Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: elders

51 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee


The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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50 The Study of Elders’ Needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the Options of Health Tourism

Authors: Chantouch Wannathanom


Research The study of elders’ needs in Bangkok metropolis for the options of health tourism. The objective is to study of elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism. The research her collected data using a questionnaire. The samples used in this research is elderly people living in the Dusit area. Of 400 people found the majority were female than male. Accounted for18 percent aged between 50-55 years, mostly undergraduate degree. Moreover, most seniors do not have underlying disease. The study found that 1. Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism; 2. Tourism activity patterns that fit elderly was divided into 5 categories, including massage, massage, and herbal sauna. Practicing meditation and ascetic. The results showed that selection of elderly tourist activities by choosing healthy eating are the first. The hypothesis testing period: Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism is different. The level of statistical significance .05 level.

Keywords: needs, elder, health tourism, Bangkok

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49 Intergenerational Technology Learning in the Family

Authors: Chih-Chun Wu


Learning information and communication technologies (ICT) helps people survive in current society. For the internet generation also referred as digital natives, learning new technology is like breathing; however, for the elder generations also called digital immigrants, including parents and grandparents, learning new technology could be challenged and frustrated. While majority research focused on the effects of elders’ ICT learning, less attention was paid to the help that the elders got from their other family members while learning ICT. This study utilized the anonymous questionnaire to survey 3,749 undergraduates and demonstrated that families are great places for intergenerational technology learning to be carried out. Results from this study confirmed that in the family, the younger generation both helped set up technology products and educated the elder ones needed technology knowledge and skills. The family elder members in this study applied to those who lived under the same roof with relative relations. Results from this study revealed that 2,331 (62.2%) and 2,656 (70.8%) undergraduates revealed that they helped their family elder members set up and taught them how to use LINE respectively. In addition, 1,481 (49.1%) undergraduates helped their family elder members set up, and 2,222 (59.3%) taught them. When it came to Apps, 2,527 (67.4%) helped their family elder members download them, and 2,876 (76.7%) taught how to use them. As for search engine, 2,317 (61.8%) undergraduates taught their family elders. Furthermore, 3,118 (83.2%), 2,639 (70.4%) and 2,004 (53.7%) undergraduates illustrated that they taught their family elder members smartphones, computers and tablets respectively. Meanwhile, only 904 (24.2%) undergraduates taught their family elders how to make a doctor appointment online. This study suggests to making good use of intergenerational technology learning in the family, since it increases family elders’ technology capital, and thus strengthens our country’s human capital and competitiveness.

Keywords: intergenerational technology learning, adult technology learning, family technology learning, ICT learning

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48 Evaluation the Effects of Air Pollution on Elderly People of the City of Tehran

Authors: Farideh Gheitasi, Amir Hossain Jaberansari, Payam Abedini


The World Health Organization (WHO) Manifesto for Safe Communities states that "All human beings have an equal right to health and safety". The purpose of a safe Community is to minimize the damages threatening people. It seems that not sufficient attention has been given to relate environment and objectives of the safe Community. The reason for that can be assigned to the lack of enough information about environmental parameters and their relation with indices of the safe community like type and effect time of damages resulting from air pollution. Air pollution can be characterized as one of main environmental problems of Tehran. This problem is mostly due to the special geographic and climate situation, high population density and irregular growth in the number of vehicles. This paper is aimed at investigating the necessity of considering environmental factors to obtain a safe community through determining the effects of environmental pollution, particularly air pollution, on 490000 elders (+65) of Tehran. The methodology used in this study was on the basis of Random sampling and social surveying. The number of questionnaires was determined to be 321 through using Cochran method and the questionnaires were filled out by elders during personal interviews. The analysis of obtained results indicated that elders believe the major effects of air pollution include heart and respiratory diseases, obligation to stay at home on polluted days and its associated mental problems. Moreover, it was found that there is direct link between the number of polluted days and mortality frequency of elders. Having an environmental view may have an appreciable influence on the qualitative and quantitative development of activities and also facilitate obtaining the goals of the Safe Communities. In addition to reduce damages caused by pollutions, this view will encourage friends of the environment to cooperate with authorities of the safe community.

Keywords: air pollution, elderly people, environment, waste management

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47 The Development of Home-Based Long Term Care Model among Thai Elderly Dependent

Authors: N. Uaphongsathorn, C. Worawong, S. Thaewpia


Background and significance: The population is aging in Thai society, the elderly dependent is at great risk of various functional, psychological, and socio-economic problems as well as less access to health care. They may require long term care at home to maximize their functional abilities and activities of daily living and to improve their quality of life during their own age. Therefore, there is a need to develop a home-based long term care to meet the long term care needs of elders dependent. Methods: The research purpose was to develop long term care model among the elderly dependent in Chaiyaphum province in Northeast region of Thailand. Action Research which is composing of planning, action, observation, and reflection phases was used. Research was carried out for 12 months in all sub-districts of 6 districts in Chaiyaphum province. Participants (N = 1,010) participating in the processes of model development were comprised of 3 groups: a) a total of 110 health care professionals, b) a total of 600 health volunteers and family caregivers and c) a total of 300 the elderly dependent with chronically medical illnesses or disabilities. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. Findings: Results have shown that the most common health problems among elders dependent with physical disabilities to function independently were cardiovascular disease, dementia, and traffic injuries. The development of home-based long term care model among elders dependent in Chaiyaphum province was composed of six key steps. They are: a) initiating policies supporting formal and informal caregivers for the elder dependent in all sub-districts, b) building network and multidisciplinary team, c) developing 3-day care manager training program and 3-day care provider training program d) training case managers and care providers for the elderly dependent through team and action learning, e) assessing, planning and providing care based on care individual’s needs of the elderly dependent, and f) sharing experiences for good practice and innovation for long term care at homes in district urban and rural areas. Among all care managers and care providers, the satisfaction level for training programs was high with a mean score of 3.98 out of 5. The elders dependent and family caregivers addressed that long term care at home could contribute to improving life’s daily activities, family relationship, health status, and quality of life. Family caregivers and volunteers have feeling a sense of personal satisfaction and experiencing providing meaningful care and support for elders dependent. Conclusion: In conclusion, a home-based long term care is important to Thai elders dependent. Care managers and care providers play a large role and responsibility to provide appropriate care to meet the elders’ needs in both urban and rural areas in Thai society. Further research could be rigorously studied with a larger group of populations in similar socio-economic and cultural contexts.

Keywords: elderly people, care manager, care provider, long term care

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46 Effect of the Community Chair-Based Exercise Programme on the Balance of the Elderly in Hong Kong

Authors: Wai Sang Wu, Florence Pik Sze Mok


Introduction: Ageing population is one of the hot topics nowadays in the world and this phenomenon is believed to exacerbate continuously in the future. According to the latest information from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016, the proportion of people aged more than 60 years is projected to be doubled from 12% in 2015 to 22% in 2050 of the world's population. Similarly, according to figures released by the Census and Statistic Department of Hong Kong in 2015, the contribution of elderly aged more than 65 years olds is projected to increase from 15% in 2014 to 34% in 2064 in local community. On the other hand, falls in elderly is a common problem, and it can bring along many negative consequences among elders, such as reducing their mobility level as well as their quality of life. In addition, it can also increase the caring stress of their family caregivers and as well increase the reliance and burden on the medical care system of Hong Kong. Therefore, appropriate measures should be implemented in order to minimize the risk of fall among elders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the chair-based exercise programme in affecting the balance of the elderly in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects (males = 2; females = 11; mean age: 76.2 ± 7.8 years old) were recruited from an elderly social centre in the community to participate in a structural chair-based exercise programme for 6 weeks (1 session per week; 60-minutes per session). Subjects were being assessed on their balance ability using three commonly used clinical assessments, namely, 1) single leg stance (SLS) test, 2) functional reach test, and 3) 360-degree turn test, before and after their participation in the chair-based exercise programme. Pre and post within-subject comparison was adopted to assess the effectiveness of the programme. Results: There was significant improvement (p < 0.05) in all balance parameters of the subjects after their participation in the exercise programme. Elderly demonstrated significant improvement in SLS (p < 0.012), functional reach (p < 0.030) and 360 degree turn (p < 0.043). Conclusions: This study showed that a community chair-based exercise programme is effective in improving the balance ability of the elders. It seems to be another exercise regime that should be promoted among the elders in order to minimize their risk of falls and its negative consequence.

Keywords: balance, chair-based exercise programme, community, elderly

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45 Accessible Facilities in Home Environment for Elderly Family Members in Sri Lanka

Authors: M. A. N. Rasanjalee Perera


The world is facing several problems due to increasing elderly population. In Sri Lanka, along with the complexity of the modern society and structural and functional changes of the family, “caring for elders” seems as an emerging social problem. This situation may intensify as the county is moving into a middle income society. Seeking higher education and related career opportunities, and urban living in modern housing are new trends, through which several problems are generated. Among many issues related with elders, “lack of accessible and appropriate facilities in their houses as well as public buildings” can be identified as a major problem. This study argues that welfare facilities provided for the elderly people, particularly in the home environment, in the country are not adequate. Modern housing features such as bathrooms, pantries, lobbies, and leisure areas etc. are questionable as to whether they match with elders’ physical and mental needs. Consequently, elders have to face domestic accidents and many other difficulties within their living environments. Records of hospitals in the country also proved this fact. Therefore, this study tries to identify how far modern houses are suited with elders’ needs. The study further questioned whether “aging” is a considerable matter when people are buying, planning and renovating houses. A randomly selected sample of 50 houses were observed and 50 persons were interviewed around the Maharagama urban area in Colombo district to obtain primary data, while relevant secondary data and information were used to have a depth analysis. The study clearly found that none of the houses included to the sample are considering elders’ needs in planning, renovating, or arranging the home. Instead, most of the families were giving priority to the rich and elegant appearance and modern facilities of the houses. Particularly, to the bathrooms, pantry, large setting areas, balcony, parking slots for two vehicles, ad parapet walls with roller-gates are the main concerns. A significant factor found here is that even though, many children of the aged are in middle age and reaching their older years at present, they do not plan their future living within a safe and comfortable home, despite that they are hoping to spent the latter part of their lives in the their current homes. This fact highlights that not only the other responsible parts of the society, but also those who are reaching their older ages are ignoring the problems of the aged. At the same time, it was found that more than 80% of old parents do not like to stay at their children’s homes as the living environments in such modern homes are not familiar or convenient for them. Due to this context, the aged in Sri Lanka may have to be alone in their own homes due to current trend of society of migrating to urban living in modern houses. At the same time, current urban families who live in modern houses may have to face adding accessible facilities in their home environment, as current modern housing facilities may not be appropriate them for a better life in their latter part of life.

Keywords: aging population, elderly care, home environment, housing facilities

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44 Traditional Practices of Conserving Biodiversity: A Case Study around Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Rana Parween, Rob Marchant


With the continued loss of global biodiversity despite the application of modern conservation techniques, it has become crucial to investigate non-conventional methods. Accelerated destruction of ecosystems due to altered land use, climate change, cultural and social change, necessitates the exploration of society-biodiversity attitudes and links. While the loss of species and their extinction is a well-known and well-documented process that attracts much-needed attention from researchers, academics, government and non-governmental organizations, the loss of traditional ecological knowledge and practices is more insidious and goes unnoticed. The growing availability of 'indirect experiences' such as the internet and media are leading to a disaffection towards nature and the 'Extinction of Experience'. Exacerbated by the lack of documentation of traditional practices and skills, there is the possibility for the 'extinction' of traditional practices and skills before they are fully recognized and captured. India, as a mega-biodiverse country, is also known for its historical conservation strategies entwined in traditional beliefs. Indigenous communities hold skillsets, knowledge, and traditions that have accumulated over multiple generations and may play an important role in conserving biodiversity today. This study explores the differences in knowledge and attitudes towards conserving biodiversity, of three different stakeholder groups living around Jim Corbett National Park, based on their age, traditions, and association with the protected area. A triangulation designed multi-strategy investigation collected qualitative and quantitative data through a questionnaire survey of village elders, the general public, and forest officers. Following an inductive approach to analyzing qualitative data, the thematic content analysis was followed. All coding and analysis were completed using NVivo 11. Although the village elders and some general public had vast amounts of traditional knowledge, most of it was related to animal husbandry and the medicinal value of plants. Village elders were unfamiliar with the concept of the term ‘biodiversity’ albeit their way of life and attitudes ensured that they care for the ecosystem without having the scientific basis underpinning biodiversity conservation. Inherently, village elders were keen to conserve nature; the superimposition of governmental policies without any tangible benefit or consultation was seen as detrimental. Alienating villagers and consequently the village elders who are the reservoirs of traditional knowledge would not only be damaging to the social network of the area but would also disdain years of tried and tested techniques held by the elders. Forest officers advocated for biodiversity and conservation education for women and children. Women, across all groups, when questioned about nature conservation, showed more interest in learning and participation. Biodiversity not only has an ethical and cultural value, but also plays a role in ecosystem function and, thus, provides ecosystem services and supports livelihoods. Therefore, underpinning and using traditional knowledge and incorporating them into programs of biodiversity conservation should be explored with a sense of urgency.

Keywords: biological diversity, mega-biodiverse countries, traditional ecological knowledge, society-biodiversity links

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43 Creating a Senior-Friendly Workplaces: With Respect to Empowerment

Authors: Liu Yi Hui, Lin Yu Fang, Chiu Fan Yun


In preparation for the coming super-aged society in Taiwan, the Ministry of Labor announced the Middle-aged and Elderly Employment Promotion Act in 2019, dedicating a chapter to expressly prohibiting age discrimination. This study aimed to enhance understanding of workplace ageism by collecting data through in-depth interviews. The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Elderly employment in Taiwan and its three underlying motivations: economic, social, and psychological needs. Economically, elders opt to continue working beyond the traditional retirement age because of financial shocks, a lack of financial planning, and being the breadwinner of the family. Socially and psychologically, they continue working to have a more diversified retirement life and find a new purpose in life. (2) Ageism and its impact on the re-employment of elders: On the ground, senior workers may face the age-based stereotype that their work performance is inferior and a broader social environment that is ostensibly friendly but essentially hostile. (3) Possible ways to facilitate elderly employment in terms of empowerment: By developing and empowering seniors with new skills or abilities for re-employment and strengthening their problem-solving skills in the face of new things through training programs, we can not only build the confidence and substantial abilities of senior workers in the workplace, but also flip the social stereotype about age.

Keywords: elderly employment, empowerment, ageism, elderly employment

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42 Green Architecture from the Thawing Arctic: Reconstructing Traditions for Future Resilience

Authors: Nancy Mackin


Historically, architects from Aalto to Gaudi to Wright have looked to the architectural knowledge of long-resident peoples for forms and structural principles specifically adapted to the regional climate, geology, materials availability, and culture. In this research, structures traditionally built by Inuit peoples in a remote region of the Canadian high Arctic provides a folio of architectural ideas that are increasingly relevant during these times of escalating carbon emissions and climate change. ‘Green architecture from the Thawing Arctic’ researches, draws, models, and reconstructs traditional buildings of Inuit (Eskimo) peoples in three remote, often inaccessible Arctic communities. Structures verified in pre-contact oral history and early written history are first recorded in architectural drawings, then modeled and, with the participation of Inuit young people, local scientists, and Elders, reconstructed as emergency shelters. Three full-sized building types are constructed: a driftwood and turf-clad A-frame (spring/summer); a stone/bone/turf house with inwardly spiraling walls and a fan-shaped floor plan (autumn); and a parabolic/catenary arch-shaped dome from willow, turf, and skins (autumn/winter). Each reconstruction is filmed and featured in a short video. Communities found that the reconstructed buildings and the method of involving young people and Elders in the reconstructions have on-going usefulness, as follows: 1) The reconstructions provide emergency shelters, particularly needed as climate change worsens storms, floods, and freeze-thaw cycles and scientists and food harvesters who must work out of the land become stranded more frequently; 2) People from the communities re-learned from their Elders how to use materials from close at hand to construct impromptu shelters; 3) Forms from tradition, such as windbreaks at entrances and using levels to trap warmth within winter buildings, can be adapted and used in modern community buildings and housing; and 4) The project initiates much-needed educational and employment opportunities in the applied sciences (engineering and architecture), construction, and climate change monitoring, all offered in a culturally-responsive way. Elders, architects, scientists, and young people added innovations to the traditions as they worked, thereby suggesting new sustainable, culturally-meaningful building forms and materials combinations that can be used for modern buildings. Adding to the growing interest in bio-mimicry, participants looked at properties of Arctic and subarctic materials such as moss (insulation), shrub bark (waterproofing), and willow withes (parabolic and catenary arched forms). ‘Green Architecture from the Thawing Arctic’ demonstrates the effective, useful architectural oeuvre of a resilient northern people. The research parallels efforts elsewhere in the world to revitalize long-resident peoples’ architectural knowledge, in the interests of designing sustainable buildings that reflect culture, heritage, and identity.

Keywords: architectural culture and identity, climate change, forms from nature, Inuit architecture, locally sourced biodegradable materials, traditional architectural knowledge, traditional Inuit knowledge

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41 Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Understand Consumers’ Comprehension of Multimedia Health Information

Authors: Samiullah Paracha, Sania Jehanzeb, M. H. Gharanai, A. R. Ahmadi, H.Sokout, Toshiro Takahara


The purpose of this study is to examine how health consumers utilize pictures when developing an understanding of multimedia health documents, and whether attentional processes, measured by eye-tracking, relate to differences in health-related cognitive resources and passage comprehension. To investigate these issues, we will present health-related text-picture passages to elders and collect eye movement data to measure readers’ looking behaviors.

Keywords: multimedia, eye-tracking, consumer health informatics, human-computer interaction

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40 Dispositional Loneliness and Mental Health of the Elderly in Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Peter Unoh Bassey


The study is predicated on the current trend of the rate of dispositional loneliness experienced by the elderly in society today as a result of the breakdown in the family attachment patterns, loss of close associates, and interpersonal conflicts. The research adopted the ex-post facto research design through a survey data collected from a total of 500 elderly comprising of both retirees and community-based elders. Both the stratified and simple sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the elderly should be trained in acquiring specific attachment styles as well as be trained in developing appropriate social skills to counter loneliness.

Keywords: dispositional loneliness, mental health, elderly, cross river state

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39 Approaches To Counseling As Done By Traditional Cultural Healers In North America

Authors: Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy


We describe the type of counseling done by traditional cultural healers in North America. We follow an autoethnographic course development through the first author’s integration of mainstream training and Native-American heritage and study with traditional medicine people. We assemble traditional healing elders from North America and discuss with them their practices and their philosophies of healing. We draw parallels for their approaches in some European-based philosophies and religion, including the work of Heidegger, Levin, Fox, Kierkegaard, and others. An example of the treatment process with a depressed client is provided and similarities and differences with conventional psychotherapies are described.

Keywords: indigenous approaches to counseling, indigenous bodywork, indigenous healing, North American indigenous people

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38 Generative Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being in Mexican Elders

Authors: Ana L. Gonzalez-Celis, Edgardo Ruiz-Carrillo, Karina Reyes-Jarquin, Margarita Chavez-Becerra


Since recent decades, the aging has been viewed from a more positive perspective, where is not only about losses and damage, but also about being on a stage where you can enjoy life and live with well-being and quality of life. The challenge to feel better is to find those resources that seniors have. For that reason, psychological well-being has shown interest in the study of the affect and life satisfaction (hedonic well-being), while from a more recent tradition, focus on the development of capabilities and the personal growth, considering both as the main indicators of the quality of life. A resource that can be used in the later age is generativity, which refers to the ability of older people to develop and grow through activities that contribute with the improvement of the context in which they live and participate. In this way the generative interest is understood as a favourable attitude that contribute to the common benefit while strengthening and enriching the social institutions, to ensure continuity between generations and social development. On the other hand, generative behavior, differentiating from generative interest, is the expression of that attitude reflected in activities that make a social contribution and a benefit for generations to come. Hence the purpose of the research was to test if there is an association between the generative behaviour type and the psychological well-being with their dimensions. For this reason 188 Mexican adults from 60 to 94 years old (M = 69.78), 67% women, 33% men, completed two instruments: The Ryff’s Well-Being Scales to measure psychological well-being with 39 items with two dimensions (Hedonic and Eudaimonic well-being), and the Loyola’s Generative Behaviors Scale, grouped in five categories: Knowledge transmitted to the next generation, things to be remember, creativity, be productive, contribution to the community, and responsibility of other people. In addition, the socio-demographic data sheet was tested, and self-reported health status. The results indicated that the psychological well-being and its dimensions were significantly associated with the presence of generative behavior, where the level of well-being was higher when the frequency of some generative behaviour excelled; finding that the behavior with greater psychological well-being (M = 81.04, SD = 8.18) was "things to be remembered"; while with greater hedonic well-being (M = 73.39, SD = 12.19) was the behavior "responsibility of other people"; and with greater Eudaimonic well-being (M = 84.61, SD = 6.63), was the behavior "things to be remembered”. The most important findings highlight the importance of generative behaviors in adulthood, finding empirical evidence that the generativity in the last stage of life is associated with well-being. However, by finding differences in the types of generative behaviors at the level of well-being, is proposed the idea that generativity is not situated as an isolated construct, but needs other contextualized and related constructs that can simultaneously operate at different levels, taking into account the relationship between the environment and the individual, encompassing both the social and psychological dimension.

Keywords: eudaimonic well-being, generativity, hedonic well-being, Mexican elders, psychological well-being

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37 (Re)connecting to the Spirit of the Language: Decolonizing from Eurocentric Indigenous Language Revitalization Methodologies

Authors: Lana Whiskeyjack, Kyle Napier


The Spirit of the language embodies the motivation for indigenous people to connect with the indigenous language of their lineage. While the concept of the spirit of the language is often woven into the discussion by indigenous language revitalizationists, particularly those who are indigenous, there are few tangible terms in academic research conceptually actualizing the term. Through collaborative work with indigenous language speakers, elders, and learners, this research sets out to identify the spirit of the language, the catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language, and the sources of reconnection to the spirit of the language. This work fundamentally addresses the terms of engagement around collaboration with indigenous communities, itself inviting a decolonial approach to community outreach and individual relationships. As indigenous researchers, this means beginning, maintain, and closing this work in the ceremony while being transparent with community members in this work and related publishing throughout the project’s duration. Decolonizing this approach also requires maintaining explicit ongoing consent by the elders, knowledge keepers, and community members when handling their ancestral and indigenous knowledge. The handling of this knowledge is regarded in this work as stewardship, both in the handling of digital materials and the handling of ancestral Indigenous knowledge. This work observes recorded conversations in both nêhiyawêwin and English, resulting from 10 semi-structured interviews with fluent nêhiyawêwin speakers as well as three structured dialogue circles with fluent and emerging speakers. The words were transcribed by a speaker fluent in both nêhiyawêwin and English. The results of those interviews were categorized thematically to conceptually actualize the spirit of the language, catalysts of disconnection to thespirit of the language, and community voices methods of reconnection to the spirit of the language. Results of these interviews vastly determine that the spirit of the language is drawn from the land. Although nêhiyawêwin is the focus of this work, Indigenous languages are by nature inherently related to the land. This is further reaffirmed by the Indigenous language learners and speakers who expressed having ancestries and lineages from multiple Indigenous communities. Several other key differences embody this spirit of the language, which include ceremony and spirituality, as well as the semantic worldviews tied to polysynthetic verb-oriented morphophonemics most often found in indigenous languages — and of focus, nêhiyawêwin. The catalysts of disconnection to the spirit of the language are those whose histories have severed connections between Indigenous Peoples and the spirit of their languages or those that have affected relationships with the land, ceremony, and ways of thinking. Results of this research and its literature review have determined the three most ubiquitously damaging interdependent factors, which are catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language as colonization, capitalism, and Christianity. As voiced by the Indigenous language learners, this work necessitates addressing means to reconnect to the spirit of the language. Interviewees mentioned that the process of reconnection involves a whole relationship with the land, the practice of reciprocal-relational methodologies for language learning, and indigenous-protected and -governed learning. This work concludes in support of those reconnection methodologies.

Keywords: indigenous language acquisition, indigenous language reclamation, indigenous language revitalization, nêhiyawêwin, spirit of the language

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36 Indigenizing the Curriculum: Teaching at the Ifugao State University, Philippines

Authors: Nancy Ann P. Gonzales, Serafin L. Ngohayon


The Nurturing Indigenous Knowledge Experts (NIKE) among the young generation in Ifugao was a project in Ifugao, Philippines spearheaded by the Ifugao State University (IFSU) and was sponsored by the UNESCO Association in Japan. Through the project, he Ifugao Indigenous Knowledge Workbook was developed. It contains nine chapters. The workbook was pilot-tested to students who had IK classes. The descriptive survey method of research was used. A questionnaire was used to gather data from first year Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Political Science students. Frequency count, percentage and mean were computed. T-test was used to determine if there exists significant difference on knowledge gained before and after IK was taught to the students. Results revealed that the respondents have an increased level of IK in all the areas covered in the NIKE workbook after they enrolled in their classes. It is alarming to note that the students are knowledgeable about IK but they are not practicing it. However, according to the respondents, they will apply their IK through teaching after graduation.

Keywords: curriculum, elders, Indigenous knowledge, and students

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35 Does Rumor Shakes Trust: The Role of Emotions in Local Conflict and Peacemaking

Authors: Safiye Ates Burc


This proposal is based on the story of Kurdish tribal conflict and peace in Mardin (Turkey). In the stories that will be detailed with in-depth interviews with the parties to the conflict (family elders, mediators and other tribal lords); It will be examined how rumor has an effect on establishing conflict and peace and whether it shakes the trust between the parties. In fact, this research is still at an ongoing stage. In this paper, the effect of emotions on conflict and reconciliation, which is the main subject of this ongoing study, will be conveyed in line with the data obtained from the preliminary research. In-depth interviews are conducted in the research in which the ethnography method is used. As an early result, it can be said that in organizations such as the Kurdish tribes, where local loyalties and traditions are very strong, the rumor has the potential to shake the trust between the parties and thus can become the excuse for conflict. Because rumors damage the prestige of tribes, that’s, it’s social capital.

Keywords: rumor, trust, Kurdish tribes, local peacemaking, conflict

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34 Students Awareness on Reproductive Health Education in Sri Lanka

Authors: Ayomi Indika Irugalbandara


Reproductive Health (RE) education among Sri Lankan Adolescents (comprising one fifth inner population) remains unsatisfactory despite 91.8% of them completing primary education & 56.2 % receiving post secondary level education. The main reason for this large population not receiving satisfactory RH education is traditional values and longstanding taboos surrounding sexuality. The current study was undertaken with there objectives. The relevance of achieving them being to formulate RH educational policies and programs that address a sizable and sensitive chunk of the population thereby achieving the goal of mental and social well being and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity. This research was a descriptive study, using random sampling technique, sample of the study consisting of 160 adolescent in the age group of 16-19, studying in government schools in Sri Lanka. Questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection, qualitative and quantitative techniques were used in data analysis. According to the data it was revealed that a majority has some idea about RH education. While this awareness had been provided by the school, the source of information had been Health and Physical Education. The entire sample mentioned that more RH information, than was provided, should be given and everybody wanted further knowledge regarding sexuality, and in depth information on it was essential. About 96 adolescents were of the opinion that their behavior was respectful to elders and 64 felt embarrassed while communicating with elders regarding RH issues. About their preferred sources of information, both genders named health providers as their first choice, followed by family members and friends. The internet was cited by a few boys; less than 5 percent cited religious figures. More than 50% of respondents had no knowledge about abortion and they were unaware of dangerous abortion. The practice of abortion was reported among zero percent. Although every member of the sample did not possess knowledge of the scientific process involved in abortion, all of them totally rejected the idea of destroying a foetus. Adolescence is a critical period in the life of girls and boys and sexuality education empowers young people to protect their health and well-being. Schools have the proper staff, and environment for learning. It might be stated that the greater segment of individuals entering adolescents and going through their adolescence are still in the school. This becomes the reason why it is mandatory that the school should be geared to handle this critical stage of the students. Adolescents or those approaching adolescence are best educated by the relevant parents, but this being quite a sensitive issue in the socio cultural context, it is somewhat doubtful whether all parents are prepared to handle this candidly, due either to lack of knowledge or absence of the appropriate state of mind. As such it is best that seminars/workshops be conducted to enlighten parents on handling HR issues related to their adolescent children. Apart from the awareness on HR provided through the school curriculum a greater impact can be brought about through street dramas, exhibitions etc. specific to HR. Finally the researcher would like to suggest that Sunday schools be harnessed for the provision of HR education linked with cultural values, ethics, and social well-being.

Keywords: reproductive health, awareness, perception, school curriculum

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33 Marketing Planning Strategy to Promote Family Agro-Tourism: A Case Study of Bang Nam Phueng Community Prapradeang District, Samutprakarn Province

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont, Benjaporn Yamjameung


The objectives of this study are to increase tourism products and to develop family agro-tourism. The research methodology was to analyze internal and external situations according to MP-MF and the MC-STEPS principles. The results of this study highlight following necessary improvements; extend the cycling routes, increase the number of bicycle rental shops, offer a recreation place for the elders, organize a space for the floating market products and increase tourism activities throughout the year. In ‘places or distribution channel’ we discuss the improvement of facilities, specifically the routes to facilitate elder visitors and visitors on wheelchairs and furthermore the arrangement of educational trips to relevant centers in the community. In ‘promotions’, we discuss the implementation of an 'all inclusive package' were the agro-tourism program, health-conscious program and the elderly fun program converge.

Keywords: marketing planning strategy, agro-tourism, promotions, Bang Nam Phueng

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32 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel


Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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31 Preparedness of Health System in Providing Continuous Health Care: A Case Study From Sri Lanka

Authors: Samantha Ramachandra, Avanthi Rupasinghe


Demographic transition from lower to higher percentage of elderly population eventually coupled with epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Higher percentage of NCD overload the health system as NCD survivors claims continuous health care. The demands are challenging to a resource constrained setting but reorganizing the system may find solutions. The study focused on the facilities available and their utilization at outpatient department (OPD) setting of the public hospitals of Sri Lanka for continuous medical care. This will help in identifying steps of reorganizing the system to provide better care with the maximum utilization of available facilities. The study was conducted as a situation analysis with secondary data at hospital planning units. Variable were identified according to the world health organization (WHO) recommendation on continuous health care for elders in “age-friendly primary health care toolkit”. Data were collected from secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Sri Lanka where most of the continuous care services are available. Out of 58 secondary and tertiary care hospitals, 16 were included in the study to represent each hospital categories. Average number of patient attending for episodic treatment at OPD and Clinical follow-up of chronic conditions shows vast disparity according to the category of the hospital ranging from 3750 – 800 per day at OPD and 1250 – 200 per clinic session. Average time spent per person at OPD session is low, range from 1.54 - 2.28 minutes, the time was increasing as the hospital category goes down. 93.7% hospitals had special arrangements for providing acute care on chronic conditions such as catheter, feeding tube and wound care. 25% hospitals had special clinics for elders, 81.2% hospitals had healthy lifestyle clinics (HLC), 75% hospitals had physical rehabilitation facilities and 68.8% hospitals had facilities for counselling. Elderly clinics and HLC were mostly available at lower grade hospitals where as rehabilitation and counselling facilities were mostly available at bigger hospitals. HLC are providing health education for both patients and their family members, refer patients for screening of complication but not provide medical examinations, investigations or treatments even though they operate in the hospital setting. Physical rehabilitation is basically offered for patients with rheumatological conditions but utilization of centers for injury rehabilitation and rehabilitation of survivors following major illness such as myocardial infarctions, stroke, cancer is not satisfactory (12.5%). Human Resource distribution within hospital shows vast disparity and there are 103 physiotherapists in the biggest hospital where only 36 physiotherapists available at the next level hospital. Counselling facilities also provided mainly for the patient with psychological conditions (100%) but they were not providing counselling for newly diagnosed patients with major illnesses (0%). According to results, most of the public-sector hospitals in Sri Lanka have basic facilities required in providing continuous care but the utilization of services need more focus. Hospital administration or the government need to have initial steps in proper utilization of them in improving continuous health care incorporating team approach of rehabilitation. The author wishes to acknowledge that this paper was made possible by the support and guidance given by the “Australia Awards Fellowships Program for Sri Lanka – 2017,” which was funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia, and co-hosted by Monash University, Australia and the Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration.

Keywords: continuous care, outpatient department, non communicable diseases, rehabilitation

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30 Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction in Mizoram, India

Authors: Lalrokima Chenkual


Legal provision and various guidelines issued by the National Disaster Management Authority in India strives for setting up of disaster management authority from the central government to the district level. Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction practice is still relevant as the communities are the victim as well as the first responder in any incidents. The primary goal of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction is to reduce vulnerability of the concerned community and strengthen its existing capacity to cope with disaster. By involving the community in the preparedness phase, it not only increases the likelihood of coordinated action by the communities to help in mitigating disasters and lessening the impact of disaster but also brings the community together to address the issue collectively. Community participation ensures local ownership, addresses local needs, and promotes volunteerism and mutual help to prevent and minimise damage. Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction is very much relevant for Mizoram as the society is closed knit, population is very less, religion homogeneity i.e Christianity, very active and widespread community-based organization viz, Young Mizo Association, MHIP (Women Federation), MUP (Elders Clubs which are guided together by Mizo code of morals conduct termed as Tlawmngaihna.

Keywords: community, close-knit, first responder, Tlawmngaihna

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29 Reading Knowledge Development and Its Phases with Generation Z

Authors: Onur Özdemir, M.Erhan ORHAN


Knowledge Development (KD) is just one of the important phases of Knowledge Management (KM). KD is the phase in which intelligence is used to see the big picture. In order to understand whether information is important or not, we have to use the intelligence cycle that includes four main steps: aiming, collecting data, processing and utilizing. KD also needs these steps. To make a precise decision, the decision maker has to be aware of his subordinates’ ideas. If the decision maker ignores the ideas of his subordinates or participants of the organization, it is not possible for him to get the target. KD is a way of using wisdom to accumulate the puzzle. If the decision maker does not bring together the puzzle pieces, he cannot get the big picture, and this shows its effects on the battlefield. In order to understand the battlefield, the decision maker has to use the intelligence cycle. To convert information to knowledge, KD is the main means for the intelligence cycle. On the other hand, the “Z Generation” born after the millennium are really the game changers. They have different attitudes from their elders. Their understanding of life is different - the definition of freedom and independence have different meanings to them than others. Decision makers have to consider these factors and rethink their decisions accordingly. This article tries to explain the relation between KD and Generation Z. KD is the main method of target managing. But if leaders neglect their people, the world will be seeing much more movements like the Arab Spring and other insurgencies.

Keywords: knowledge development, knowledge management, generation Z, intelligence cycle

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28 Caste and Marriage: A Qualitative Study of Four Castes from City of Lahore

Authors: Huma Aly, M. Asir Ajmal, Maryam F Munir


The present study explored the role of caste system in determining and understanding the positive and negative impact of within caste marriages. It analyzed various rituals and concept of dowry system across castes. Reasons for the emphasis on within caste marriage were identified. Qualitative research method was used and for this purpose semi structured interviews were conducted across four castes namely Arains, Jutts, Sayyads, and Kakezais. The sample consisted of eight individuals including a male and female from each caste. Grounded theory method was used to analyze the results. Codes, categories and themes were formulated. Findings revealed that rriage mrituals and dowry system varied across biradries. Parents and grandparents still feel reluctant to marry outside their own caste. One major reason which appeared was that while marrying across castes, individuals feel reluctant to marry in Jutts and Kakezais. On the contrary, modernization, education and urbanization is changing the mindset of new generation and some of them want to eradicate the negative aspects of this system. This study will play a significant part in changing the traditional viewpoint of majority of elders of our society who still have immense association with the caste they belong to.

Keywords: caste, codes, categories, themes, Pakistan

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27 Ethnography of Lamentation: Azadari as It Exists in the Tri-State Shi'i Community and Its Future in the American Milieu

Authors: Safi Haider


This work seeks to understand the fundamental mourning ceremonies termed azadari in the tristate Shi’i community. Azadari, a name derived from the Arabic aza (mourning) and the Persian dari (commemoration) as it exists in the Tri-State Shi'i community has a unique relation to the hearts and minds of its adherents. It shows the development of the community from the various perspective offered by the participants of this work. This work seeks to analyze Azadari in the light of the Tri-State Shi'i community, which is a deeply diverse community, consisting of immigrants from various other countries, including Pakistan, India, Iran, and the Arab communities. At its heart, this work is an ethnography, it seeks to know the experience of those who are a part of the Muharram commemorations and it seek to see what the underlying psychological and the social foundations of Azadari are. Five people from each of the four communities were interviewed, and the aim was to have at least two men, two women, two youth, two elders, and one person from either of these categories. What was found was that the Shi’i community is scarcely a monolith in its mourning practices, and there is a great difference not only when comparing one cultural community to another, but also within the communities as well. This work seeks to analyze azadari from the various perspective of the Shi’i community in the tri-state area. This work seeks to analyze interviews from twenty people in total: two men, two women, two youth, and two adults from each of the communities of the Shi’i of the tristate area, for a total of twenty people. Two Priests were also interviewed for the sake of the paper as well.

Keywords: Ashura, Imam Husayn, Islam, Muharram, Shi'i

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26 Casual Effects of Informal Care and Health on Falls and Other Accidents among the Elderly Population in China

Authors: Hong Wu, Naiji Lu, Chenguang Wang, Xinming Tu


This article analyzes the causal effects of informal care, mental health, and physical health on falls and other accidents (e.g. traffic accidents) among elderly people. To purge potential reversal causal effects, e.g., past accidents induce more future informal care, we use two-stage least squares to identify the impacts. By using longitudinal data from a representative national China Health and retirement longitudinal study of people aged 45 and older in China, our findings indicate that informal care decreases while poor health conditions increase the occurrence of accidents. We also find heterogeneous impacts on the occurrence of accidents, varying by gender, urban status, and past accident history. Our findings suggest the following three policy implications. First, policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account. Second, ease of birth policy and postponed retirement policy are urgent to meet the demand of informal care. Third, medical policies should attach great importance to not only physical health but also mental health of elderly parents especially for older people with accident history.

Keywords: accident, China, fall, informal care, mental health, physical health

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25 To Investigate Quality of Life in Elderly Persons with Dementia Residing in Assisting Living Facility

Authors: Ya-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chen Ouyang, Wei-Siang Huang


Problem/Background: With constantly increasing aged populations, quality of life (QOL) in persons with dementia has become a significant research concern. The Alzheimer’s Related Quality of Life (ADRQL) is a high-validated, theory-derived, and multidimensional instrument. It has widely utilized in many countries, except in Taiwan. However, diverse results of quality of life from different countries by using the same measurement can provide the potential to help understand the impact of cultural contributor on QOL. Objective: To investigate the extent to which quality of life on older adults with dementia in Taiwan. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted in an assisting living facility affiliated with a daycare center in southern Taiwan. A purposeful sample of 34 participants was recruited. Inclusion criteria included those who were at least 65 years old, able to communicate, and diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia. The QOL was measured by Chinese version ADRQL. This observational instrument consists of 30 items that is divided into five subscales with the full range of each subscale scores from 0 to 100.0. Higher scores indicate better QOL. Results: The means for subscale of the Social Interaction, Awareness of Self, Feelings and Mood, Enjoyment of Activities, and Response to Surroundings were 87.9, 74.7, 91.3, 64.5, and 90.3, respectively. The overall mean for the ADQOL was 0.83. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the level of Enjoyment of Activities is the lowest and may convey information about a need of evaluation on arrangement of facility’s activities.

Keywords: dementia, quality of life, elders, Alzheimer’s related quality of life

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24 The Mandaya Woman: Her Role as Balyan (Priestess) and Magdadawot (Bard)

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero


After the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan in the southeastern part of the Philippines in 2012, there was this intense need among the indigenous communities to ‘reconcile’ with nature. The belief that the deluge, which claimed thousands of lives, was caused by the destruction of the environment because of humanities’ greed and carelessness was widespread and strong. The rift had to be mended. Nature had to be appeased. For this, the balyan (priestess) was called in to perform a ritual. Only she can communicate with the spirits. The communities depend on her spiritual intervention as she alone has the power to invoke the spirits of nature. Among the indigenous people, the balyan is most often also a magdadawot (bard) who possesses the knowledge especially about the folk epics and the skill to chant them. The balyan is the communities’ repository of knowledge. When one passes away, a whole library of tribal knowledge and wisdom is lost. The oral traditions embody the life values, ideals, customs, and even the history of the First Nations People. These include the myths, epics, legends, riddles, and songs. The indigenous system is patriarchal, but is actually indirectly matriarchal reflecting the authority of the woman. Disputes within the community are heard and tried by the Council of Elders. However, the balyan is often consulted for her opinion. Her advice is deemed significant and most often necessary. These are three instances that highlight the significant role of the balyan among the indigenous communities in the Philippines, especially among the Mandaya tribe who live in the southern region of the country. This paper highlights the unique kind of leadership of the Mandaya woman – as priestess and bard - and her impact on the lives of her people.

Keywords: balyan, bard, magdadawot, mandaya

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23 The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household: A Case Study of Tha Wasukri, Bangkok

Authors: Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Saowapa Phaithayawat


The research on “The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household” aims to study 1) the way of life of the people who live in the civil servant community in Tha Wasukri, and 2) the model of community administration of civil servants under the Bureau of the Royal Household. This research is conducted qualitatively and quantitatively by collecting data from interviews, focus group discussion, participant and non-participant observation along with the data from the questionnaire based on age groups which include elder group, working age group and youth group. The result of the research shows that the origin of this community is related to the history during the Rama V’s reign. It has been a harbor for the king to boat in any royal ceremonies; this custom is still maintained until today. The status or position of person who serves the king in terms of working is often inherited from the bureau of the Royal Household based on his/her consanguinity and, hence, further receives the rights to live in the Tha Wasukri area. Therefore, this community has some special characteristics demonstrating the way of living influenced by the regulation of the Bureau of the Royal Household such as respecting elders and interdependence in which there is internal social organization with the practice of bureaucracy in going in and out the community. The person who has rights to live here must be friendly to everybody so that this community will be a safe place for lives and property. The administration based on the model of Bangkok for local administration was used as an external structure only, but the way of living still follows the practice of the Bureau of the Royal Household.

Keywords: way of life, community, Tha Wasukri, Bureau of the Royal Household

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22 A Comparative Analysis Of Da’wah Methodology Applied by the Two Variant Factions of Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Alhaji Bala


The Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah is a Da’wah organization and reform movement launched in Jos - Nigeria in 1978 as a purely reform movement under the leadership of late Shaykh Ismai’la Idris. The organization started a full fledge preaching sessions at National, State and Local Government levels immediately after its formation. The contributions of this organization to da'wah activities in Nigeria are paramount. The organization conducted its preaching under the council of preaching with the help of the executives, elders and patrons of the movement. Teaching and preaching have been recognized as the major programs of the society. Its preaching activities are conducted from ward, local, state and national levels throughout the states of Nigeria and beyond. It also engaged itself in establishing Mosques, schools and offers sermons during Friday congregation and Eid days throughout its mosques where its sermon is translated into vernacular language, this attracted many Muslims who don’t understand Arabic to patronize the its activities. The organization however split into two faction due to different approaches to Da’wah methodology and some seemingly selfish interests among its leaders. It is upon this background that this research was conducted using analytical method to compare and contrast the da’wah methodology applied by the two factions of the organization. The research discussed about the formation, Da’wah activities of the organization. It also compared and contrast the Da’wah approach and methodology of the two factions. The research finding reveals that different approach and methods applied by these factions is one of the main reason of their split in addition to other selfish interest among its leaders.

Keywords: activities, Da’wah, methodology, organization

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