Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1006

Search results for: upper jurassic

1006 Stratigraghy and Identifying Boundaries of Mozduran Formation with Magnetite Method in East Kopet-Dagh Basin

Authors: Z. Kadivar, M. Vahidinia, A. Mousavinia


Kopet-Dagh Mountain Range is located in the north and northeast of Iran. Mozduran Formation in the east of Kopet-Dagh is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, with shale and sandstone interbedded. Mozduran Formation is reservoir rock of the Khangiran gas field. The location of the study was east Kopet-Dagh basin (Northeast Iran) where the deliberate thickness of formation is 418 meters. In the present study, a total of 57 samples were gathered. Moreover, 100 thin sections were made out of 52 samples. According to the findings of the thin section study, 18 genera and nine species of foraminifera and algae were identified. Based on the index fossils, the age of the Mozduran Formation was identified as Upper Jurassic (Kimmerdgian-Tithonian) in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin. According to the magnetite data (total intensity and RTP map), there is a disconformity (low intensity) between the Kashaf-Rood Formation and Mozduran Formation. At the top, where among Mozduran Formation and Shurijeh Formation, is high intensity and a widespread disconformity (high intensity).

Keywords: upper jurassic, magnetometre, mozduran formation, stratigraphy

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1005 Upper Jurassic Foraminiferal Assemblages and Palaeoceanographical Changes in the Central Part of the East European Platform

Authors: Clementine Colpaert, Boris L. Nikitenko


The Upper Jurassic foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform have been strongly investigated through the 20th century with biostratigraphical and in smaller degree palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical purposes. Over the Late Jurassic, the platform was a shallow epicontinental sea that extended from Tethys to the Artic through the Pechora Sea and further toward the northeast in the West Siberian Sea. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Russian Sea were strongly affected by sea-level changes and were controlled by alternated Boreal to Peritethyan influences. The central part of the East European Platform displays very rich and diverse foraminiferal assemblages. Two sections have been analyzed; the Makar'yev Section in the Moscow Depression and the Gorodishi Section in the Yl'yanovsk Depression. Based on the evolution of foraminiferal assemblages, palaeoenvironment has been reconstructed, and sea-level changes have been refined. The aim of this study is to understand palaeoceanographical changes throughout the Oxfordian – Kimmeridgian of the central part of the Russian Sea. The Oxfordian was characterized by a general transgressive event with intermittency of small regressive phases. The platform was connected toward the south with Tethys and Peritethys. During the Middle Oxfordian, opening of a pathway of warmer water from the North-Tethys region to the Boreal Realm favoured the migration of planktonic foraminifera and the appearance of new benthic taxa. It is associated with increased temperature and primary production. During the Late Oxfordian, colder water inputs associated with the microbenthic community crisis may be a response to the closure of this warm-water corridor and the disappearance of planktonic foraminifera. The microbenthic community crisis is probably due to the increased sedimentation rate in the transition from the maximum flooding surface to a second-order regressive event, increasing productivity and inputs of organic matter along with sharp decrease of oxygen into the sediment. It is following during the Early Kimmeridgian by a replacement of foraminiferal assemblages. The almost all Kimmeridgian is characterized by the abundance of many common with Boreal and Subboreal Realm. Connections toward the South began again dominant after a small regressive event recorded during the Late Kimmeridgian and associated with the abundance of many common taxa with Subboreal Realm and Peritethys such as Crimea and Caucasus taxa. Foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform are strongly affected by palaeoecological changes and may display a very good model for biofacies typification under Boreal and Subboreal environments. The East European Platform appears to be a key area for the understanding of Upper Jurassic big scale palaeoceanographical changes, being connected with Boreal to Peritethyan basins.

Keywords: foraminifera, palaeoceanography, palaeoecology, upper jurassic

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1004 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko


The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: isotopes, oysters, Siberia, taxonomy

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1003 The Structure of Southern Tunisian Atlas Deformation Front: Integrated Geological and Geophysical Interpretation

Authors: D. Manai, J. Alvarez-Marron, M. Inoubli


The southern Tunisian Atlas is a part of the wide Cenozoic intracontinental deformation that affected North Africa as a result of convergence between African and Eurasian plates. The Southern Tunisian Atlas Front (STAF) corresponds to the chotts area that covers several hundreds of Km² and represents a 60 km wide transition between the deformed Tunisian Atlas to the North and the undeformed Saharan platform to the South. It includes three morphostructural alignments, a fold and thrust range in the North, a wide depression in the middle and a monocline to horizontal zone to the south. Four cross-sections have been constructed across the chotts area to illustrate the structure of the Southern Tunisian Atlas Front based on integrated geological and geophysical data including geological maps, petroleum wells, and seismic data. The fold and thrust zone of the northern chotts is interpreted as related to a detachment level near the Triassic-Jurassic contact. The displacement of the basal thrust seems to die out progressively under the Fejej antiform and it is responsible to the south dipping of the southern chotts range. The restoration of the cross-sections indicates that the Southern Tunisian Atlas front is a weakly deformed wide zone developed during the Cenozoic inversion with a maximum calculated shortening in the order of 1000 m. The wide structure of this STAF has been influenced by a pre-existing large thickness of upper Jurassic-Aptian sediments related to the rifting episodes associated to the evolution of Tethys in the Maghreb. During Jurassic to Aptian period, the chotts area corresponded to a highly subsiding basin.

Keywords: Southern Tunisian Atlas Front, subsident sub- basin, wide deformation, balanced cross-sections.

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1002 Structural-Lithological Conditions of Formation of Epithermal Gold Sulphide Satellite Deposits in the North Part of Chovdar Ore Area

Authors: Nabat Gojaeva, Mikayil Naghiyev, Sultan Jafarov, Gular Mikayilova


Chovdar ore area is located in the contact of Dashkesan caldera and Shamkir horst-graben uplift, which comprises the central part of Lok-Karabakh Island arcs of South Caucasus metallogenic province in terms of regional tectonics. One of the main structural features of formation of the Mereh and Aghyokhush group of low sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, locating in the north peripheric part of the ore area, is involving the crossing areas of ore-hosting and ore-forming Pan-Caucasian-direction structurally-compound faults with the meridional, rhombically shaped faults. In addition, another significant feature is the temporally two- or three-stage ore formation. In the first stage -an early phase of Upper Bathonian age, sulfides are the dominant minerals, in the second stage- late ‘productive’ phase of Upper Bathonian age, mainly gold mineralization is formed. Also, in the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous ages, rarely-encountered Cu-polymetallic ore formations are documented. Finally, in the last stage, the re-dislocation of ore-formation is foreseen in the previously-formed mineralization areas. The faults in the strike and dip directions formed shearing, brecciation, sulfide mineralization aureoles, and hydrothermal alteration zones in the wall rocks along with the local depression blocks. The geological-structural analysis of the area shows that multiple and various morphogenetic volcano-tectonically fault systems have developed in the area. These fault systems have played a trap role for ore-formation in the intersected parts of faults mentioned above. Thus, in the referred parts, mostly predominance of felsic volcanism and metasomatic alteration (silicification, argillitic, etc.) of wall rocks, as well as the products of this volcanism, account for the inclusion of hydrothermal ore-forming fluids along these faults. It is possible to determine temporally and lithological-structural connection between the ore-formation along with local depression blocks and faults as borders for products of felsic volcanism of Upper Cretaceous-Lesser Jurassic ages, in the results of the replacement of hydrothermal alteration zones with relatively low-temperature metasomatic alterations while moving from the felsic parts to the margins, and due to being non-ore bearing intermediate and intermediate-felsic magmatic facies.

Keywords: Aghyokhush, fault, gold deposit, Mereh

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1001 Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Aswan Aswan


Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.

Keywords: ichnofossil, Jurassic, sediment, reservoir, Bintuni, Indonesia, West Papua

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1000 Effective Virtual Tunnel Shape for Motion Modification in Upper-Limb Perception-Assist with a Power-Assist Robot

Authors: Kazuo Kiguchi, Kouta Ikegami


In the case of physically weak persons, not only motor abilities, but also sensory abilities are sometimes deteriorated. The concept of perception-assist has been proposed to assist the sensory ability of the physically weak persons with a power-assist robot. Since upper-limb motion is very important in daily living, perception-assist for upper-limb motion has been proposed to assist upper-limb motion in daily living. A virtual tunnel was applied to modify the user’s upper-limb motion if it was necessary. In this paper, effective shape of the virtual tunnel which is applied in the perception-assist for upper-limb motion is proposed. Not only the position of the grasped tool but also the angle of the grasped tool are modified if it is necessary. Therefore, the upper-limb motion in daily living can be effectively modified to realize certain proper daily motion. The effectiveness of the proposed virtual tunnel was evaluated by performing the experiments.

Keywords: motion modification, power-assist robots, perception-assist, upper-limb motion

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999 Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Formations of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan

Authors: Himanshu Kumar Gupta


The Jaisalmer Basin is one of the parts of the Rajasthan basin in northwestern India. The presence of five major unconformities/hiatuses of varying span i.e. at the top of Archean basement, Cambrian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene have created the foundation for constructing a sequence stratigraphic framework. Based on basin formative tectonic events and their impact on sedimentation processes three first-order sequences have been identified in Rajasthan Basin. These are Proterozoic-Early Cambrian rift sequence, Permian to Middle-Late Eocene shelf sequence and Pleistocene - Recent sequence related to Himalayan Orogeny. The Permian to Middle Eocene I order sequence is further subdivided into three-second order sequences i.e. Permian to Late Jurassic II order sequence, Early to Late Cretaceous II order sequence and Paleocene to Middle-Late Eocene II order sequence. In this study, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sequence was identified and log-based interpretation of smaller order T-R cycles have been carried out. A log profile from eastern margin to western margin (up to Shahgarh depression) has been taken. The depositional environment penetrated by the wells interpreted from log signatures gave three major facies association. The blocky and coarsening upward (funnel shape), the blocky and fining upward (bell shape) and the erratic (zig-zag) facies representing distributary mouth bar, distributary channel and marine mud facies respectively. Late Jurassic Formation (Baisakhi-Bhadasar) and Early Cretaceous Formation (Pariwar) shows a lesser number of T-R cycles in shallower and higher number of T-R cycles in deeper bathymetry. Shallowest well has 3 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 2 T-R cycles in Pariwar, whereas deeper well has 4 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 8 T-R cycles in Pariwar Formation. The Maximum Flooding surfaces observed from the stratigraphy analysis indicate major shale break (high shale content). The study area is dominated by the alternation of shale and sand lithologies, which occurs in an approximate ratio of 70:30. A seismo-geological cross section has been prepared to understand the stratigraphic thickness variation and structural disposition of the strata. The formations are quite thick to the west, the thickness of which reduces as we traverse towards the east. The folded and the faulted strata indicated the compressional tectonics followed by the extensional tectonics. Our interpretation is supported with seismic up to second order sequence indicates - Late Jurassic sequence is a Highstand Systems Tract (Baisakhi - Bhadasar formations), and the Early Cretaceous sequence is Regressive to Lowstand System Tract (Pariwar Formation).

Keywords: Jaisalmer Basin, sequence stratigraphy, system tract, T-R cycle

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998 Assessment of the Environmental Compliance at the Jurassic Production Facilities towards HSE MS Procedures and Kuwait Environment Public Authority Regulations

Authors: Fatemah Al-Baroud, Sudharani Shreenivas Kshatriya


Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is one of the companies for gas & oil production in Kuwait. The oil and gas industry is truly global; with operations conducted in every corner of the globe, the global community will rely heavily on oil and gas supplies. KOC has made many commitments to protect all due to KOC’s operations and operational releases. As per KOC’s strategy, the substantial increase in production activities will bring many challenges in managing various environmental hazards and stresses in the company. In order to handle those environmental challenges, the need of implementing effectively the health, safety, and environmental management system (HSEMS) is significant. And by implementing the HSEMS system properly, the environmental aspects of the activities, products, and services were identified, evaluated, and controlled in order to (i) Comply with local regulatory and other obligatory requirements; (ii) Comply with company policy and business requirements; and (iii) Reduce adverse environmental impact, including adverse impact to company reputation. Assessments for the Jurassic Production Facilities are being carried out as a part of the KOC HSEMS procedural requirement and monitoring the implementation of the relevant HSEMS procedures in the facilities. The assessments have been done by conducting series of theme audits using KOC’s audit protocol at JPFs. The objectives of the audits are to evaluate the compliance of the facilities towards the implementation of environmental procedures and the status of the KEPA requirement at all JPFs. The list of the facilities that were covered during the theme audit program are the following: (1) Jurassic Production Facility (JPF) – Sabriya (2) Jurassic Production Facility (JPF) – East Raudhatian (3) Jurassic Production Facility (JPF) – West Raudhatian (4)Early Production Facility (EPF 50). The auditing process comprehensively focuses on the application of KOC HSE MS procedures at JPFs and their ability to reduce the resultant negative impacts on the environment from the operations. Number of findings and observations were noted and highlighted in the audit reports and sent to all concerned controlling teams. The results of these audits indicated that the facilities, in general view, were in line with KOC HSE Procedures, and there were commitments in documenting all the HSE issues in the right records and plans. Further, implemented several control measures at JPFs that minimized/reduced the environmental impact, such as SRU were installed for sulphur recovery. Future scope and monitoring audit after a sufficient period of time will be carried out in conjunction with the controlling teams in order to verify the current status of the recommendations and evaluate the contractors' performance towards the required actions in preserving the environment.

Keywords: assessment of the environmental compliance, environmental and social impact assessment, kuwait environment public authority regulations, health, safety and environment management procedures, jurassic production facilities

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997 Estimation of the Upper Tail Dependence Coefficient for Insurance Loss Data Using an Empirical Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Adrian O'Hagan, Robert McLoughlin


Considerable focus in the world of insurance risk quantification is placed on modeling loss values from lines of business (LOBs) that possess upper tail dependence. Copulas such as the Joe, Gumbel and Student-t copula may be used for this purpose. The copula structure imparts a desired level of tail dependence on the joint distribution of claims from the different LOBs. Alternatively, practitioners may possess historical or simulated data that already exhibit upper tail dependence, through the impact of catastrophe events such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In these circumstances, it is not desirable to induce additional upper tail dependence when modeling the joint distribution of the loss values from the individual LOBs. Instead, it is of interest to accurately assess the degree of tail dependence already present in the data. The empirical copula and its associated upper tail dependence coefficient are presented in this paper as robust, efficient means of achieving this goal.

Keywords: empirical copula, extreme events, insurance loss reserving, upper tail dependence coefficient

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996 Nutrient Foramina in the Shaft of Long Bones of Upper Limb

Authors: Madala Venkateswara Rao


The major blood supply to the long bones occurs through the nutrient arteries, which enters through the nutrient foramina. This is the study of nutrient Foramina in the shaft of upper limb long bones taken from the department of Anatomy at Narayana medical college nellore. Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, 'to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee' but they are very variable in position. Their number, location, direction & its importance in the growing end of long bones were studied in the long bones of upper limb. The present study has variations in the position & direction of long bones especially in the radius & ulna, as most of the nutrient foramina are found in anterior surface of upper 1/3rd and middle 1/3rd of these bones. The study of nutrient foramina is not only of academic interest but also in medico-legal practice in relation to their position. Careful observation has also been made on the position of nutrient foramina in relation to upper end of long bones. This study also gives importance of length long bones to know the height of an individual. With the knowledge of variations in the nutrient foramen, placement of internal fixation devices can be appropriately done.

Keywords: nutrient artery, nutrient foramina, shaft of long bones, upper limb bones

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995 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi


This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: enough size, good potential, shale gas, structure closure

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994 Formulating Rough Approximations in Information Tables with Possibilistic Information

Authors: Michinori Nakata, Hiroshi Sakai


A rough set, which consists of lower and upper approximations, is formulated in information tables containing possibilistic information. First, lower and upper approximations on the basis of possible world semantics in the same way as Lipski did in the field of incomplete databases are shown in order to clarify fundamentals of rough sets under possibilistic information. Possibility and necessity measures are used, as is done in possibilistic databases. As a result, each object has certain and possible membership degrees to lower and upper approximations, which degrees are the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, the degree that the object belongs to lower and upper approximations is expressed by an interval value. And the complementary property linked with the lower and upper approximations holds, as is valid under complete information. Second, the approach based on indiscernibility relations, which is proposed by Dubois and Prade, are extended in three cases. The first case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects are characterized by possibilistic information. The second case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information are characterized by complete information. The third case is that objects that are characterized by possibilistic information approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information. The extended approach create the same results as the approach based on possible world semantics. This justifies our extension.

Keywords: rough sets, possibilistic information, possible world semantics, indiscernibility relations, lower approximations, upper approximations

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993 Upper Bound of the Generalized P-Value for the Difference between Two Future Population Means

Authors: Rada Somkhuean, Sa-aat Niwitpong, Suparat Niwitpong


This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the difference between two future population means when the variances are unknown, in both cases for when the variances are equal and unequal. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: generalized p-value, two future population means, upper bound, variances

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992 Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi


Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.

Keywords: Jebel Oust, fluid inclusions, North Eastern Tunisia, mineralization

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991 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith


This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: exoskeleton- upper limb system, model free terminal sliding mode, gravity compensation, robustness analysis

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990 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont


Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

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989 CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition

Authors: Y. T. Ku, S. W. Chen, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang


In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.

Keywords: CFD, BWR, decommissioning, upper pool

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988 Designing and Using a 3-D Printed Dynamic Upper Extremity Orthosis (DUEO) with Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Upper Extremity Involvement

Authors: Justin Lee, Siraj Shaikh, Alice Chu MD


Children with cerebral palsy (CP) commonly present with upper extremity impairment, affecting one or both extremities, and are classified using the Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS). The MACS defines bimanual hand abilities for children ages 4-18 years in everyday tasks and is a gradient scale, with I being nearly normal and V requiring total assistance. Children with more severe upper extremity impairment (MACS III-V) are often underrepresented, and relatively few effective therapies have been identified for these patients. Current orthoses are static and are only meant to prevent the progression of contractures in these patients. Other limitations include cost, comfort, accessibility, and longevity of the orthoses. Taking advantage of advances in 3D printing technology, we have created a highly customizable upper extremity orthotic that can be produced at a low cost. Iterations in our design have resulted in an orthotic that is custom fit to the patient based on scans of their arm, made of rigid polymer when needed to provide support, flexible material where appropriate to allow for comfort, and designed with a mechanical pulley system to allow for some functional use of the arm while in the orthotic. Preliminary data has shown that our orthotic can be built at a fraction of the cost of current orthoses and provide clinically significant improvement in assisting hand assessment (AHA) and pediatric quality of life scores (PedsQL).

Keywords: upper extremity orthosis, upper extremity, orthosis, 3-D printing, cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, spasticity, customizable

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987 Late Pleistocene Raised Coral Reefs in Rabigh Area, Red Sea: Microfacies and Environmental Interpretation

Authors: Ammar Manaa


The late Pleistocene raised coral reef terraces, 1 to 5 m above present sea level, are distinguished in Rabigh area into two marine terraces at elevations 0.5 m and 3.20 m, in addition to back-reef facies. The lower and upper terraces consist mainly of corals that increased in abundance and distribution in the upper terrace, with a minor occurrence of detrital quartz and feldspar. The back-reef facies consist mainly of coralline algae with a minor occurrence of corals. The upper terrace was interpreted as a reef crest or algal ridge due to the dominance of bindstone facies. The lower terrace indicates an outer reef flat with the occurrence of grainstone and rudstone facies. The coral framework in the upper terrace indicates a low energy environment. Within the back-reef terrace, calcareous mud was dominant, which indicates low energy, lagoon environment. The XRD results for the studied terraces revealed a variable abundance of aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and low-Mg calcite, with a slight increase in calcite and high-Mg calcite in the upper terrace. The dominant diagenetic processes in the terraces are cementation by fibrous and blocky calcite and dissolution that varied slightly between the lower and upper terraces. This study provides a coral reef model relevant to a low energy system in a dry and hot environment.

Keywords: late Pleistocene, Rabigh, reef terraces, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

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986 Increasing Access to Upper Limb Reconstruction in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Michelle Jennett, Jana Dengler, Maytal Perlman


Background: Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that results in upper limb paralysis, loss of independence, and disability. People living with cervical SCI have identified improvement of upper limb function as a top priority. Nerve and tendon transfer surgery has successfully restored upper limb function in cervical SCI but is not universally used or available to all eligible individuals. This exploratory mixed-methods study used an implementation science approach to better understand these factors that influence access to upper limb reconstruction in the Canadian context and design an intervention to increase access to care. Methods: Data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information’s Discharge Abstracts Database (CIHI-DAD) and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) were used to determine the annual rate of nerve transfer and tendon transfer surgeries performed in cervical SCI in Canada over the last 15 years. Semi-structured interviews informed by the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) were used to explore Ontario healthcare provider knowledge and practices around upper limb reconstruction. An inductive, iterative constant comparative process involving descriptive and interpretive analyses was used to identify themes that emerged from the data. Results: Healthcare providers (n = 10 upper extremity surgeons, n = 10 SCI physiatrists, n = 12 physical and occupational therapists working with individuals with SCI) were interviewed about their knowledge and perceptions of upper limb reconstruction and their current practices and discussions around upper limb reconstruction. Data analysis is currently underway and will be presented. Regional variation in rates of upper limb reconstruction and trends over time are also currently being analyzed. Conclusions: Utilization of nerve and tendon transfer surgery to improve upper limb reconstruction in Canada remains low. There are a complex array of interrelated individual-, provider- and system-level barriers that prevent individuals with cervical SCI from accessing upper limb reconstruction. In order to offer equitable access to care, a multi-modal approach addressing current barriers is required.

Keywords: cervical spinal cord injury, nerve and tendon transfer surgery, spinal cord injury, upper extremity reconstruction

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985 The Development of Community Leadership Strategies for Career Development of the Benjarong Pottery Products in Eight Upper Central Provinces

Authors: Thanaporn Chaimongkol


The objective of this research was aimed to examine the factors that influence the development of community leadership strategies to further develop the career regarding the Benjarong pottery products in eight upper central provinces, Thailand. The sample included (1) 1200 Benjarong pottery operators, (2) 30 involved representatives at both the policy level and support, and (3) OTOP network of 24 people. In this quantitative study, investigating data was conducted on individual session basis. The research instruments used included questionnaires and interview. The results showed that the components of the development of the community leadership strategies for career development of the Benjarong pottery products in eight upper central provinces were high overall; the Five Competitive Forces were of the highest average, followed by bargaining power of suppliers, and McKinsey 7's framework, respectively; where the highest average was strategy.

Keywords: community leadership, strategy development, Benjarong Pottery, 8 upper central provinces

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984 Influence Zone of Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat Underlain by Soft Clay (2nd reviewed)

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed


Shallow foundation on soft soils without ground improvement can represent a high level of settlement. In such a case, an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a soil system in which the upper layer is untreated or cement-treated compacted sand to limit the settlement within a permissible level. This research work deals with a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on a soil consisting of untreated or cement treated sand layer underlain by homogeneous soft clay. Both the thin and thick compared the footing width was considered. The soft inorganic cohesive NC clay layer is considered undrained for plastic loading stages and drained in consolidation stages, and the sand layer is drained in all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0 with a model consisting of clay deposits of 15m thickness and 18m width. The soft clay layer was modeled using the Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep model, and the upper improvement layer was modeled using only the Hardening Soil Model. The system is considered fully saturated. The value of natural void ratio 1.2 is used. Total displacement fields of strip footing and subsoil layers in the case of Untreated and Cement treated Sand as Upper layer are presented. For Hi/B =0.6 or above, the distribution of major deformation within an upper layer and the influence zone of footing is limited in an upper layer which indicates the complete effectiveness of the upper layer in bearing the foundation effectively in case of the untreated upper layer. For Hi/B =0.3 or above, the distribution of major deformation occurred within an upper layer, and the function of footing is limited in the upper layer. This indicates the complete effectiveness of the cement-treated upper layer. Brittle behavior of cemented sand and fracture or cracks is not considered in this analysis.

Keywords: displacement, ground improvement, influence depth, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

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983 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe


The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.


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982 A Questionnaire-Based Survey: Therapists Response towards Upper Limb Disorder Learning Tool

Authors: Noor Ayuni Che Zakaria, Takashi Komeda, Cheng Yee Low, Kaoru Inoue, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah


Previous studies have shown that there are arguments regarding the reliability and validity of the Ashworth and Modified Ashworth Scale towards evaluating patients diagnosed with upper limb disorders. These evaluations depended on the raters’ experiences. This initiated us to develop an upper limb disorder part-task trainer that is able to simulate consistent upper limb disorders, such as spasticity and rigidity signs, based on the Modified Ashworth Scale to improve the variability occurring between raters and intra-raters themselves. By providing consistent signs, novice therapists would be able to increase training frequency and exposure towards various levels of signs. A total of 22 physiotherapists and occupational therapists participated in the study. The majority of the therapists agreed that with current therapy education, they still face problems with inter-raters and intra-raters variability (strongly agree 54%; n = 12/22, agree 27%; n = 6/22) in evaluating patients’ conditions. The therapists strongly agreed (72%; n = 16/22) that therapy trainees needed to increase their frequency of training; therefore believe that our initiative to develop an upper limb disorder training tool will help in improving the clinical education field (strongly agree and agree 63%; n = 14/22).

Keywords: upper limb disorder, clinical education tool, inter/intra-raters variability, spasticity, modified Ashworth scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
981 Assessment of Hamstring, Lower Back and Upper Body Flexibility in War Disabled Individuals in Sri Lanka North and East Region

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, A. A. J. Rajaratne


During the 30 year civil war in Sri Lanka, a large number of individuals were injured and disabled. These disabilities have reduced their daily physical activities which may cause reduction in flexibility of upper limb, shoulder girdle, lower back and lower limb. Muscle flexibility is important for a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the study was to assess the upper limb, shoulder girdle and lower back, hamstring flexibility of the intact lower limb in disabled individuals in the North and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. Back saver sits and reach test and shoulder scratch test described in FITNESS GRAM was used in the study. A total of 125 disabled soldiers with lower limb disabilities were recruited for the study. Flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles of uninjured lower limb was measured using back saver sit and reach test described by Wells and Dillon (1952). Upper limb and shoulder girdle flexibility was assessed using shoulder stretch test. Score 0-3 was given according to the ability to reach Superior medial angle of the opposite scapula, top of the head or the mouth. The results indicate that 31 (24.8%) disabled soldiers have lower limb flexibility less than 8, 2 (1.6 % ) have flexibility of 8, 2 (1.6 %) have flexibility of 8.5, 11 ( 8.8% ) have flexibility of 9, 14 (11.2 %) have flexibility of 9.5, 23 (18.4 %) have flexibility of 10, 17 (13.6 %) have 10.5 flexibility, 13 (10.4%) have 11 flexibility, 2 (1.6%) have 11.5 flexibility, 10 (8 %) have flexibility of 12 and 3 (2.34 %) have flexibility of 12.5. Six disabled soldiers (4.8%) have upper limb flexibility of 2 and remaining 95.2% have normal upper limb flexibility (score 3). A reduction in the flexibility of muscles in lower body and lower limbs was seen in 25% disabled soldiers which could be due to reduction in their daily physical activities.

Keywords: disability, flexibility, rehabilitation, quality of life

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980 First Order Moment Bounds on DMRL and IMRL Classes of Life Distributions

Authors: Debasis Sengupta, Sudipta Das


The class of life distributions with decreasing mean residual life (DMRL) is well known in the field of reliability modeling. It contains the IFR class of distributions and is contained in the NBUE class of distributions. While upper and lower bounds of the reliability distribution function of aging classes such as IFR, IFRA, NBU, NBUE, and HNBUE have discussed in the literature for a long time, there is no analogous result available for the DMRL class. We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the reliability function of the DMRL class in terms of first order finite moment. The lower bound is obtained by showing that for any fixed time, the minimization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean is equivalent to its minimization over a smaller class of distribution with a special form. Optimization over this restricted set can be made algebraically. Likewise, the maximization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean turns out to be a parametric optimization problem over the class of DMRL distributions of a special form. The constructive proofs also establish that both the upper and lower bounds are sharp. Further, the DMRL upper bound coincides with the HNBUE upper bound and the lower bound coincides with the IFR lower bound. We also prove that a pair of sharp upper and lower bounds for the reliability function when the distribution is increasing mean residual life (IMRL) with a fixed mean. This result is proved in a similar way. These inequalities fill a long-standing void in the literature of the life distribution modeling.

Keywords: DMRL, IMRL, reliability bounds, hazard functions

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979 Mineral Chemistry of Barium and Titanium-Bearing Biotite in Alkaline Trachyte from Upper Benue Valley (Northern Cameroon)

Authors: Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouota, Isaac Bertrand Gbambié Mbowoub, Ismaila Ngounounob


Barium and titanium bearing biotite from alkaline trachyte of Upper Benue valley, Northern Cameroon is studied. The iron enrichment index of mica (average I.E.=0.40) is intermediate between annite and phlogopite. The biotite phenocrysts contain up to 6.2 wt. % BaO and 9.8 wt. % TiO2. The BaO content of electron-microprobe mica is positively correlated with the Al2O3, TiO2, and FeO contents, and negatively correlated with the SiO2, K2O, and MgO contents. Ba and Ti rich micas are generally found in in SiO2 deficient rocks, whereas Ba and Ti bearing mica in this study occur in silica-saturated rocks. Most of the phenocrysts analysed have deficiencies in their octahedral and interlayer sites. Deficiencies in the octahedral sites may arise from the Ti vacancy and partly the Ti tschermakite substitution. On the other hand, deficiencies in the interlayer-site are due to the replacement of K by Ba. The substitution mechanism in the Upper Benue valley mica is characterized by Ba + 2Ti + 3Al =(K + Na + Ca) + 3(Mg + Fe + Mn) + 3Si, with an excellent correlation coefficient. Biotite compositions from the Upper Benue valley area fall between the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) and nickel-nickel-oxide (NNO) oxygen fugacity buffers. All these show that Upper Benue valley mica with high Ba and Ti contents may be formed from magmas rich in these elements.

Keywords: Benue valley, trachyte, biotite, mineral chemistry, enrichment

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978 Body Perception and Self-Esteem in Individuals Performing Bodybuilding Exercise Program

Authors: Yildiz Erdoganoglu, Unzile Tunc


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of body, upper extremity, lower extremity endurance, and core functionality with body perception and self-esteem in individuals who applied for a bodybuilding exercise program. Forty volunteer male subjects who underwent bodybuilding exercises for one year or more were included in the study. After obtaining demographic information of the individuals, trunk endurance was evaluated by curl-up and modified Sorensen test, upper extremity endurance by push-up test, lower extremity endurance by repeated squat test, core functionalities by single-leg wall sitting and repeated single-leg squatting tests. body perception, body image perception scale, and self-esteem were evaluated with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The mean age of the individuals was 25.60 ± 4.70 years, mean exercise time was 22.47 ± 34.60 months. At the end of the study, body perception was low, and self-esteem was moderate. There was no significant relationship between abdominal endurance, back extensor endurance, upper extremity, and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and body perception (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant relationship between abdominal extensor, back extensor, upper extremity and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and self-esteem (p > 0.05). The body, upper and lower extremity endurance, and core functionality of bodybuilders did not have any effect on body perception and self-esteem, suggesting that these individuals did not contribute positively to their efforts to improve their body perception and self- esteem.

Keywords: body endurance, body perception, core functionality, self esteem

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977 The Effect of Body Positioning on Upper-Limb Arterial Occlusion Pressure and the Reliability of the Method during Blood Flow Restriction Training

Authors: Stefanos Karanasios, Charkleia Koutri, Maria Moutzouri, Sofia A. Xergia, Vasiliki Sakellari, George Gioftsos


The precise calculation of arterial occlusive pressure (AOP) is a critical step to accurately prescribe individualized pressures during blood flow restriction training (BFRT). AOP is usually measured in a supine position before training; however, previous reports suggested a significant influence in lower limb AOP across different body positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of three different body positions on upper limb AOP and the reliability of the method for its standardization in clinical practice. Forty-two healthy participants (Mean age: 28.1, SD: ±7.7) underwent measurements of upper limb AOP in supine, seated, and standing positions by three blinded raters. A cuff with a manual pump and a pocket doppler ultrasound were used. A significantly higher upper limb AOP was found in seated compared with supine position (p < 0.031) and in supine compared with standing position (p < 0.031) by all raters. An excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (0.858- 0.984, p < 0.001) was found in all positions. Upper limb AOP is strongly dependent on body position changes. The appropriate measurement position should be selected to accurately calculate AOP before BFRT. The excellent inter-rater reliability and repeatability of the method suggest reliable and consistent results across repeated measurements.

Keywords: Kaatsu training, blood flow restriction training, arterial occlusion, reliability

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