Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2884

Search results for: dislocation density

2884 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2883 A Dislocation-Based Explanation to Quasi-Elastic Release in Shock Loaded Aluminum

Authors: Song L. Yao, Ji D. Yu, Xiao Y. Pei

Abstract:

An explanation is introduced to study the quasi-elastic release phenomenon in shock compressed aluminum. A dislocation-based model, taking into account of dislocation substructures and evolutions, is applied to simulate the elastic-plastic response of both single crystal and polycrystalline aluminum. Simulated results indicate that dislocation immobilization during dynamic deformation results in a smooth increase of yield stress, which leads to the quasi-elastic release. While the generation of dislocations caused by plastic release wave results in the appearance of transition point between the quasi-elastic release and the plastic release in the profile. The quantities of calculated shear strength and dislocation density are in accordance with experimental result, which demonstrates the accuracy of our simulations.

Keywords: dislocation density, quasi-elastic release, wave profile, shock wave

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2882 Morphology Feature of Nanostructure Bainitic Steel after Tempering Treatment

Authors: Chih Yuan Chen, Chien Chon Chen, Jin-Shyong Lin

Abstract:

The microstructure characterization of tempered nanocrystalline bainitic steel is investigated in the present study. It is found that two types of plastic relaxation, dislocation debris and nanotwin, occurs in the displacive transformation due to relatively low transformation temperature and high carbon content. Because most carbon atoms trap in the dislocation, high dislocation density can be sustained during the tempering process. More carbides only can be found in the high tempered temperature due to intense recovery progression.

Keywords: nanostructure bainitic steel, tempered, TEM, nano-twin, dislocation debris, accommodation

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2881 Dislocation Density-Based Modeling of the Grain Refinement in Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

Authors: Reza Miresmaeili, Asghar Heydari Astaraee, Fereshteh Dolati

Abstract:

In the present study, an analytical model based on dislocation density model was developed to simulate grain refinement in surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The correlation between SMAT time and development in plastic strain on one hand, and dislocation density evolution, on the other hand, was established to simulate the grain refinement in SMAT. A dislocation density-based constitutive material law was implemented using VUHARD subroutine. A random sequence of shots is taken into consideration for multiple impacts model using Python programming language by utilizing a random function. The simulation technique was to model each impact in a separate run and then transferring the results of each run as initial conditions for the next run (impact). The developed Finite Element (FE) model of multiple impacts describes the coverage evolution in SMAT. Simulations were run to coverage levels as high as 4500%. It is shown that the coverage implemented in the FE model is equal to the experimental coverage. It is depicted that numerical SMAT coverage parameter is adequately conforming to the well-known Avrami model. Comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements for residual stresses and depth of deformation layers confirms the performance of the established FE model for surface engineering evaluations in SMA treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of grain refinement, including resultant grain size and dislocation density, were conducted to validate the established model. The full width at half-maximum in XRD profiles can be used to measure the grain size. Numerical results and experimental measurements of grain refinement illustrate good agreement and show the capability of established FE model to predict the gradient microstructure in SMA treatment.

Keywords: dislocation density, grain refinement, severe plastic deformation, simulation, surface mechanical attrition treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
2880 Microstructure Characterization of the Ball Milled Fe50Al30Ni20 (%.wt) Powder

Authors: C. Nakib, N. Ammouchi, A. Otmani, A. Djekoun, J. M. Grenèche

Abstract:

B2-structured FeAl was synthesized by an abrupt reaction during mechanical alloying (MA) of the elemental powders of Fe, Al and Ni. The structural, microstructural and morphological changes occurring in the studied material during MA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two crystalline phases were found, the major one corresponding to FeAl bcc phase with a crystallite size less than 10 nm, a lattice strain up to 1.6% and a dislocation density of about 2.3 1016m-2. The other phase in low proportion was corresponding to Fe (Al,Ni) solid solution. SEM images showed an irregular morphology of powder particles.

Keywords: mechanical alloying, ternary composition, dislocation density, structural properties

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2879 A Molecular Dynamics Study on Intermittent Plasticity and Dislocation Avalanche Emissions in FCC and BCC Crystals

Authors: Javier Varillas, Jorge Alcalá

Abstract:

We investigate dislocation avalanche phenomena in face-centered cubic (FCC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals using massive, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The analysis is focused on the intermittent development of dense dislocation arrangements subjected to uniaxial tensile straining under displacement control. We employ a novel computational scheme that allows us to inject an entangled dislocation structure in periodic MD domains. We assess the emission of plastic bursts (or dislocation avalanches) in terms of the sharp stress drops detected in the stress-strain curve. The plastic activity corresponds to the sporadic operation of specific dislocation glide processes exhibiting quiescent periods between successive avalanche events. We find that the plastic intermittences in our simulations do not overlap in time under sufficiently low strain rates as dissipation operates faster than driving, where the dense dislocation networks evolve through the emission of dislocation avalanche events whose carried slip adheres to self-organized power-law distributions. These findings enable the extension of the slip distributions obtained from strict displacement-controlled micropillar compression experiments towards smaller values of slip size. Our results furnish further understanding upon the development of entangled dislocation networks in metal plasticity, including specific mechanisms of dislocation propagation and annihilation, along with the evolution of specific dislocation populations through dislocation density analyses.

Keywords: dislocations, intermittent plasticity, molecular dynamics, slip distributions

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2878 Dislocation and Writing: A Process of Remaking Identity

Authors: Hasti Abbasi

Abstract:

Creative writers have long followed the tradition of romantic exile, looking inward in an attempt to construct new viewpoints through the power of imagination. The writer, who attempts to resist uncertainty and locate her place in the new country through writing, resists creativity itself. For a writer, certain satisfaction can be achieved through producing a creative art away from the anxiety of the sense of dislocation. Dislocation, whether enforced or self-inflicted, could in many ways be a disaster but it could also cultivate a greater creative capacity and be a source of creative expression. This paper will investigate the idea of the creative writer as exiled self through reflections on the relationship between dislocation and writing.

Keywords: dislocation, creative writing, remaking identity, exile literature

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2877 Stress Field Induced By an Interfacial Edge Dislocation in a Multi-Layered Medium

Authors: Aditya Khanna, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

A novel method is presented for obtaining the stress field induced by an edge dislocation in a multilayered composite. To demonstrate the applications of the obtained solution, we consider the problem of an interfacial crack in a periodically layered bimaterial medium. The crack is modeled as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations and the Distributed Dislocation Technique (DDT) is utilized to obtain numerical results for the energy release rate (ERR). The numerical results correspond well with previously published results and the comparison serves as a validation of the obtained dislocation solution.

Keywords: distributed dislocation technique, edge dislocation, elastic field, interfacial crack, multi-layered composite

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2876 Interaction between the Main Crack and Dislocation in the Glass Material

Authors: A. Mezzidi, H. Hamli Benzahar

Abstract:

The present study evaluates the stress and stress intensity factor during the propagation of a crack at presence of a dislocation near of crack tip. The problem is formulated using a glass material having an equivalent elasticity modulus and a Poisson ratio. In this research work, the proposed material is a plate form with a main crack in one of these ends and a dislocation near this crack, subjected to tensile stresses according to the mode 1 opening. For each distance between the two cracks, we can determine these stresses. This study is treated by finite elements method by using the software (ABAQUS) rate. It is shown here in that obtained results agreed with those determined by other researchers

Keywords: crack, dislocation, finite element, glass

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2875 Edward Said and the Dislocation of the Exiled Self

Authors: Majed Alobudi

Abstract:

Edward Said is considered among the most prominent figures in postcolonial theoretical studies and his work has largely influenced critical discussion for many decades. And in the globalized world of today where immigration and dislocation are intense and thoroughly discussed, Said`s views on these issues seem more relevant than ever. This paper will endeavor to bring together Said`s theoretical texts and other writings on immigration and exile in parallel. The aim is to try to find a better understanding of Said`s theories on dislocation and exile theoretically and personally. The combination of these two strands of narrative will eventually shed more light on self location in postcolonial theories and further the understanding of Said's theories and personal life narratives. The paper propose the difficulty dislocation poses in counter colonial narratives such as those written by Said. As an exile, the mission of defining the self and the other becomes obscure when place becomes impossible or prohibited. The clear result becomes a self which proclaims rather than inhabits reality, a treat Said criticized in colonial representation. The self becomes trapped between the worlds of distant reality of dislocation and the estranged world of exile. The outcome would reveal a more weakened attempt at defining the self and countering the postcolonial narrative. The reason for such confusion and contradiction is directly connected to place and dis-location. To summarize, the paper proposes to examine and investigate the implications exile and dislocation have inflected on Said as a prominent postcolonial figure and how that affects his theories and personal life. The outcome, it is argued, would be a vast and lasting effect which such colonial and postcolonial phenomenon have on personal and theoretical narratives written by Said.

Keywords: Edward Said, exile, postcolonialism, dislocation

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2874 Plasticity in Matrix Dominated Metal-Matrix Composite with One Active Slip Based Dislocation

Authors: Temesgen Takele Kasa

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to suggest one active slip based continuum dislocation approach to matrix dominated MMC plasticity analysis. The approach centered the free energy principles through the continuum behavior of dislocations combined with small strain continuum kinematics. The analytical derivation of this method includes the formulation of one active slip system, the thermodynamic approach of dislocations, determination of free energy, and evolution of dislocations. In addition zero and non-zero energy dissipation analysis of dislocation evolution is also formulated by using varational energy minimization method. In general, this work shows its capability to analyze the plasticity of matrix dominated MMC with inclusions. The proposed method is also found to be capable of handling plasticity of MMC.

Keywords: active slip, continuum dislocation, distortion, dominated, energy dissipation, matrix dominated, plasticity

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2873 Fracture Dislocation of Upper Sacrum in an Adolescent: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran

Abstract:

Although sacral fractures in children are rare due to the fact that the occurrence of pelvic fracture is not common in childhood. Sacral fractures present a high risk of neurological damage. This kind of fracture is often missed because the routine pelvic X-rays imaging scarcely show this fracture. Also, the treatment is controversial, and it ranges from fine reduction to conservative treatments without any try to reduce the dislocation. In this article, a case of fracture dislocation of S1 and S2 along with a suggested diagnostic test and treatment based on similar cases are presented. The case investigates a 14-year-old boy who entered the hospital one week after a car accident that knocked him to the ground in crawling position and a rack fell down on his body. Pain and tenderness in the sacral region and a fracture in the left leg were notable--we detected incomplete bilateral palsy of L5, S1 and S2 roots. In radiographs of the spine fracture dislocation of S1, the sacral fracture was seen. The treatment included a skeletal traction with a halo over the patient’s head and two femoral pins. After one week, another surgery was performed in order to stabilize and reduce the fracture, and we employed a posterior approach with CD and a pedicular screw. After two years of follow-up, the fracture is completely cured without any loss of reduction.

Keywords: adolescent, fracture in adolescent, fracture dislocation, sacrum

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2872 Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu, Lele Yang, Koji Shimotsu

Abstract:

The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, hot stamping process, carbon steel, mechanical property

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2871 Influence of Boron and Germanium Doping on Physical-Mechanical Properties of Monocrystalline Silicon

Authors: Ia Kurashvili, Giorgi Darsavelidze, Giorgi Chubinidze, Marina Kadaria

Abstract:

Boron-doped Czochralski (CZ) silicon of p-type, widely used in the photovoltaic industry is suffering from the light-induced-degradation (LID) of bulk electrophysical characteristics. This is caused by specific metastable B-O defects, which are characterized by strong recombination activity. In this regard, it is actual to suppress B-O defects in CZ silicon. One of the methods is doping of silicon by different isovalent elements (Ge, C, Sn). The present work deals with the investigations of the influence of germanium doping on the internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences in the temperature interval of 600-800⁰C and 0.5-5 Hz frequency range in boron-containing monocrystalline silicon. Experimental specimens were grown by Czochralski method (CZ) in [111] direction. Four different specimens were investigated: Si+0,5at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3), Si+0,5at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3), Si+2at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3) and Si+2at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3). Increasing tendency of dislocation density and inhomogeneous distribution in silicon crystals with high content of boron and germanium were revealed by metallographic studies on the optical microscope of NMM-80RF/TRF. Weak increase of current carriers-holes concentration and slight decrease of their mobility were observed by Van der Pauw method on Ecopia HMS-3000 device. Non-monotonous changes of dislocation origin defects mobility and microplastic deformation characteristics influenced by measuring temperatures and boron and germanium concentrations were revealed. Possible mechanisms of changes of mechanical characteristics in Si-Ge experimental specimens were discussed.

Keywords: dislocation, internal friction, microplastic deformation, shear modulus

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2870 2106 kA/cm² Peak Tunneling Current Density in GaN-Based Resonant Tunneling Diode with an Intrinsic Oscillation Frequency of ~260GHz at Room Temperature

Authors: Fang Liu, JunShuai Xue, JiaJia Yao, GuanLin Wu, ZuMaoLi, XueYan Yang, HePeng Zhang, ZhiPeng Sun

Abstract:

Terahertz spectra is in great demand since last two decades for many photonic and electronic applications. III-Nitride resonant tunneling diode is one of the promising candidates for portable and compact THz sources. Room temperature microwave oscillator based on GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diode was reported in this work. The devices, grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on free-standing c-plane GaN substrates, exhibit highly repeatable and robust negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics at room temperature. To improve the interface quality at the active region in RTD, indium surfactant assisted growth is adopted to enhance the surface mobility of metal atoms on growing film front. Thanks to the lowered valley current associated with the suppression of threading dislocation scattering on low dislocation GaN substrate, a positive peak current density of record-high 2.1 MA/cm2 in conjunction with a peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 1.2 are obtained, which is the best results reported in nitride-based RTDs up to now considering the peak current density and PVCR values simultaneously. When biased within the NDR region, microwave oscillations are measured with a fundamental frequency of 0.31 GHz, yielding an output power of 5.37 µW. Impedance mismatch results in the limited output power and oscillation frequency described above. The actual measured intrinsic capacitance is only 30fF. Using a small-signal equivalent circuit model, the maximum intrinsic frequency of oscillation for these diodes is estimated to be ~260GHz. This work demonstrates a microwave oscillator based on resonant tunneling effect, which can meet the demands of terahertz spectral devices, more importantly providing guidance for the fabrication of the complex nitride terahertz and quantum effect devices.

Keywords: GaN resonant tunneling diode, peak current density, microwave oscillation, intrinsic capacitance

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2869 Various Shaped ZnO and ZnO/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites and Their Use in Water Splitting Reaction

Authors: Sundaram Chandrasekaran, Seung Hyun Hur

Abstract:

Exploring strategies for oxygen vacancy engineering under mild conditions and understanding the relationship between dislocations and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell performance are challenging issues for designing high performance PEC devices. Therefore, it is very important to understand that how the oxygen vacancies (VO) or other defect states affect the performance of the photocatalyst in photoelectric transfer. So far, it has been found that defects in nano or micro crystals can have two possible significances on the PEC performance. Firstly, an electron-hole pair produced at the interface of photoelectrode and electrolyte can recombine at the defect centers under illumination of light, thereby reducing the PEC performances. On the other hand, the defects could lead to a higher light absorption in the longer wavelength region and may act as energy centers for the water splitting reaction that can improve the PEC performances. Even if the dislocation growth of ZnO has been verified by the full density functional theory (DFT) calculations and local density approximation calculations (LDA), it requires further studies to correlate the structures of ZnO and PEC performances. Exploring the hybrid structures composed of graphene oxide (GO) and ZnO nanostructures offer not only the vision of how the complex structure form from a simple starting materials but also the tools to improve PEC performances by understanding the underlying mechanisms of mutual interactions. As there are few studies for the ZnO growth with other materials and the growth mechanism in those cases has not been clearly explored yet, it is very important to understand the fundamental growth process of nanomaterials with the specific materials, so that rational and controllable syntheses of efficient ZnO-based hybrid materials can be designed to prepare nanostructures that can exhibit significant PEC performances. Herein, we fabricated various ZnO nanostructures such as hollow sphere, bucky bowl, nanorod and triangle, investigated their pH dependent growth mechanism, and correlated the PEC performances with them. Especially, the origin of well-controlled dislocation-driven growth and its transformation mechanism of ZnO nanorods to triangles on the GO surface were discussed in detail. Surprisingly, the addition of GO during the synthesis process not only tunes the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals and also creates more oxygen vacancies (oxygen defects) in the lattice of ZnO, which obviously suggest that the oxygen vacancies be created by the redox reaction between GO and ZnO in which the surface oxygen is extracted from the surface of ZnO by the functional groups of GO. On the basis of our experimental and theoretical analysis, the detailed mechanism for the formation of specific structural shapes and oxygen vacancies via dislocation, and its impact in PEC performances are explored. In water splitting performance, the maximum photocurrent density of GO-ZnO triangles was 1.517mA/cm-2 (under UV light ~ 360 nm) vs. RHE with high incident photon to current conversion Efficiency (IPCE) of 10.41%, which is the highest among all samples fabricated in this study and also one of the highest IPCE reported so far obtained from GO-ZnO triangular shaped photocatalyst.

Keywords: dislocation driven growth, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, water splitting

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2868 Theoretical Approach to Kinetics of Transient Plasticity of Metals under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko

Abstract:

Within the framework of the obstacle radiation hardening and the dislocation climb-glide model a theoretical approach is developed to describe peculiarities of transient plasticity of metal under irradiation. It is considered nonlinear dynamics of accumulation of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms). We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion: dislocations climb obstacles and glide between obstacles. It is shown that the rivalry between vacancy and interstitial fluxes to dislocation leads to fractures of plasticity time dependence. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. Qualitatively different regimes of transient plasticity under irradiation are found. The fracture time is obtained. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental ones.

Keywords: climb and glide of dislocations, fractures of transient plasticity, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, point defects

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2867 High Pressure Torsion Deformation Behavior of a Low-SFE FCC Ternary Medium Entropy Alloy

Authors: Saumya R. Jha, Krishanu Biswas, Nilesh P. Gurao

Abstract:

Several recent investigations have revealed medium entropy alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties than their high entropy counterparts. This clearly establishes that although a higher entropy plays a vital role in stabilization of particular phase over complex intermetallic phases, configurational entropy is not the primary factor responsible for the high inherent strengthening in these systems. Above and beyond a high contribution from friction stresses and solid solution strengthening, strain hardening is an important contributor to the strengthening in these systems. In this regard, researchers have developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques like High Pressure Torsion (HPT) to incorporate very high shear strain in the material, thereby leading to ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructures, which cause manifold increase in the strength. The presented work demonstrates a meticulous study of the variation in mechanical properties at different radial displacements from the center of HPT tested equiatomic ternary FeMnNi synthesized by casting route, which is a low stacking fault energy FCC alloy that shows significantly higher toughness than its high entropy counterparts like Cantor alloy. The gradient in grain sizes along the radial direction of these specimens has been modeled using microstructure entropy for predicting the mechanical properties, which has also been validated by indentation tests. The dislocation density is computed by FEM simulations for varying strains and validated by analyzing synchrotron diffraction data. Thus, the proposed model can be utilized to predict the strengthening behavior of similar systems deformed by HPT subjected to varying loading conditions.

Keywords: high pressure torsion, severe plastic deformation, configurational entropy, dislocation density, FEM simulation

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2866 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: CuAlS2, evaporation, sulfurisation, thickness, resistivity, crystalline

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2865 Friction Stir Processing of the AA7075T7352 Aluminum Alloy Microstructures Mechanical Properties and Texture Characteristics

Authors: Roopchand Tandon, Zaheer Khan Yusufzai, R. Manna, R. K. Mandal

Abstract:

Present work describes microstructures, mechanical properties, and texture characteristics of the friction stir processed AA7075T7352 aluminum alloy. Phases were analyzed with the help of x-ray diffractometre (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Depth-wise microstructures and dislocation characteristics from the nugget-zone of the friction stir processed specimens were studied using the bright field (BF) and weak beam dark-field (WBDF) TEM micrographs, and variation in the microstructures as well as dislocation characteristics were the noteworthy features found. XRD analysis display changes in the chemistry as well as size of the phases in the nugget and heat affected zones (Nugget and HAZ). Whereas the base metal (BM) microstructures remain un-affected. High density dislocations were noticed in the nugget regions of the processed specimen, along with the formation of dislocation contours and tangles. .The ɳ’ and ɳ phases, along with the GP-Zones were completely dissolved and trapped by the dislocations. Such an observations got corroborated to the improved mechanical as well as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) performances. Bulk texture and residual stress measurements were done by the Panalytical Empyrean MRD system with Co- kα radiation. Nugget zone (NZ) display compressive residual stress as compared to thermo-mechanically(TM) and heat affected zones (HAZ). Typical f.c.c. deformation texture components (e.g. Copper, Brass, and Goss) were seen. Such a phenomenon is attributed to the enhanced hardening as well as other mechanical performance of the alloy. Mechanical characterizations were done using the tensile test and Anton Paar Instrumented Micro Hardness tester. Enhancement in the yield strength value is reported from the 89MPa to the 170MPa; on the other hand, highest hardness value was reported in the nugget-zone of the processed specimens.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, mechanical characterization, texture characterstics, friction stir processing

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2864 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam

Abstract:

A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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2863 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi

Abstract:

A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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2862 Thiopental-Fentanyl versus Midazolam-Fentanyl for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Patients with Shoulder Dislocation and Distal Radial Fracture-Dislocation: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: D. Farsi, G. Dokhtvasi, S. Abbasi, S. Shafiee Ardestani, E. Payani

Abstract:

Background and aim:It has not been well studied whether fentanyl-thiopental (FT) is effective and safe for PSA in orthopedic procedures in Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous FTversusfentanyl-midazolam (FM)in patients who suffered from shoulder dislocation or distal radial fracture-dislocation. Methods:In this randomized double-blinded study, Seventy-six eligible patients were entered the study and randomly received intravenous FT or FM. The success rate, onset of action and recovery time, pain score, physicians’ satisfaction and adverse events were assessed and recorded by treating emergency physicians. The statistical analysis was intention to treat. Results: The success rate after administrating loading dose in FT group was significantly higher than FM group (71.7% vs. 48.9%, p=0.04); however, the ultimate unsuccess rate after 3 doses of drugs in the FT group was higher than the FM group (3 to 1) but it did not reach to significant level (p=0.61). Despite near equal onset of action time in two study group (P=0.464), the recovery period in patients receiving FT was markedly shorter than FM group (P<0.001). The occurrence of adverse effects was low in both groups (p=0.31). Conclusion: PSA using FT is effective and appears to be safe for orthopedic procedures in the ED. Therefore, regarding the prompt onset of action, short recovery period of thiopental, it seems that this combination can be considered more for performing PSA in orthopedic procedures in ED.

Keywords: procedural sedation and analgesia, thiopental, fentanyl, midazolam, orthopedic procedure, emergency department, pain

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2861 Correlation of Building Density toward Land Surface Temperature 2018 in Medan City

Authors: Andi Syahputra, R. H. Jatmiko, D. R. Hizbaron

Abstract:

Land surface temperature (LST) in an area is influenced by conditions of vegetation density, building density, and the number of inhabitants who live in the area. Medan City is one of the largest cities in Indonesia, with a high rate of change from vegetation to developed land. This study aims to identify the relationship between the percentage of building density and land surface temperature in Medan City. Pixel image analysis method is carried out to obtain the value of building density in pixel images of Landsat 8 images with the help of WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results showed the highest land surface temperature in 2018 of 35, 4°C was found in Medan Perjuangan District, and the lowest was 22.5°C in Medan Belawan District. Building density samples with a density level of 889.17 m were also found in Medan Perjuangan District, while the lowest building density sample was found in Medan Timur District. Linear regression analysis of the effect of building density with land surface temperature obtained a correlation (R) was 0.64, and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.411 and modeling of building density based on the LST has a correlation (R), and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.72 with The RMSE obtained 0.853.

Keywords: land surface temperature, Landsat, imagery, building density, vegetation, density

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2860 Prospective Study on the Efficacy of Bio Absorbable Screws in Treatment of Osteochondral Fractures

Authors: S. Anwar Sathik, K. Manoj Deepak, K. Venkatachalam

Abstract:

Our study is a prospective study on the use of bio absorbable pins for the treatment of osteochondral fractures after patellar dislocation.22 patients who presented with osteochondral fractures were treated in our institution. They were followed for a minimum of 12 months by regular radiological evaluation. Of the 22 patients, 2 had fragments that detached from the fracture site which was treated arthroscopically. All the patients underwent open reduction and fixation of the pins using bio absorbable crews. They were immobilized in the cast for a minimum of 6 weeks after which mobilization was started according to our protocol. Fracture consolidation was found to occur in 20 of the 22 patients. Thus, Bio absorbable screws can be used as a reliable method of fixation of the osteochondral fragments.

Keywords: osteochondral fracture, bio absorbable pins, patella dislocation, physiotherapy

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2859 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang

Abstract:

In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2858 Polynomially Adjusted Bivariate Density Estimates Based on the Saddlepoint Approximation

Authors: S. B. Provost, Susan Sheng

Abstract:

An alternative bivariate density estimation methodology is introduced in this presentation. The proposed approach involves estimating the density function associated with the marginal distribution of each of the two variables by means of the saddlepoint approximation technique and applying a bivariate polynomial adjustment to the product of these density estimates. Since the saddlepoint approximation is utilized in the context of density estimation, such estimates are determined from empirical cumulant-generating functions. In the univariate case, the saddlepoint density estimate is itself adjusted by a polynomial. Given a set of observations, the coefficients of the polynomial adjustments are obtained from the sample moments. Several illustrative applications of the proposed methodology shall be presented. Since this approach relies essentially on a determinate number of sample moments, it is particularly well suited for modeling massive data sets.

Keywords: density estimation, empirical cumulant-generating function, moments, saddlepoint approximation

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2857 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2856 Gravitrap for Surveillance of Mosquito Density in Kaohsiung

Authors: Meng-Yu Tsai, Jui-hun Chang, Wen-Feng Hung, Jing-Dong Chou

Abstract:

The objective of this paper was to use gravitrap to survey the mosquito density in Kaohsiung. Gravitrap is one of the tools for surveillance the mosquito density. Gravitrap not only monitor the mosquito density but also decrease the mosquito density. Kaohsiung Environment Protection Bureau (KEPB) used gravitrap to monitor the mosquito density in 2016. KEPB put gravitrap in five districts which had the more confirmed dengue cases in 2015. The results indicated that (1)the highest positive rate (PR) of gravitrap was in Gushan district, the PR of gravitrap in Gushan district was 19.25%. (2) the lowest PR of gravitrap was in Sanmin district, the PR of gravitrap in Sanmin district was 8.55%. (3) compared these two districts, the most important factor to influence of PR of gravitrap was the knowledge of dengue prevention. Therefore, the PR of gravitrap was one of the references for making dengue prevention policy.

Keywords: continuous assessment, course integration, curricular reform, student feedback

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2855 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui

Abstract:

The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 304