Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Leticia Ishikawa

36 Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

Authors: Marcelo Dias Carvalho, Leticia Ishikawa


Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk management techniques and management policies designed to create lean enterprises. The result of a good balance of these actions is the reduction of losses, increased customer trust in the company and better preparedness to face the general risks of a supply chain.

Keywords: just in time, lean manufacturing, supply chain disruptions, supply chain management

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35 Analysis of Labor Effectiveness at Green Tea Dry Sorting Workstation for Increasing Tea Factory Competitiveness

Authors: Bayu Anggara, Arita Dewi Nugrahini, Didik Purwadi


Dry sorting workstation needs labor to produce green tea in Gambung Tea Factory. Observation results show that there is labor who are not working at the moment and doing overtime jobs to meet production targets. The measurement of the level of labor effectiveness has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of labor effectiveness and provide recommendations for improvement based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram. The method used to measure the level of labor effectiveness is Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE). OLE had three indicators which are availability, performance, and quality. Recommendations are made based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram for indicators that do not meet world standards. Based on the results of the study, the OLE value was 68.19%. Recommendations given to improve labor performance are adding mechanics, rescheduling rest periods, providing special training for labor, and giving rewards to labor. Furthermore, the recommendations for improving the quality of labor are procuring water content measuring devices, create material standard policies, and rescheduling rest periods.

Keywords: Ishikawa diagram, labor effectiveness, OLE, Pareto diagram

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34 A Three-Step Iterative Process for Common Fixed Points of Three Contractive-Like Operators

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan, H. Fukhar-ud-Din


The concept of quasi-contractive type operators was given by Berinde and extended by Imoru and Olatinwo. They named this new type as contractive-like operators. On the other hand, Xu and Noo introduced a three-step-one-mappings iterative process which can be seen as a generalization of Mann and Ishikawa iterative processes. Approximating common fixed points has its own importance as it has a direct link with minimization problem. Motivated by this, in this paper, we first extend the iterative process of Xu and Noor to the case of three-step-three-mappings and then prove a strong convergence result using contractive-like operators for this iterative process. In general, this generalizes corresponding results using Mann, Ishikawa and Xu-Noor iterative processes with quasi-contractive type operators. It is to be pointed out that our results can also be proved with iterative process involving error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, common fixed point, strong convergence

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33 Biochemical Characterization and Structure Elucidation of a New Cytochrome P450 Decarboxylase

Authors: Leticia Leandro Rade, Amanda Silva de Sousa, Suman Das, Wesley Generoso, Mayara Chagas Ávila, Plinio Salmazo Vieira, Antonio Bonomi, Gabriela Persinoti, Mario Tyago Murakami, Thomas Michael Makris, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin


Alkenes have an economic appeal, especially in the biofuels field, since they are precursors for drop-in biofuels production, which have similar chemical and physical properties to the conventional fossil fuels, with no oxygen in their composition. After the discovery of the first P450 CYP152 OleTJE in 2011, reported with its unique property of decarboxylating fatty acids (FA), by using hydrogen peroxide as a cofactor and producing 1-alkenes as the main product, the scientific and technological interest in this family of enzymes vastly increased. In this context, the present work presents a new decarboxylase (OleTRN) with low similarity with OleTJE (32%), its biochemical characterization, and structure elucidation. As main results, OleTRN presented a high yield of expression and purity, optimum reaction conditions at 35 °C and pH from 6.5 to 8.0, and higher specificity for oleic acid. Besides that, structure-guided mutations were performed and according to the functional characterizations, it was observed that some mutations presented different specificity and chemoselectivity by varying the chain-length of FA substrates from 12 to 20 carbons. These results are extremely interesting from a biotechnological perspective as those characteristics could diversify the applications and contribute to designing better cytochrome P450 decarboxylases. Considering that peroxygenases have the potential activity of decarboxylating and hydroxylating fatty acids and that the elucidation of the intriguing mechanistic involved in the decarboxylation preferential from OleTJE is still a challenge, the elucidation of OleTRN structure and the functional characterizations of OleTRN and its mutants contribute to new information about CYP152. Besides that, the work also contributed to the discovery of a new decarboxylase with a different selectivity profile from OleTJE, which allows a wide range of applications.

Keywords: P450, decarboxylases, alkenes, biofuels

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32 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

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31 Basis Theorem of Equivalence of Explicit-Type Iterations for the Class of Multivalued Phi-Quasi-Contrative Maps in Modular Function Spaces

Authors: Hudson Akewe


We prove that the convergence of explicit Mann, explicit Ishikawa, explicit Noor, explicit SP, explicit multistep and explicit multistep-SP fixed point iterative procedures are equivalent for the classes of multi-valued phi-contraction, phi-Zamfirescu and phi-quasi-contractive mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. Our results complement equivalence results on normed and metric spaces in the literature as they elegantly cut out the triangle inequality.

Keywords: multistep iterative procedures, multivalued mappings, equivalence results, fixed point

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30 Frequency- and Content-Based Tag Cloud Font Distribution Algorithm

Authors: Ágnes Bogárdi-Mészöly, Takeshi Hashimoto, Shohei Yokoyama, Hiroshi Ishikawa


The spread of Web 2.0 has caused user-generated content explosion. Users can tag resources to describe and organize them. Tag clouds provide rough impression of relative importance of each tag within overall cloud in order to facilitate browsing among numerous tags and resources. The goal of our paper is to enrich visualization of tag clouds. A font distribution algorithm has been proposed to calculate a novel metric based on frequency and content, and to classify among classes from this metric based on power law distribution and percentages. The suggested algorithm has been validated and verified on the tag cloud of a real-world thesis portal.

Keywords: tag cloud, font distribution algorithm, frequency-based, content-based, power law

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29 Wet Polymeric Precipitation Synthesis for Monophasic Tricalcium Phosphate

Authors: I. Grigoraviciute-Puroniene, K. Tsuru, E. Garskaite, Z. Stankeviciute, A. Beganskiene, K. Ishikawa, A. Kareiva


Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) powders were synthesized using wet polymeric precipitation method for the first time to our best knowledge. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of almost single a Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) phase of a poor crystallinity already at room temperature. With continuously increasing the calcination temperature up to 800 °C, the crystalline β-TCP was obtained as the main phase. It was demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy is very effective method to characterize the formation of β-TCP. The SEM results showed that β-TCP solids were homogeneous having a small particle size distribution. The β-TCP powders consisted of spherical particles varying in size from 100 to 300 nm. Fabricated β-TCP specimens were placed to the bones of the rats and maintained for 1-2 months.

Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, bone regeneration, wet chemical processing, polymeric precipitation

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28 Simulation Data Summarization Based on Spatial Histograms

Authors: Jing Zhao, Yoshiharu Ishikawa, Chuan Xiao, Kento Sugiura


In order to analyze large-scale scientific data, research on data exploration and visualization has gained popularity. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and visualization of scientific simulation data, and define a spatial V-Optimal histogram for data summarization. We propose histogram construction algorithms based on a general binary hierarchical partitioning as well as a more specific one, the l-grid partitioning. For effective data summarization and efficient data visualization in scientific data analysis, we propose an optimal algorithm as well as a heuristic algorithm for histogram construction. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments on the massive evacuation simulation data.

Keywords: simulation data, data summarization, spatial histograms, exploration, visualization

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27 Using Data from Foursquare Web Service to Represent the Commercial Activity of a City

Authors: Taras Agryzkov, Almudena Nolasco-Cirugeda, Jose L. Oliver, Leticia Serrano-Estrada, Leandro Tortosa, Jose F. Vicent


This paper aims to represent the commercial activity of a city taking as source data the social network Foursquare. The city of Murcia is selected as case study, and the location-based social network Foursquare is the main source of information. After carrying out a reorganisation of the user-generated data extracted from Foursquare, it is possible to graphically display on a map the various city spaces and venues –especially those related to commercial, food and entertainment sector businesses. The obtained visualisation provides information about activity patterns in the city of Murcia according to the people`s interests and preferences and, moreover, interesting facts about certain characteristics of the town itself.

Keywords: social networks, spatial analysis, data visualization, geocomputation, Foursquare

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26 Critical Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle for its Maintainability Using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis

Authors: Sayali Vyas, Atharva Desai, Shreyas Badave, Apurv Kulkarni, B. Rajiv


The Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an efficient evaluation technique to identify potential failures in products, processes, and services. FMEA is designed to identify and prioritize failure modes. It proves to be a useful method for identifying and correcting possible failures at its earliest possible level so that one can avoid consequences of poor performance. In this paper, FMEA tool is used in detection of failures of various components of heat exchanger cycle and to identify critical failures of the components which may hamper the system’s performance. Further, a detailed Pareto analysis is done to find out the most critical components of the cycle, the causes of its failures, and possible recommended actions. This paper can be used as a checklist which will help in maintainability of the system.

Keywords: FMEA, heat exchanger cycle, Ishikawa diagram, pareto analysis, RPN (Risk Priority Number)

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25 Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, responsibility, cognitive theory, anxiety disorder

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24 Economic Development and New Challenges: Biomass Energy and Sustainability

Authors: Fabricia G. F. S. Rossato, Ieda G. Hidalgo, Andres Susseta, Felipe Casale, Leticia H. Nakamiti


This research was conducted to show the useful source of biomass energy provided from forest waste and the black liquor from the pulping process. This energy source could be able to assist and improve its area environment in a sustainable way. The research will demonstrate the challenges from producing the biomass energy and the implantation of the pulp industry in the city of Três Lagoas, MS. – Brazil. Planted forest’s potential, energy production in the pulp industries and its consequence of impacts on the local region environmental was also studied and examined. The present study is classified as descriptive purposes as it exposes the characteristics of a given population and the means such as bibliographical and documentary. All the data and information collected and demonstrate in this study was carefully analyzed and provided from reliable sources such as official government agencies.

Keywords: Brazil, pulp industry, renewable energy, Três Lagoas

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23 Towards a Security Model against Denial of Service Attacks for SIP Traffic

Authors: Arellano Karina, Diego Avila-Pesántez, Leticia Vaca-Cárdenas, Alberto Arellano, Carmen Mantilla


Nowadays, security threats in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems are an essential and latent concern for people in charge of security in a corporate network, because, every day, new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks are developed. These affect the business continuity of an organization, regarding confidentiality, availability, and integrity of services, causing frequent losses of both information and money. The purpose of this study is to establish the necessary measures to mitigate DoS threats, which affect the availability of VoIP systems, based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). A Security Model called MS-DoS-SIP is proposed, which is based on two approaches. The first one analyzes the recommendations of international security standards. The second approach takes into account weaknesses and threats. The implementation of this model in a VoIP simulated system allowed to minimize the present vulnerabilities in 92% and increase the availability time of the VoIP service into an organization.

Keywords: Denial-of-Service SIP attacks, MS-DoS-SIP, security model, VoIP-SIP vulnerabilities

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22 [Keynote Talk]: From Clinical Practice to Academic Setup, 'Quality Circles' for Quality Outputs in Both

Authors: Vandita Mishra


From the management of patients, reception, record, and assistants in a clinical practice; to the management of ongoing research, clinical cases and department profile in an academic setup, the healthcare provider has to deal with all of it. The victory lies in smooth running of the show in both the above situations with an apt solution of problems encountered and smooth management of crisis faced. Thus this paper amalgamates dental science with health administration by means of introduction of a concept for practice management and problem-solving called 'Quality Circles'. This concept uses various tools for problem solving given by experts from different fields. QC tools can be applied in both clinical and academic settings in dentistry for better productivity and for scientifically approaching the process of continuous improvement in both the categories. When approached through QC, our organization showed better patient outcomes and more patient satisfaction. Introduced in 1962 by Kaoru Ishikawa, this tool has been extensively applied in certain fields outside dentistry and healthcare. By exemplification of some clinical cases and virtual scenarios, the tools of Quality circles will be elaborated and discussed upon.

Keywords: academics, dentistry, healthcare, quality

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21 Development and Validation of the Dimensional Social Anxiety Scale: Assessment for the Offensive Type of Social Anxiety

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa


Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is marked by the persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. In contrast, SA in Japan and in China is understood differently. Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is a culture-bound subtype of SAD which has been the focus of recent research. TKS refers to a unique form of SAD found in Japanese and East Asian cultures characterized by a fear of offending others, in contrast to prototypical SAD in which the source of fear is typically concerned about one’s own embarrassment, humiliation, or rejection by others. Criteria for TKS partially overlap with but are distinct from SAD; a primary factor distinguishing TKS from SAD appears to be individualistic versus interdependent or collectivistic self-construals. The aim of this study was to develop a scale to assess the typical SAD and offensive type of SAD (TKS). This study aimed to test the internal consistency and validity of the scale (Dimensional Social Anxiety Scale: DSAS) using university students sample. For this, 148 university students were enrolled (male=90, female=58, age=19.77, Standard Deviation=1.04). As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, three-factor models of DSAS were verified (χ2(74) =128.36). These three factors were named ‘general’, ‘perfomance’, and ‘offensive’. DSAS were significantly correlated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = .538, p < .001). Good internal consistencies were indicated on the three subscales (α = .76 to 89). In conclusion, this study indicated DSAS has adequate internal consistency and validity for assessing of multi-type of SADs.

Keywords: social anxiety, cognitive theory, assessment, anxiety disorder

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20 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga


A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: coal, confining pressure, gas transport, sorption

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19 Ant Lion Optimization in a Fuzzy System for Benchmark Control Problem

Authors: Leticia Cervantes, Edith Garcia, Oscar Castillo


At today, there are several control problems where the main objective is to obtain the best control in the study to decrease the error in the application. Many techniques can use to control these problems such as Neural Networks, PID control, Fuzzy Logic, Optimization techniques and many more. In this case, fuzzy logic with fuzzy system and an optimization technique are used to control the case of study. In this case, Ant Lion Optimization is used to optimize a fuzzy system to control the velocity of a simple treadmill. The main objective is to achieve the control of the velocity in the control problem using the ALO optimization. First, a simple fuzzy system was used to control the velocity of the treadmill it has two inputs (error and error change) and one output (desired speed), then results were obtained but to decrease the error the ALO optimization was developed to optimize the fuzzy system of the treadmill. Having the optimization, the simulation was performed, and results can prove that using the ALO optimization the control of the velocity was better than a conventional fuzzy system. This paper describes some basic concepts to help to understand the idea in this work, the methodology of the investigation (control problem, fuzzy system design, optimization), the results are presented and the optimization is used for the fuzzy system. A comparison between the simple fuzzy system and the optimized fuzzy systems are presented where it can be proving the optimization improved the control with good results the major findings of the study is that ALO optimization is a good alternative to improve the control because it helped to decrease the error in control applications even using any control technique to optimized, As a final statement is important to mentioned that the selected methodology was good because the control of the treadmill was improve using the optimization technique.

Keywords: ant lion optimization, control problem, fuzzy control, fuzzy system

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18 Effect of Temperature on the Properties of Cement Paste Modified with Nanoparticles

Authors: Karine Pimenta Teixeira, Jessica Flores, Isadora PerdigãO Rocha, Leticia De Sá Carneiro, Mahsa Kamali, Ali Ghahremaninezhad


The advent of nanotechnology has enabled innovative solutions towards improving the behavior of infrastructure materials. Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by improving the performance and durability of construction materials, as well as imparting new functionalities to these materials. Due to variability in the environmental temperature during mixing and curing of cementitious materials in practice, it is important to understand how curing temperature influences the behavior of cementitious materials. In addition, high temperature curing is relevant in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. Knowledge of the influence of temperature on the performance of cementitious materials modified with nanoparticles is important in the nanoengineering of cementitious materials in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. This presentation aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the hydration, mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that temperature improved the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at high temperatures showed an increase in the compressive strength at early age but the strength gain decreased at late ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at high temperatures was shown to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at high temperature.

Keywords: cement paste, nanoparticles, temperature, hydration

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17 The Impact of Iso 9001 Certification on Brazilian Firms’ Performance: Insights from Multiple Case Studies

Authors: Matheus Borges Carneiro, Fabiane Leticia Lizarelli, José Carlos De Toledo


The evolution of quality management by companies was strongly enabled by, among others, ISO 9001 certification, which is considered a crucial requirement for several customers. Likewise, performance measurement provides useful insights for companies to identify the reflection of their decision-making process on their improvement. One of the most used performance measurement models is the balanced scorecard (BSC), which uses four perspectives to address a firm’s performance: financial, internal process, customer satisfaction, and learning and growth. Studies related to ISO 9001 and business performance have mostly adopted a quantitative approach to identify the standard’s causal effect on a firm’s performance. However, to verify how this influence may occur, an in-depth analysis within a qualitative approach is required. Therefore, this paper aims to verify the impact of ISO 9001:2015 on Brazilian firms’ performance based on the balanced scorecard perspective. Hence, nine certified companies located in the Southeast region of Brazil were studied through a multiple case study approach. Within this study, it was possible to identify the positive impact of ISO 9001 on firms’ overall performance, and four Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were identified as relevant on the linkage among ISO 9001 and firms’ performance: employee involvement, top management, process management, and customer focus. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of interviews was limited to the quality manager specialist, and the sample was limited since several companies were closed during the period of the study. This study presents an in-depth analysis of how the relationship between ISO 9001 certification and firms’ performance in a developing country is.

Keywords: balanced scorecard, Brazilian firms’ performance, critical success factors, ISO 9001 certification, performance measurement

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16 Post-Anesthetic Recovery: The Best Moment to Apply Positive Pressure in Airway in Postoperative Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Eli Maria Pazzianotto-Forti, Patrícia Brigatto, Letícia Baltieri, Carolina Moraes Da Costa, Maura Rigoldi Simoes Da Rocha, Irineu Rasera Jr


The application of positive pressure in airway can contribute to the restoration of lung volumes, capacities and prevent respiratory complications. The aim was to investigate the use of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BIPAP) in morbidly obese in two moments in postoperative bariatric surgery: In the post-anesthetic recovery (PAR) and on the 1st postoperative day (1stPO). Twenty morbidly obese, aged between 25 and 55 years, underwent pulmonary function test and chest X-ray preoperatively and on the day of discharge (2nd day after surgery). They were randomly allocated in groups. GPAR: received BIPAP treatment in PAR, for an hour and G1stPO: received BIPAP for one hour, on the 1stPO. There were significant reductions in slow vital capacity (SVC) (p=0.0007), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) (p=0.0016) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.0013) in the postoperative in GPAR and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV) remained (p=0.4446). In the G1stPO, there were significant reductions for: SVC p=<0.0001, ERV p=0.0191, IRV p= 0.0026 and FVC p=<0.0001. Comparing between groups, the SVC (p=0.0027) and FVC (p=0.0028) showed significant difference between the treatments. However, the GPAR showed fewer declines of these capacities. To the ERV (p= 0.1646) and IRV (p=0.3973) there was no significant difference between groups. The atelectasis prevalence was 10% for the GPAR and 30% for G1stPO, with significant difference between the proportions (p = 0.0027). The lowest reduction in SVC and FVC happens when positive pressure is applied in PAR. Thus, the use of BIPAP in the PAR can promote a restoration of ERV and contribute to the reduction of atelectasis. FAPESP 2013/06334-8.

Keywords: atelectasis, bariatric surgery, physiotherapy, pulmonary function, positive pressure

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15 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida


The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: adaptation, assessment, conceptual, climate, change, framework, vulnerability

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14 Assessing Project Performance through Work Sampling and Earned Value Analysis

Authors: Shobha Ramalingam


The majority of the infrastructure projects are affected by time overrun, resulting in project delays and subsequently cost overruns. Time overrun may vary from a few months to as high as five or more years, placing the project viability at risk. One of the probable reasons noted in the literature for this outcome in projects is due to poor productivity. Researchers contend that productivity in construction has only marginally increased over the years. While studies in the literature have extensively focused on time and cost parameters in projects, there are limited studies that integrate time and cost with productivity to assess project performance. To this end, a study was conducted to understand the project delay factors concerning cost, time and productivity. A case-study approach was adopted to collect rich data from a nuclear power plant project site for two months through observation, interviews and document review. The data were analyzed using three different approaches for a comprehensive understanding. Foremost, a root-cause analysis was performed on the data using Ishikawa’s fish-bone diagram technique to identify the various factors impacting the delay concerning time. Based on it, a questionnaire was designed and circulated to concerned executives, including project engineers and contractors to determine the frequency of occurrence of the delay, which was then compiled and presented to the management for a possible solution to mitigate. Second, a productivity analysis was performed on select activities, including rebar bending and concreting through a time-motion study to analyze product performance. Third, data on cost of construction for three years allowed analyzing the cost performance using earned value management technique. All three techniques allowed to systematically and comprehensively identify the key factors that deter project performance and productivity loss in the construction of the nuclear power plant project. The findings showed that improper planning and coordination between multiple trades, concurrent operations, improper workforce and material management, fatigue due to overtime were some of the key factors that led to delays and poor productivity. The findings are expected to act as a stepping stone for further research and have implications for practitioners.

Keywords: earned value analysis, time performance, project costs, project delays, construction productivity

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13 A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa


INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric label for a collection of psychological symptoms following a traumatic event. PTSD is as a result of a traumatic experience such as rape or sexual assault. A victim may have PTSD if she/he has experienced the following symptoms for at least a month: a) Stressor, b) Intrusion symptoms, c) Avoidance, d) Negative alterations in cognitions and mood, e) Alterations in arousal and reactivity. Studies on the cognitive theory of PTSD emphasized the roles of (a) negative appraisals of trauma memories in maintaining the symptomatology of PTSD, and (b) disorganized trauma memories in the development of PTSD. Mental contamination is primarily caused by experiences involving humans (e.g. violators or perpetrators) as opposed to substances (e.g. dirt or bodily fluids). Feelings of mental contamination may evoke following experiences of ill-treatment, sexual assault, domination, degradation, manipulation, betrayal, or humiliation. Some studies have demonstrated that traumatic thoughts related to sexual assault are particularly strong predictors of mental contamination. Treatment protocols based on cognitive-behavioral therapy appear to be beneficial in reducing the severity of PTSD and mental contamination. Studies on the cognitive theory of PTSD emphasized the roles of (A) negative appraisals of trauma memories in maintaining the symptomatology of PTSD, and (B) disorganized trauma memories in the development of PTSD. We will demonstrate a feasibility study of individual CBT for PTSD and mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings. METHOD: The single-arm trial is a group setting CBT intervention. The primary outcome is the self-rated Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, with secondary measurements of depressive severity and mental pollution questionnaire. Assessments are conducted at baseline, after a waiting period before CBT, during CBT, and after CBT. RESULTS: Participants are eligible for the study and complete the outcome measures at all assessment points. In our hypothesis, receiving CBT would lead to improvements in primary and secondary PTSD severity. CONCLUSION: We will demonstrate a feasibility study of individual CBT for PTSD and mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings. Our treatment would achieve favorable treatment outcomes for PTSD with mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings.

Keywords: CBT, cognitive theory, PTSD, mental pollution

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12 An Endophyte of Amphipterygium adstringens as Producer of Cytotoxic Compounds

Authors: Karol Rodriguez-Peña, Martha L. Macias-Rubalcava, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta, Sergio Sanchez


A bioassay-guided study for anti-cancer compounds from endophytes of the Mexican medicinal plant Amphipteryygium adstringens resulted in the isolation of a streptomycete capable of producing a group of compounds with high cytotoxic activity. Microorganisms from surface sterilized samples of various sections of the plant were isolated and all the actinomycetes found were evaluated for their potential to produce compounds with cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer) as well as the non-tumoural cell line HaCaT (keratinocyte). The most active microorganism was picked for further evaluation. The identification of the microorganism was carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing, finding the closest proximity to Streptomyces scabrisporus, but with the additional characteristic that the strain isolated in this study was capable of producing colorful compounds never described for this species. Crude extracts of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate showed IC50 values of 0.29 and 0.96 μg/mL for MCF7, 0.51 and 1.98 μg/mL for HeLa and 0.96 and 2.7 μg/mL for HaCaT. Scaling the fermentation to 10 L in a bioreactor generated 1 g of total crude extract, which was fractionated by silica gel open column to yield 14 fractions. Nine of the fractions showed cytotoxic activity. Fraction 4 was chosen for subsequent purification because of its high activity against cancerous cell lines, lower activity against keratinocytes. HPLC-UV-MS/ESI was used for the evaluation of this fraction, finding at least 10 different compounds with high values of m/z (≈588). Purification of the compounds was carried out by preparative thin-layer chromatography. The prevalent compound was Steffimycin B, a molecule known for its antibiotic and cytotoxic activities and also for its low solubility in aqueous solutions. Along with steffimycin B, another five compounds belonging to the steffimycin family were isolated and at this moment their structures are being elucidated, some of which display better solubility in water: an attractive property for the pharmaceutical industry. As a conclusion to this study, the isolation of endophytes resulted in the discovery of a strain capable of producing compounds with high cytotoxic activity that need to be studied for their possible utilization.

Keywords: amphipterygium adstringens, cytotoxicity, streptomyces scabrisporus, steffimycin

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11 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi


The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

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10 The Relationship between the Social Entrepreneur and the Social Dimension of Sustainability: A Bibliometric Survey of the Last Twelve Years

Authors: Leticia Lengler, Jefferson Oliveira, Vania Estivalete, Jordana Marques Kneipp, Lucia Regina Da Rosa Gama Madruga


The way social entrepreneurs act and can positively impact on our society engages the interest of academics, companies and governments, who seek solutions to solve or alleviate issues related to the abuse of natural resources, as well as the increase of poverty (social aspects). Studies on social entrepreneurship have been characterized by diverse ramifications and their transdisciplinary character, permeating various disciplines and approaches. Different bibliometric studies were conducted within the theme of social entrepreneurship. In this context, because it is a topic in development and multifaceted, the aim of this article is to present the main interfaces of the studies on the Social Entrepreneur figure in relation to the social concern of sustainability, highlighting the relevant researches and their trends, as well as their relationship with the organizations. Aiming to achieve this purpose, the specific goals are: to identify the most cited authors and articles, to verify the authors and journals with the greatest number of publications and their approaches and to point out their affiliations, countries, and languages of publications. It is still a secondary objective to identify the emerging trends in relation to the social entrepreneur and his social concern stemming from the discussions on sustainability. This way, we analyzed articles from two international databases (Scopus and Web of Science), from 2004 to 2016. The main results were the increase in the number of publications, with most of them in English language, coming mainly from the United States institutions (such as Indiana University and Harvard University) and the United Kingdom (whose main institutions are University of London and Robert Gordon University). Although publications in Spanish and Portuguese are the least expressive in quantity, some tendencies point to publications that discuss the social entrepreneur in terms of gender (that relates to female entrepreneurship) and social class (that relates to the need of building communities that contemplate the Social entrepreneur at the base of the pyramid). It should be noted that the trends of the themes emerged from the analysis of the publication titles only in Portuguese, since this is the native language of the authors who carry out their studies mainly in Brazil. When considering articles in Portuguese (57 indicated by WOS and 9 by Scopus), a previous analysis of the titles was carried out to identify how researchers were approaching the theme social entrepreneur in a joint way to the social dimension of sustainability. However, the analysis of the titles themselves brought a limitation to our study, since it was felt a need to carry out a qualitative study, in which it could be possible to consider the abstracts of the available articles.

Keywords: base of pyramid, social dimension, social entrepreneur, sustainability

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9 Evaluation of Antarctic Bacteria as Potential Producers of Cellulolytic Enzymes of Industrial Interest

Authors: Claudio Lamilla, Andrés Santos, Vicente Llanquinao, Jocelyn Hermosilla, Leticia Barrientos


The industry in general is very interested in improving and optimizing industrial processes in order to reduce the costs involved in obtaining raw materials and production. Thus, an interesting and cost-effective alternative is the incorporation of bioactive metabolites in such processes, being an example of this enzymes which catalyze efficiently a large number of enzymatic reactions of industrial and biotechnological interest. In the search for new sources of these active metabolites, Antarctica is one of the least explored places on our planet where the most drastic cold conditions, salinity, UVA-UVB and liquid water available are present, features that have shaped all life in this very harsh environment, especially bacteria that live in different Antarctic ecosystems, which have had to develop different strategies to adapt to these conditions, producing unique biochemical strategies. In this work the production of cellulolytic enzymes of seven bacterial strains isolated from marine sediments at different sites in the Antarctic was evaluated. Isolation of the strains was performed using serial dilutions in the culture medium at M115°C. The identification of the strains was performed using universal primers (27F and 1492R). The enzyme activity assays were performed on R2A medium, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)was added as substrate. Degradation of the substrate was revealed by adding Lugol. The results show that four of the tested strains produce enzymes which degrade CMC substrate. The molecular identifications, showed that these bacteria belong to the genus Streptomyces and Pseudoalteromonas, being Streptomyces strain who showed the highest activity. Only some bacteria in marine sediments have the ability to produce these enzymes, perhaps due to their greater adaptability to degrade at temperatures bordering zero degrees Celsius, some algae that are abundant in this environment and have cellulose as the main structure. The discovery of new enzymes adapted to cold is of great industrial interest, especially for paper, textiles, detergents, biofuels, food and agriculture. These enzymes represent 8% of industrial demand worldwide and is expected to increase their demand in the coming years. Mainly in the paper and food industry are required in extraction processes starch, protein and juices, as well as the animal feed industry where treating vegetables and grains helps improve the nutritional value of the food, all this clearly puts Antarctic microorganisms and their enzymes specifically as a potential contribution to industry and the novel biotechnological applications.

Keywords: antarctic, bacteria, biotechnological, cellulolytic enzymes

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8 Interface between Personal Values and Social Entrepreneurship in Social Projects That Develop Sports Practice

Authors: Leticia Lengler, Jefferson Oliveira, Vania Estivalete, Jordana Marques Kneipp


The context of social, economic and environmental transformations has driven innumerable changes in the organizational environment, influencing the social interactions that occur in this scenario. In this sense, social entrepreneurship emerges as a unique opportunity to challenge, question, rethink certain concepts and traditional theories widely discussed in relation to entrepreneurship. Therefore, the interest in studying personal values has been based on the idea that they might be predictors of the behavior of individuals. As an attempt to relate personal values with the characteristics of social entrepreneurs, this study aims to investigate the salient values and the social entrepreneurship perceptions that occur in two social projects responsible for developing sports skills among the students. For purposes of analysis, it is intended to consider: (i) a description of both Social Projects and their respective institutions, considering their history and relevance in the context; (ii) analysis of the personal values of the idealizers and teachers responsible for the projects, (iii) identification of the characteristics of social entrepreneurship manifested in the two projects, and (iv) discussion of similarities and disparities of the categories identified among the participants of the projects. Therefore, this study will carry a qualitative analysis from the interviews with 10 participants of each social project (named Projeto Remar/ASENA and Projeto Mãos Dadas/JUDÔ SANTA MARIA): 2 projects coordinators, 2 students, 2 parents of students, 2 physical education internships and 2 businessmen who stablished a partnership with each project. The data collection will be done through semi-structured interviews that are going to last around 30 minutes each, being recorded, transcribed and later analyzed, through the categorical analysis. The option for categorical analysis is supported by the fact that it is the best alternative when one wants to study values, opinions, attitudes and beliefs, through qualitative ones. In the present research, the pre-analysis phase consisted of an organization of the material collected during the research with Remar and Mãos Dadas Project, and a dynamic reading of this material, seeking to identify the characteristics of social entrepreneurship and values addressed in the study. In the analytical description phase, a more in-depth analysis of the material collected in the research will be carried out. The third phase, referred to as referential interpretation or treatment of results obtained will allow to verify the homogeneity and the heterogeneity among the participants' perceptions of the projects. Some preliminary results coming from the first interviews revealed the projects are guided by values such as cooperation, respect, well-being and nature preservation. These values are linked to the social entrepreneurship perception of the projects managers, who established their activities in behalf of the local community.

Keywords: personal values, social entrepreneurship, social projects, sports participants

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7 Distribution Routs Redesign through the Vehicle Problem Routing in Havana Distribution Center

Authors: Sonia P. Marrero Duran, Lilian Noya Dominguez, Lisandra Quintana Alvarez, Evert Martinez Perez, Ana Julia Acevedo Urquiaga


Cuban business and economic policy are in the constant update as well as facing a client ever more knowledgeable and demanding. For that reason become fundamental for companies competitiveness through the optimization of its processes and services. One of the Cuban’s pillars, which has been sustained since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution back in 1959, is the free health service to all those who need it. This service is offered without any charge under the concept of preserving human life, but it implied costly management processes and logistics services to be able to supply the necessary medicines to all the units who provide health services. One of the key actors on the medicine supply chain is the Havana Distribution Center (HDC), which is responsible for the delivery of medicines in the province; as well as the acquisition of medicines from national and international producers and its subsequent transport to health care units and pharmacies in time, and with the required quality. This HDC also carries for all distribution centers in the country. Given the eminent need to create an actor in the supply chain that specializes in the medicines supply, the possibility of centralizing this operation in a logistics service provider is analyzed. Based on this decision, pharmacies operate as clients of the logistic service center whose main function is to centralize all logistics operations associated with the medicine supply chain. The HDC is precisely the logistic service provider in Havana and it is the center of this research. In 2017 the pharmacies had affectations in the availability of medicine due to deficiencies in the distribution routes. This is caused by the fact that they are not based on routing studies, besides the long distribution cycle. The distribution routs are fixed, attend only one type of customer and there respond to a territorial location by the municipality. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned problem, the objective of this research is to optimize the routes system in the Havana Distribution Center. To accomplish this objective, the techniques applied were document analysis, random sampling, statistical inference and tools such as Ishikawa diagram and the computerized software’s: ArcGis, Osmand y MapIfnfo. As a result, were analyzed four distribution alternatives; the actual rout, by customer type, by the municipality and the combination of the two last. It was demonstrated that the territorial location alternative does not take full advantage of the transportation capacities or the distance of the trips, which leads to elevated costs breaking whit the current ways of distribution and the currents characteristics of the clients. The principal finding of the investigation was the optimum option distribution rout is the 4th one that is formed by hospitals and the join of pharmacies, stomatology clinics, polyclinics and maternal and elderly homes. This solution breaks the territorial location by the municipality and permits different distribution cycles in dependence of medicine consumption and transport availability.

Keywords: computerized geographic software, distribution, distribution routs, vehicle problem routing (VPR)

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