Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 870

Search results for: indigenous trauma

870 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel

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Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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869 Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Pearl C. Akanwa, Oyemike Victor Benson

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This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.

Keywords: library, indigenous knowledge, information centres, information professionals

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868 Characteristics of an Indigenous Entrepreneur, in the Post-Apartheid South Africa

Authors: Ndivhuho Tshikovhi

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The debate about indigenous people throughout the world has been necessitated by different circumstances that indigenous communities continue to suffer. Indigenous people of the world suffer chronic diseases, poor education, high unemployment and slow economic developments. This paper contributes to the continuous debate by studying the common elements of indigenous entrepreneur of the world and that of the South African indigenous entrepreneur. The research objective of this paper is to understand what constitute an indigenous status in the South African context as opposed to the indigenous people of the world. Furthermore, the study will explore the indigenous status through their entrepreneurial engagements. The paper will adopt a secondary data research method, by utilising the literature on indigenous entrepreneurship practice and theory of indigenous entrepreneurship. The implications of this paper is to bring about an African indigenous entrepreneurship debate rooted from the correct circumstances rather than generalised definitions. Recommendations for future research will be outlined, together with further readings on circumstantial evidence that necessitate indigenous entrepreneurs status in South Africa.

Keywords: indigenous entrepreneur, indigenous, entrepreneurship, indigenous people, entrepreneurship development

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
867 Analyzing the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Indigenous Tourism on the Indigenous Communities: Case Study of the Nubian Community in Egypt

Authors: M. Makary

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Indigenous tourism is nowadays one of the fastest growing sections of the tourism industry. Nevertheless, it does not yet receive attention on the agenda of public tourism policies in Egypt; however, there are various tourism initiatives in indigenous areas throughout the country mainly in the Nubia region, which located in Upper Egypt, where most of Egypt's indigenous Nubians are concentrated. Considering indigenous tourism can lead to both positive and negative impacts on the indigenous communities the main aim of this study is to analyze the socio-cultural and economic impacts of the indigenous tourism on the indigenous communities in Egypt: the case study of Nubians. Qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection were designed and applied in conducting this study. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and the observations are the main preliminary data collection techniques used in this study while, the secondary data were sourced from articles, statistics, dissertations, and websites. The research concludes that indigenous tourism offers a strong motivation to save the identity of the indigenous communities and to foster their economic development. However, it also has negative impacts on their society.

Keywords: indigenous tourism, sustainable tourism, Indigenous communities, Nubians

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
866 Reflections from Participants and Researchers on a Trauma-Sensitive Yoga Program

Authors: Jessica Gladden

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This study explored the perceived benefits of trauma-sensitive yoga programs. Participants attended one of two six-week trauma-sensitive yoga programs utilizing the G.R.A.C.E model, a format developed based on Emerson’s trauma-sensitive yoga guidelines and modified by the instructors. Participants in this study completed surveys on their experiences. The results of the surveys indicated that participants perceived improvements in self-care, embodiment, and mood. These results show that trauma-sensitive yoga may have benefits beyond the treatment of specific diagnoses that could be applied to a variety of populations. Reflections from one of the researchers who teaches in this program, as well as qualitative statements from the participants, will be shared to support the continued use of this method.

Keywords: yoga, trauma-sensitive, yoga therapy, trauma

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865 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto

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Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law

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864 The Mental Health of Indigenous People During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Sarah J. Ponton, Mikaela D. Gabriel, Roy Strebel, Xinyi Lu

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Indigenous Peoples have faced unique barriers to accessing and receiving culturally safe and appropriate mental health care while also facing daunting rates of mental health diagnoses and comorbidities. Indigenous researchers and clinicians have well established the connection of the current mental health issues in Indigenous communities as a direct result of colonization by way of intergenerational trauma throughout Canada’s colonial history. Such mental health barriers and challenges have become exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, access to mental health, cultural, ceremonial, and community services were severely impacted and restricted; however, it is these same cultural activities and community resources that are key to supporting Indigenous mental health from a traditional and community-based perspective. This research employed a unique combination of a thorough, analytical scoping review of the existent mental health literature of Indigenous mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside narrative interviews employing an oral storytelling tradition methodology with key community informants that provide comprehensive cultural services to the Indigenous community of Toronto, as well as across Canada. These key informant interviews provided a wealth of insights into virtual transitions of Indigenous care and mental health support; intersections of historical underfunding and current financial navigation in technology infrastructure; accessibility and connection with Indigenous youth in remote locations; as well as maintaining community involvement and traditional practices in a current pandemic. Both the scoping review and narrative interviews were meticulously analyzed for overarching narrative themes to best explore the extent of the literature on Indigenous mental health and services during COVID-19; identify gaps in this literature; identify barriers and supports for the Indigenous community, and explore the intersection of community and cultural impacts to mental health. Themes of the scoping review included: Historical Context; Challenges in Culturally-Based Services; and Strengths in Culturally-Based Services. Meta themes across narrative interviews included: Virtual Transitions; Financial Support for Indigenous Services; Health Service Delivery & Wellbeing; and Culture & Community Connection. The results of this scoping review and narrative interviews provide wide application and contribution to the mental health literature, as well as recommendations for policy, service provision, autonomy in Indigenous health and wellbeing, and crucial insights into the present and enduring mental health needs of Indigenous Peoples throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: indigenous community services, indigenous mental health, indigenous scoping review, indigenous peoples and Covid-19

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863 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri

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This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro, memory, trauma

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862 The Europeanization of Indigenous Tradition: Inventing Classical Wise Men in Prehispanic Mexico

Authors: Jongsoo Lee

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From the beginning of the conquest, the Spanish missionaries promoted indigenous intellectuality to prove that indigenous people were capable of receiving Christian doctrine. To prove indigenous intellectuality, Spanish missionaries focused on the highly advanced and complex level of indigenous political, religious, moral, artistic, and cultural practices. In this context, they frequently compared the Aztecs with European gentiles such as Greeks and Romans. In the chronicles of the Spanish missionaries such as Bernardino de Sahagún, indigenous wise men (tlamatinime) appear as clear evidence of indigenous civility and capability. As the pagan Greek and Roman philosophers, orators, rhetoricians, theologians, and physicians known as wise men in European history were responsible for the advanced level of social systems, some Spanish missionaries tried to identify those types of people, tlamatinime, in Aztec society. This paper examines how the Spanish colonizers invented European-style wise men in Prehispanic Mexico.

Keywords: Aztec, indigenous tradition, prehispanic Mexico, wise men

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861 A Strategic Communication Design Model for Indigenous Knowledge Management

Authors: Dilina Janadith Nawarathne

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This article presents the initial development of a communication model (Model_isi) as the means of gathering, preserving and transferring indigenous knowledge in the field of knowledge management. The article first discusses the need for an appropriate complimentary model for indigenous knowledge management which differs from the existing methods and models. Then the paper suggests the newly developed model for indigenous knowledge management which generate as result of blending key aspects of different disciplines, which can be implemented as a complementary approach for the existing scientific method. The paper further presents the effectiveness of the developed method in reflecting upon a pilot demonstration carried out on selected indigenous communities of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge management, knowledge transferring, tacit knowledge, research model, asian centric philosophy

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860 Transmission of Intergenerational Trauma: Protecting Those who Still Suffer from Pain of their Ancestors’ Trauma

Authors: Bonnie Pollak

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As the world continues to suffer grievous injuries, future generations will suffer from trauma that was inflicted on innocent victims. Trauma can result from refugees fleeing their homes, exposure to warfare, loss of loved ones, and lack of shelter and basic necessities. The Holocaust continues to cause pain even though WWII ended nearly 80 years ago. One cannot forget the inhumane treatment and murder of relatives. The pain and trauma may continue for generations. The purpose of the Final Solution was to eliminate Jews in totality. Though Hitler’s plan was not successful, he managed to cause trauma that will continue with no end date in sight. “The Effects of Trauma and Secondary Trauma,” Trauma can cause life-long challenges, eating disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleeping difficulties, fear of going outside, guilt, separation problems, and epigenetic changes. Secondary Trauma, witnessing a loved one in danger or hearing about the danger, can cause similar symptoms as seen in primary trauma. The transmission of trauma was demonstrated in children of Holocaust survivors and in communities where oppression was commonplace. We are witnessing a repeat of widescale death and horrific injuries today in Ukraine and in other parts of the world, where concern for pain and trauma is not acknowledged by perpetrators. Lessons from the Holocaust can be applied to help others who have been traumatized by widescale terrorism resulting in death of loved ones, loss of home and shelter, food and other life-sustaining measures. The world must help victims by providing basic necessities but also by using trauma-informed care, focusing on strength and resilience, and helping individuals to feel pride in their identity.

Keywords: transmission of intergenerational trauma, impact on religious beliefs and practices, 2nd generation, identity

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859 Trauma-Informed Leadership: Educational Leadership Practices in a Global Pandemic

Authors: Kyna Elliott

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The COVID-19 global pandemic has changed the shape, design, and delivery of education. As communities continue to fight the pandemic, research suggests the coronavirus is leaving an indelible mark on education which will last long after the pandemic has ended. Faculty and students bring more than their textbooks into the classroom. They bring their lived experiences into the classroom, and it is through these lived experiences that interactions and learning filter through. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a traumatic experience for many. Leaders will need to have the tools and skills to mitigate trauma's impact on faculty and students. This presentation will explore research-based trauma-informed leadership practices, pedagogy, and mitigation strategies within secondary school environments.

Keywords: COVID-19, compassion fatigue, educational leadership, the science of trauma, trauma-informed leadership, trauma-informed pedagogy

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858 Vietnamese Indigenous Healing’s Implication for Vietnamese Women Counseling in Korea

Authors: Youngsub Oh, Youngsoon Kim

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As the second largest group among international marriages in Korea, Vietnamese married immigrant women have been exposed to psychological crisis like divorce and family violence. The purpose of this study is to understand how to counsel those women from the perspective of indigenous healing as their own psychological problem-solving way. To this end, this study reviewed Vietnamese cultural literatures on their mentality as well as Vietnamese medical literatures on indigenous healing. The research results are as follows: First, cultural foundations that have formed Vietnamese mentality are Confucian value system, reserved communication, and religious pluralism. These cultural backgrounds play an important role in understanding their own therapeutic tradition. Second, Vietnamese indigenous healing considers cause of mental disease as a collapse of balance between mind and body and environment. Thus, indigenous treatment deals with psychological problems through a recovery of the balance from the holistic perspective. In fact, indigenous healing has been actively practiced in everyday place as well as hospital until today. The implications of Vietnamese indigenous healing for multicultural counseling in Korea are as follows: First, Korean counselors need to interactively understand their own assumptions on indigenous healing as well as counselees’ own assumptions. Second, a variety of psychological intervention strategies can be drawn from Vietnamese indigenous healing. Third, indigenous healing needs to be integrated with modern techniques of counseling and psychotherapy, as both treatments are not mutually exclusive but complementary.

Keywords: indigenous healing, Korea, multicultural counseling, Vietnamese married immigrant women

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857 Hand in Hand with Indigenous People Worldwide through the Discovery of Indigenous Entrepreneurial Models: A Systematic Literature Review of International Indigenous Entrepreneurship

Authors: Francesca Croce

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Governmental development strategies aimed at entrepreneurship as a major resource for economic development and poverty reduction of indigenous people. As initiatives and programs are local based, there is a need to better understand the contextual factors of indigenous entrepreneurial models. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to analyze and integrated the indigenous entrepreneurship literature in order to identify the main models of indigenous entrepreneurship. To answer this need, a systematic literature review was conducted. Relevant articles were identified in selected electronic databases (ABI/Inform Global, Business Source Premier, Web of Science; International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Academic Search, Sociological Abstract, Entrepreneurial Studies Sources and Bibliography of Native North America) and in selected electronic review. Beginning to 1st January 1995 (first International Day of the World’s Indigenous People), 59 academic articles were selected from 1411. Through systematic analysis of the cultural, social and organizational variables, the paper highlights that a typology of indigenous entrepreneurial models is possible thought the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystem, which includes the geographical position and the environment of the indigenous communities. The results show three models of indigenous entrepreneurship: the urban indigenous entrepreneurship, the semi-urban indigenous entrepreneurship, and rural indigenous entrepreneurship. After the introduction, the paper is organized as follows. In the first part theoretical and practical needs of a systematic literature review on indigenous entrepreneurship are provided. In the second part, the methodology, the selection process and evaluation of the articles are explained. In the third part, findings are presented and each indigenous entrepreneurial model characteristics are discussed. The results of this study bring a new theorization about indigenous entrepreneurship and may be useful for scientists in the field in search of overcoming the cognitive border of Indigenous business models still too little known. Also, the study is addressed to policy makers in charge of indigenous entrepreneurial development strategies more focused on contextual factors studies.

Keywords: community development, entrepreneurial ecosystem, indigenous entrepreneurship model, indigenous people, systematic literature review

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856 Perpetrator Trauma in Current World Cinema

Authors: Raya Morag

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This paper proposes a new paradigm for cinema/trauma studies - the trauma of the perpetrator. Canonical trauma research from Freud’s Aetiology of Hysteria to the present has been carried out from the perspective of identification with the victim, as have cinema trauma research and contemporary humanities-based trauma studies, climaxing during the 1990s in widespread interest in the victim vis-à-vis the Holocaust, war, and domestic violence. Breaking over 100 years of repression of the abhorrent and rejected concept of the perpetrator in psychoanalytic-based research proposes an uncanny shift in our conception of psychoanalysis' trajectory from women's 'hysteria' to 'post-traumatic stress disorder'. This new paradigm is driven by the global emergence of new waves of films (2007-2015) representing trauma suffered by perpetrators involved in the new style of war entailing deliberate targeting of non-combatants. Analyzing prominent examples from Israeli post-second Intifada documentaries (e.g., Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir), and post post-Iraq (and Afghanistan) War American documentaries (e.g., Errol Morris' Standard Operating Procedure), the paper discusses the limitations of victim trauma by the firm boundaries it (rightly) set in order to defend such victims of nineteenth and especially twentieth-century catastrophes; the epistemological processes needed in order to consider perpetrators’ trauma as an inevitable part of psychiatric-psychological and cultural perspectives on trauma, and, thus, the definition of perpetrators' trauma in contrast to victims'. It also analyzes the perpetrator's figure in order to go beyond the limitation of current trauma theory's relation to the Real, thus transgressing the 'unspeakableness' of the trauma itself. The paper seeks an exploration of what perpetrator trauma teaches us not only as a counter-paradigm to victim trauma, but as a reflection on the complex intertwining of the two paradigms in the twenty-first century collective new war unconscious, and on what psychoanalysis might offer us in the first decade of this terrorized-ethnicized century.

Keywords: American war documentaries, Israeli war documentaries, 'new war', perpetrator trauma

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855 Self Determination Theory and Trauma Informed Approach in Women's Shelters: A Common Ground

Authors: Gamze Dogan Birer

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Women’s shelters provide service to women who had been subjected to physical, psychological, economical, and sexual violence. It is proposed that adopting a trauma-informed approach in these shelters would contribute to the ‘woman-defined’ success of the service. This includes reshaping the physical qualities of the shelter, contacts, and interventions that women face during their stay in a way that accepts and addresses their traumatic experiences. It is stated in this paper that the trauma-informed approach has commonalities with the basic psychological needs that are proposed by self-determination theory. Therefore, it is proposed that self-determination theory can be used as a theoretical background for trauma-informed approach

Keywords: self determination theory, trauma informed approach, violence against women, women's shelters

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854 Indigenous Knowledge Management: Towards Identification of Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Emmanuel Uwazie Anyanwu, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ogbonna Isaac-Nnadimele

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical discourse that highlights the challenges associated with management of indigenous knowledge with reference to developing countries. Literature review and brainstorming were used to collect relevant data and draw inferences. The findings indicate that non-existence of indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), low level of partnership drive among library and information services providers, non-uniformity of format and content of indigenous knowledge, inadequate funding, and lack of access to ICTs, lack of indigenous people with indigenous expertise and hoarding of knowledge as challenges to indigenous knowledge management. The study is based on literature review and information gathered through brain storming with professional colleagues the geographic scope as developing countries. The study has birth several implication based on the findings made. Professionally, it has necessitated the need for formulating a viable indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), creating of collaborative network through partnership, and integration of ICTs to indigenous knowledge management practices by libraries in developing countries etc. The originality of this paper is revealed in its capability as serving as an eye opener to librarians on the need for preserving and managing indigenous knowledge in developing countries. It further unlocks the possibilities of exploring empirical based researches to substantiate the theoretical issues raised in this paper. The findings may be used by library managers to improve indigenous knowledge management (IKM).

Keywords: developing countries, ICTs, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management

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853 Importance of Health and Social Capital to Employment Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Belayet Hossain, Laura Lamb

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The study investigates the importance of health and social capital in determining the labour force status of Canada’s Indigenous population using data from 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. An instrumental variable ordered probit model has been specified and estimated. The study finds that health status and social capital are important in determining Indigenous peoples’ employment status along with other factors. The results of the study imply that human resource development initiatives of Indigenous Peoples need to be broadened by including health status and social capital. Poor health and low degree of inclusion of the Indigenous Peoples need to be addressed in order to improve employment status of Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.

Keywords: labour force, human capital, social capital, aboriginal people, Canada

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
852 Implementation of an Accessible State-Wide Trauma Education Program

Authors: Christine Lassen, Elizabeth Leonard, Matthew Oliver

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The management of trauma is often complex and outcomes dependent on clinical expertise, effective teamwork, and a supported trauma system. The implementation of a statewide trauma education program should be accessible to all clinicians who manage trauma, but this can be challenging due to diverse individual needs, trauma service needs and geography. The NSW Institute of Trauma and Injury Management (ITIM) is a government funded body, responsible for coordinating and supporting the NSW Trauma System. The aim of this presentation is to describe how education initiatives have been implemented across the state. Simulation: In 2006, ITIM developed a Trauma Team Training Course - aimed to educate clinicians on the technical and non-technical skills required to manage trauma. The course is now independently coordinated by trauma services across the state at major trauma centres as well as in regional and rural hospitals. ITIM is currently in the process of re-evaluating and updating the Trauma Team Training Course to allow for the development of new resources and simulation scenarios. Trauma Education Evenings: In 2013, ITIM supported major trauma services to develop trauma education evenings which allowed the provision of free education to staff within the area health service and local area. The success of these local events expanded to regional hospitals. A total of 75 trauma education evenings have been conducted within NSW, with over 10,000 attendees. Wed-Based Resources: Recently, ITIM commenced free live streaming of the trauma education evenings which have now had over 3000 live views. The Trauma App developed in 2015 provides trauma clinicians with a centralised portal for trauma information and works on smartphones and tablets that integrate with the ITIM website. This supports pre-hospital and bedside clinical decisions and allows for trauma care to be more standardised, evidence-based, timely, and appropriate. Online e-Learning modules have been developed to assist clinicians, reduce unwarranted clinical variation and provide up to date evidence based education. The modules incorporate clinically focused education content with summative and formative assessments. Conclusion: Since 2005, ITIM has helped to facilitate the development of trauma education programs for doctors, nurses, pre-hospital and allied health clinicians. ITIM has been actively involved in more than 100 specialized trauma education programs, seminars and clinical workshops - attended by over 12,000 staff. The provision of state-wide trauma education is a challenging task requiring collaboration amongst numerous agencies working towards a common goal – to provide easily accessible trauma education.

Keywords: education, simulation, team-training, trauma

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851 Predicting the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma on the Formation of Defense Mechanisms with the Mediating Role of Object Relations in Traders

Authors: Ahmadreza Jabalameli, Mohammad Ebrahimpour Borujeni

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According to psychodynamic theories, the major personality structure of individuals is formed in the first years of life. Trauma is an inseparable and undeniable part of everyone's life and they inevitably struggle with many traumas that can have a very significant impact on their lives. The present study deals with the relationship between childhood trauma on the formation of defense mechanisms and the role of object relations. The present descriptive study is a correlation with structural equation modeling (SEM). Sample selection is available and consists of 200 knowledgeable traders in Jabalameli Information Technology Company. The results indicate that the experience of childhood trauma with a demographic moderating effect, through the mediating role of object relations can lead to vulnerability to ego reality functionality and immature and psychically disturbed defense mechanisms. In this regard, there is a significant negative relationship between childhood trauma and object relations with mature defense mechanisms.

Keywords: childhood trauma, defense mechanisms, object relations, trade

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850 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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849 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, lactate, transfusion, trauma

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848 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

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According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: aboriginal, audience, Australia, children, culture, drama, home, human rights, identity, Indigenous, Jane Harrison, memory, scenic effects, setting, stage, stage directions, Stolen, trauma

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847 Voice in Music Therapy and Adult Trauma Research: Presenting a Meta-Synthesis of Lived Experience Perspectives

Authors: Kirsten B. Hillman

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There is a growing body of qualitative research in adult mental health and music therapy contexts which highlights user perspectives; however, only a very small sub-section of this literature pertains to people with lived experiences of psychological trauma. This paper will provide a meta-synthesis of this existing body of research, with the intention to present a cohesive overview of salient themes in this research and a platform for the under-represented voices of those with lived experience. This synthesis will be contextualised within a broader discussion of ‘Voice’ in trauma and music therapy research, considering its layered meanings: including literal expressive vocalising and musical expression, voicing after experiences of silencing, and the possibilities of experiencing self-determination and agency in therapy after trauma.

Keywords: lived experience, music therapy, trauma, user perspectives

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846 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

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Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: trauma, literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

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845 Positivism Legal Controversy: Dilemma Carok as Madura’s Culture through Indigenous Dispute Settlement in Indonesia

Authors: M. Yasin Al-Arif, Mohammad Faisol Soleh

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The Indonesia’s Constitution in Article 18b explained that the state recognizes and respects indigenous peoples and their traditional rights that are guaranteed by the law. Despite already guaranteed its existence; in practice such indigenous law is often considered contrary to positive law by legal experts. It is because of legal positivism paradigm which requires the written law as the main reference for the settlement of legal disputes. Carok’s culture is one of the indigenous cultures of Madura to resolve legal disputes that still thrives until today. Carok’s culture is in outside the legal process, and through a fight between the disputing parties until one dies. On the other hand, the legal positivism does not give place to accommodate Carok as indigenous dispute settlement, until it must be solved through trial. This way of settlement has not been successfully satisfying the indigenous people, thus although it has been done through its verdict in the trial, but Carok still be used by them. From the explanation above, Carok’s culture must be accommodated as the main settlement process and legal process of law as the alternative to the effectiveness of dispute resolution in Madura Indonesia.

Keywords: carok, dispute settlement, legal positivism, madura’s culture

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844 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death, autopsy, emergency medicine

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843 Teaching Vietnamese as the Official Language for Indigenous Preschool Children in Lai Chau, Vietnam: Exploring Teachers' Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Thao Thi Vu, Libby Lee-Hammond, Andrew McConney

Abstract:

In Vietnam, the Vietnamese language is normally used as the language of instruction. The dominance of this language places children who have a different first language such as Indigenous children at a disadvantage when commencing school. This study explores preschool teachers’ beliefs about second language acquisition in Lai Chau provinces where is typical of highland provinces of Vietnam and the proportion of Indigenous minority groups in high. Data were collected from surveys with both closed-end questions and opened-end questions. The participants in this study were more than 200 public preschool teachers who come from eight different districts in Lai Chau. An analysis of quantitative data survey is presented to indicate several practical implications, such as the connection between teachers’ knowledge background that gained from their pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding second language teaching for Indigenous children and their practice. It also explains some factors that influence teachers’ beliefs and perspective about Indigenous children and pedagogies in their classes.

Keywords: indigenous children, learning Vietnamese, preschool, teachers’ beliefs

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842 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar

Abstract:

Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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841 Indigenous Understandings of Climate Vulnerability in Chile: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: Rosario Carmona

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss the importance of indigenous people participation in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Specifically, it analyses different understandings of climate vulnerability among diverse actors involved in climate change policies in Chile: indigenous people, state officials, and academics. These data were collected through participant observation and interviews conducted during October 2017 and January 2019 in Chile. Following Karen O’Brien, there are two types of vulnerability, outcome vulnerability and contextual vulnerability. How vulnerability to climate change is understood determines the approach, which actors are involved and which knowledge is considered to address it. Because climate change is a very complex phenomenon, it is necessary to transform the institutions and their responses. To do so, it is fundamental to consider these two perspectives and different types of knowledge, particularly those of the most vulnerable, such as indigenous people. For centuries and thanks to a long coexistence with the environment, indigenous societies have elaborated coping strategies, and some of them are already adapting to climate change. Indigenous people from Chile are not an exception. But, indigenous people tend to be excluded from decision-making processes. And indigenous knowledge is frequently seen as subjective and arbitrary in relation to science. Nevertheless, last years indigenous knowledge has gained particular relevance in the academic world, and indigenous actors are getting prominence in international negotiations. There are some mechanisms that promote their participation (e.g., Cancun safeguards, World Bank operational policies, REDD+), which are not absent from difficulties. And since 2016 parties are working on a Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform. This paper also explores the incidence of this process in Chile. Although there is progress in the participation of indigenous people, this participation responds to the operational policies of the funding agencies and not to a real commitment of the state with this sector. The State of Chile omits a review of the structure that promotes inequality and the exclusion of indigenous people. In this way, climate change policies could be configured as a new mechanism of coloniality that validates a single type of knowledge and leads to new territorial control strategies, which increases vulnerability.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, climate change, vulnerability, Chile

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