conversion of iron ore fines into pellets, the key raw material and process variables that influence the pellet quality needs to be identified and a correlation should be established between them.

Keywords: iron ore, pelletization, binders, green pellets, microstructure

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15 Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Serpentinite-Derived Ni-Bearing Laterites from Fars Province, Iran: Implications for the Lateritization Process and Classification of Ni-Laterites

Authors: S. Rasti, M. A. Rajabzadeh

Abstract:

Nickel-bearing laterites occur as two parallel belts along Sedimentary Zagros Orogenic (SZO) and Metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan (MSS) petrostructural zones, Fars Province, south Iran. An undisturbed vertical profile of these laterites includes protolith, saprolite, clay, and oxide horizons from base to top. Highly serpentinized harzburgite with relicts of olivine and orthopyroxene is regarded as the source rock. The laterites are unusual in lacking a significant saprolite zone with little development of Ni-silicates. Hematite, saponite, dolomite, smectite and clinochlore increase, while calcite, olivine, lizardite and chrysotile decrease from saprolite to oxide zones. Smectite and clinochlore with minor calcite are the major minerals in clay zone. Contacts of different horizons in laterite profiles are gradual and characterized by a decrease in Mg concentration ranging from 18.1 to 9.3 wt.% in oxide and saprolite, respectively. The maximum Ni concentration is 0.34 wt.% (NiO) in the base of the oxide zone, and goethite is the major Ni-bearing phase. From saprolite to oxide horizons, Al2O3, K2O, TiO2, and CaO decrease, while SiO2, MnO, NiO, and Fe2O3 increase. Silica content reaches up to 45 wt.% in the upper part of the soil profile. There is a decrease in pH (8.44-8.17) and an increase in organic matter (0.28-0.59 wt.%) from base to top of the soils. The studied laterites are classified in the oxide clans which were derived from ophiolite ultramafic rocks under Mediterranean climate conditions.

Keywords: Iran, laterite, mineralogy, ophiolite

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14 Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran

Authors: Behzad Hajalilou, Nasim Hajalilou, Saeid Ansari

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The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.

Keywords: porphyry copper, mineralization, Ali Javad, modeling, reserve estimation

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13 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrosodalite by Using Ultrasounds

Authors: B. Białecka, Z. Adamczyk, M. Cempa

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The use of ultrasounds in zeolization of fly ash can increase the efficiency of this process. The molar ratios of the reagents, as well as the time and temperature of the synthesis, are the main parameters determining the type and properties of the zeolite formed. The aim of the work was to create hydrosodalite in a short time (8h), with low NaOH concentration (3 M) and in low temperature (80°C). A zeolite material contained in fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Plant was subjected to hydrothermal alkaline synthesis. The phase composition of the ash consisted mainly of glass, mullite, quartz, and hematite. The dominant chemical components of the ash were SiO₂ (over 50%mas.) and Al₂O₃ (more than 28%mas.), whereas the contents of the remaining components, except Fe₂O₃ (6.34%mas.), did not exceed 4% mas. The hydrothermal synthesis of the zeolite material was carried out in the following conditions: 3M-solution of NaOH, synthesis time – 8 hours, 40 kHz-frequency ultrasounds during the first two hours of synthesis. The mineral components of the input ash as well as product after synthesis were identified in microscopic observations, in transmitted light, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM/EDS). The chemical composition of the input ash was identified by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The obtained material apart from phases found in the initial fly ash sample, also contained new phases, i.e., hydrosodalite and NaP-type zeolite. The chemical composition in micro areas of grains indicated their diversity: i) SiO₂ content was in the range 30-59%mas., ii) Al₂O₃ content was in the range 24-35%mas., iii) Na₂O content was in the range 6-15%mas. This clearly indicates that hydrosodalite forms hypertrophies with NaP type zeolite as well as relict grains of fly ash. A small amount of potassium in the examined grains is noteworthy, which may indicate the substitution of sodium with potassium. This is confirmed by the high value of the correlation coefficient between these two components.

Keywords: fly ash, hydrosodalite, ultrasounds, zeolite

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12 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 and CO) Production

Authors: Bedarnia Ishak

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x) Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x) OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, oxide zenc

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11 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 & Co) Production

Authors: Bouhenni Mohamed Saif El Islam

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x)Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x)OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, XCO2

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10 Materials and Techniques of Anonymous Egyptian Polychrome Cartonnage Mummy Mask: A Multiple Analytical Study

Authors: Hanaa A. Al-Gaoudi, Hassan Ebeid

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The research investigates the materials and processes used in the manufacturing of an Egyptian polychrome cartonnage mummy mask with the aim of dating this object and establishing trade patterns of certain materials that were used and available at the time of ancient Egypt. This anonymous-source object was held in the basement storage of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (EMC) and has never been on display. Furthermore, there is no information available regarding its owner, provenance, date, and even the time of its possession by the museum. Moreover, the object is in a very poor condition where almost two-thirds of the mask was bent and has never received any previous conservation treatment. This research has utilized well-established multi-analytical methods to identify the considerable diversity of materials that have been used in the manufacturing of this object. These methods include Computed Tomography Scan (CT scan) to acquire detailed pictures of the inside physical structure and condition of the bended layers. Dino-Lite portable digital microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and the non-invasive imaging technique of multispectral imaging (MSI) to obtain information about the physical characteristics and condition of the painted layers and to examine the microstructure of the materials. Portable XRF Spectrometer (PXRF) and X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD) to identify mineral phases and the bulk element composition in the gilded layer, ground, and pigments; Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) to identify organic compounds and their molecular characterization; accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C) to date the object. Preliminary results suggest that there are no human remains inside the object, and the textile support is linen fibres with tabby weave 1/1 and these fibres are in a very bad condition. Several pigments have been identified, such as Egyptian blue, Magnetite, Egyptian green frit, Hematite, Calcite, and Cinnabar; moreover, the gilded layers are pure gold and the binding media in the pigments is Arabic gum and animal glue in the textile support layer.

Keywords: analytical methods, Egyptian museum, mummy mask, pigments, textile

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9 Simulation of Ester Based Mud Performance through Drilling Genting Timur Field

Authors: Lina Ismail Jassim, Robiah Yunus

Abstract:

To successfully drill oil or gas well, two main characteristics of numerous other tasks of an efficient drilling fluid are required, which are suspended and carrying cuttings from the beneath wellbore to the surface and managed between pore (formation) and hydrostatic pressure (mud pressure). Several factors like mud composition and its rheology, wellbore design, drilled cuttings characteristics and drilling string rotation contribute to drill wellbore successfully. Simulation model can support an appropriate indication on the drilling fluid performance in the real field as Genting Timur field, located in Pahang in Malaysia on 4295 m depth, held the world record in Sempah Muda 1 (Vertical). A detailed 3 dimensional CFD analysis of vertical, concentric annular two phase flow was developed to study and asses Herschel Bulkley drilling fluid. The effect of Hematite, Barite and calcium carbonates types and size of cutting rock particles on such flow is analyzed. The vertical flows are also associated with a good amount of temperature variation along the depth. This causes a good amount of change in viscosity of the fluid, which is non-Newtonian in nature. Good understanding of the nature of such flows is imperative in developing and maintaining successful vertical well systems. A detailed analysis of flow characteristics due to the drill pipe rotation is done in this work. The inner cylinder of the annulus gets different rotational speed, depending upon the operating conditions. This speed induces a good swirl on the particles and primary fluids which interpret in Ester based drilling fluid cleaning well ability, which in turn determines energy loss along the pipe. Energy loss is assessed in this work in terms of wall shear stress and pressure drop along the pipe. The flow is under an adverse pressure gradient condition, which causes chance of reversed flow and transfers the rock cuttings to the surface.

Keywords: concentric annulus, non-Newtonian, two phase, Herschel Bulkley

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8 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour

Abstract:

Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

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7 Analytical Study and Conservation Processes of Scribe Box from Old Kingdom

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa, Medhat Abdallah, Ramy Magdy, Ahmed Abdrabou, Mohamed Badr

Abstract:

The scribe box under study dates back to the old kingdom. It was excavated by the Italian expedition in Qena (1935-1937). The box consists of 2pieces, the lid and the body. The inner side of the lid is decorated with ancient Egyptian inscriptions written with a black pigment. The box was made using several panels assembled together by wooden dowels and secured with plant ropes. The entire box is covered with a red pigment. This study aims to use analytical techniques in order to identify and have deep understanding for the box components. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in using infrared reflectance transmission imaging (RTI-IR) to improve the hidden inscriptions on the lid. The identification of wood species included in this study. The visual observation and assessment were done to understand the condition of this box. 3Ddimensions and 2D programs were used to illustrate wood joints techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence portable (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study in order to identify wood species, remains of insects bodies, red pigment, fibers plant and previous conservation adhesives, also RTI-IR technique was very effective to improve hidden inscriptions. The analysis results proved that wooden panels and dowels were identified as Acacia nilotica, wooden rail was Salix sp. the insects were identified as Lasioderma serricorne and Gibbium psylloids, the red pigment was Hematite, while the fiber plants were linen, previous adhesive was identified as cellulose nitrates. The historical study for the inscriptions proved that it’s a Hieratic writings of a funerary Text. After its transportation from the Egyptian museum storage to the wood conservation laboratory of the Grand Egyptian museum –conservation center (GEM-CC), conservation techniques were applied with high accuracy in order to restore the object including cleaning , consolidating of friable pigments and writings, removal of previous adhesive and reassembly, finally the conservation process that were applied were extremely effective for this box which became ready for display or storage in the grand Egyptian museum.

Keywords: scribe box, hieratic, 3D program, Acacia nilotica, XRD, cellulose nitrate, conservation

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6 Preliminary Study of the Hydrothermal Polymetallic Ore Deposit at the Karancs Mountain, North-East Hungary

Authors: Eszter Kulcsar, Agnes Takacs, Gabriella B. Kiss, Peter Prakfalvi

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The Karancs Mountain is part of the Miocene Inner Carpathian Volcanic Belt and is located in N-NE Hungary, along the Hungarian-Slovakian border. The 14 Ma old andesitic-dacitic units are surrounded by Oligocene sedimentary units (sandstone, siltstone). The host rocks of the mineralisation are siliceous and/or argillaceous volcanic units, quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia, and strongly silicified vuggy rocks, found in the various altered volcanic units. The hydrothermal breccia consists of highly silicified vuggy quartz clasts in quartz matrix. The hydrothermal alteration of the host units shows structural control at the deeper levels. The main ore minerals are galena, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, hematite, magnetite, arsenopyrite, anglesite and argentite The mineralisation was first mentioned in 1944 and the first exploration took place between 1961 and 1962 in the area. The first ore geological studies were performed between 1984-1985. The exploration programme was limited only to surface sampling; no drilling programme was performed. Petrographical and preliminary fluid inclusion studies were performed on calcite samples from a galena-bearing vein. Despite the early discovery of the mineralisation, no detailed description is available, thus its size, characteristics, and origin have remained unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the mineralisation, describe the characteristics in detail and to test the possible gold content of the various quartz veins and breccias. Finally, we also investigate the potential relation of the hydrothermal mineralisation to the surrounding similar mineralisations with similar ages (e.g. W-Mátra Mountains in Hungary, Banska Bystrica, Banska Stiavnica in Slovakia) in order to place the mineralisation within the volcanic-hydrothermal evolution of the Miocene Inner Carpathian Belt. As first steps, the study includes field mapping, traditional petrological and ore microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; SEM-EDS and EMPA studies on ore minerals, to obtain mineral chemical information. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry and micro-Raman-spectroscopy studies are also planned on quartz-hosted inclusions to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the ore-forming fluid.

Keywords: epithermal, Karancs Mountain, Hungary, Miocene Inner Carpathian volcanic belt, polimetallic ore deposit

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5 Production of Ferroboron by SHS-Metallurgy from Iron-Containing Rolled Production Wastes for Alloying of Cast Iron

Authors: G. Zakharov, Z. Aslamazashvili, M. Chikhradze, D. Kvaskhvadze, N. Khidasheli, S. Gvazava

Abstract:

Traditional technologies for processing iron-containing industrial waste, including steel-rolling production, are associated with significant energy costs, the long duration of processes, and the need to use complex and expensive equipment. Waste generated during the industrial process negatively affects the environment, but at the same time, it is a valuable raw material and can be used to produce new marketable products. The study of the effectiveness of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) methods, which are characterized by the simplicity of the necessary equipment, the purity of the final product, and the high processing speed, is under the wide scientific and practical interest to solve the set problem. The work presents technological aspects of the production of Ferro boron by the method of SHS - metallurgy from iron-containing wastes of rolled production for alloying of cast iron and results of the effect of alloying element on the degree of boron assimilation with liquid cast iron. Features of Fe-B system combustion have been investigated, and the main parameters to control the phase composition of synthesis products have been experimentally established. Effect of overloads on patterns of cast ligatures formation and mechanisms structure formation of SHS products was studied. It has been shown that an increase in the content of hematite Fe₂O₃ in iron-containing waste leads to an increase in the content of phase FeB and, accordingly, the amount of boron in the ligature. Boron content in ligature is within 3-14%, and the phase composition of obtained ligatures consists of Fe₂B and FeB phases. Depending on the initial composition of the wastes, the yield of the end product reaches 91 - 94%, and the extraction of boron is 70 - 88%. Combustion processes of high exothermic mixtures allow to obtain a wide range of boron-containing ligatures from industrial wastes. In view of the relatively low melting point of the obtained SHS-ligature, the positive dynamics of boron absorption by liquid iron is established. According to the obtained data, the degree of absorption of the ligature by alloying gray cast iron at 1450°C is 80-85%. When combined with the treatment of liquid cast iron with magnesium, followed by alloying with the developed ligature, boron losses are reduced by 5-7%. At that, uniform distribution of boron micro-additives in the volume of treated liquid metal is provided. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli Georgian National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRGNSFG) under the GENIE project (grant number № CARYS-19-802).

Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, cast iron, industrial waste, ductile iron, structure formation

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