Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: S. B. Provost

10 An Extension of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Abdous Saboor


A q-analogue of the generalized extreme value distribution which includes the Gumbel distribution is introduced. The additional parameter q allows for increased modeling flexibility. The resulting distribution can have a finite, semi-infinite or infinite support. It can also produce several types of hazard rate functions. The model parameters are determined by making use of the method of maximum likelihood. It will be shown that it compares favourably to three related distributions in connection with the modeling of a certain hydrological data set.

Keywords: extreme value theory, generalized extreme value distribution, goodness-of-fit statistics, Gumbel distribution

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9 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam


A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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8 A Methodology for Characterising the Tail Behaviour of a Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Yishan Zang


Following a review of various approaches that are utilized for classifying the tail behavior of a distribution, an easily implementable methodology that relies on an arctangent transformation is presented. The classification criterion is actually based on the difference between two specific quantiles of the transformed distribution. The resulting categories enable one to classify distributional tails as distinctly short, short, nearly medium, medium, extended medium and somewhat long, providing that at least two moments exist. Distributions possessing a single moment are said to be long tailed while those failing to have any finite moments are classified as having an extremely long tail. Several illustrative examples will be presented.

Keywords: arctangent transformation, tail classification, heavy-tailed distributions, distributional moments

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7 On Modeling Data Sets by Means of a Modified Saddlepoint Approximation

Authors: Serge B. Provost, Yishan Zhang


A moment-based adjustment to the saddlepoint approximation is introduced in the context of density estimation. First applied to univariate distributions, this methodology is extended to the bivariate case. It then entails estimating the density function associated with each marginal distribution by means of the saddlepoint approximation and applying a bivariate adjustment to the product of the resulting density estimates. The connection to the distribution of empirical copulas will be pointed out. As well, a novel approach is proposed for estimating the support of distribution. As these results solely rely on sample moments and empirical cumulant-generating functions, they are particularly well suited for modeling massive data sets. Several illustrative applications will be presented.

Keywords: empirical cumulant-generating function, endpoints identification, saddlepoint approximation, sample moments, density estimation

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6 Polynomially Adjusted Bivariate Density Estimates Based on the Saddlepoint Approximation

Authors: S. B. Provost, Susan Sheng


An alternative bivariate density estimation methodology is introduced in this presentation. The proposed approach involves estimating the density function associated with the marginal distribution of each of the two variables by means of the saddlepoint approximation technique and applying a bivariate polynomial adjustment to the product of these density estimates. Since the saddlepoint approximation is utilized in the context of density estimation, such estimates are determined from empirical cumulant-generating functions. In the univariate case, the saddlepoint density estimate is itself adjusted by a polynomial. Given a set of observations, the coefficients of the polynomial adjustments are obtained from the sample moments. Several illustrative applications of the proposed methodology shall be presented. Since this approach relies essentially on a determinate number of sample moments, it is particularly well suited for modeling massive data sets.

Keywords: density estimation, empirical cumulant-generating function, moments, saddlepoint approximation

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5 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost


Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

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4 Experimental Quantification and Modeling of Dissolved Gas during Hydrate Crystallization: CO₂ Hydrate Case

Authors: Amokrane Boufares, Elise Provost, Veronique Osswald, Pascal Clain, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Didier Dalmazzone


Gas hydrates have long been considered as problematic for flow assurance in natural gas and oil transportation. On the other hand, they are now seen as future promising materials for various applications (i.e. desalination of seawater, natural gas and hydrogen storage, gas sequestration, gas combustion separation and cold storage and transport). Nonetheless, a better understanding of the crystallization mechanism of gas hydrate and of their formation kinetics is still needed for a better comprehension and control of the process. To that purpose, measuring the real-time evolution of the dissolved gas concentration in the aqueous phase during hydrate formation is required. In this work, CO₂ hydrates were formed in a stirred reactor equipped with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) probe coupled to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. A method was first developed to continuously measure in-situ the CO₂ concentration in the liquid phase during solubilization, supersaturation, hydrate crystallization and dissociation steps. Thereafter, the measured concentration data were compared with those of equilibrium concentrations. It was observed that the equilibrium is instantly reached in the liquid phase due to the fast consumption of dissolved gas by the hydrate crystallization. Consequently, it was shown that hydrate crystallization kinetics is limited by the gas transfer at the gas-liquid interface. Finally, we noticed that the liquid-hydrate equilibrium during the hydrate crystallization is governed by the temperature of the experiment under the tested conditions.

Keywords: gas hydrate, dissolved gas, crystallization, infrared spectroscopy

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3 Approaches to Ethical Hacking: A Conceptual Framework for Research

Authors: Lauren Provost


The digital world remains increasingly vulnerable, making the development of effective cybersecurity approaches even more critical in supporting the success of the digital economy and national security. Although approaches to cybersecurity have shifted and improved in the last decade with new models, especially with cloud computing and mobility, a record number of high severity vulnerabilities were recorded in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and its National Vulnerability Database (NVD) in 2020. This is due, in part, to the increasing complexity of cyber ecosystems. Security must be approached with a more comprehensive, multi-tool strategy that addresses the complexity of cyber ecosystems, including the human factor. Ethical hacking has emerged as such an approach: a more effective, multi-strategy, comprehensive approach to cyber security's most pressing needs, especially understanding the human factor. Research on ethical hacking, however, is limited in scope. The two main objectives of this work are to (1) provide highlights of case studies in ethical hacking, (2) provide a conceptual framework for research in ethical hacking that embraces and addresses both technical and nontechnical security measures. Recommendations include an improved conceptual framework for research centered on ethical hacking that addresses many factors and attributes of significant attacks that threaten computer security; a more robust, integrative multi-layered framework embracing the complexity of cybersecurity ecosystems.

Keywords: ethical hacking, literature review, penetration testing, social engineering

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2 Impact of Different Rearing Diets on the Performance of Adult Mealworms Tenebrio molitor

Authors: Caroline Provost, Francois Dumont


Production of insects for human and animal consumption is an increasingly important activity in Canada. Protein production is more efficient and less harmful to the environment using insect rearing compared to the impact of traditional livestock, poultry and fish farms. Insects are rich in essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and trace elements. Thus, insect-based products could be used as a food supplement for livestock and domestic animals and may even find their way into the diets of high performing athletes or fine dining. Nevertheless, several parameters remain to be determined to ensure efficient and profitable production that meet the potential of these sectors. This project proposes to improve the production processes, rearing diets and processing methods for three species with valuable gastronomic and nutritional potential: the common mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), the small mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus), and the giant mealworm (Zophobas morio). The general objective of the project is to acquire specific knowledge for mass rearing of insects dedicated to animal and human consumption in order to respond to current market opportunities and meet a growing demand for these products. Mass rearing of the three species of mealworm was produced to provide the individuals needed for the experiments. Mealworms eat flour from different cereals (e.g. wheat, barley, buckwheat). These cereals vary in their composition (protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, antioxidant, etc.), but also in their purchase cost. Seven different diets were compared to optimize the yield of the rearing. Diets were composed of cereal flour (e.g. wheat, barley) and were either mixed or left alone. Female fecundity, larvae mortality and growing curves were observed. Some flour diets have positive effects on female fecundity and larvae performance while each mealworm was found to have specific diet requirements. Trade-offs between mealworm performance and costs need to be considered. Experiments on the effect of flour composition on several parameters related to performance and nutritional and gastronomic value led to the identification of a more appropriate diet for each mealworm.

Keywords: mass rearing, mealworm, human consumption, diet

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1 Women Executives: A Panacea to Incessant Sexual Assaults in Higher Institutions, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Imo State Nigeria as a Case Study

Authors: Ujunma Nnenna Egbuawa


Rape or sexual assault is a hideous crime of violence done predominantly to women and occasionally to men. In institutions of higher learning, it’s mostly experienced within or outside the campus environment due to students who are from different backgrounds socially. These students also have been imbibed with conflicting ethical standards, thus act both morally and amoral with respect to their sexual urges. The most affected among these are the female students who live outside the campus environment that is suitable for any immoral activity. These female students that are victims of rape hardly would want to be identified and this has left them as habitual prey to the unsuspecting predators. The socio-cultural setting has also been a contributory factor to the psychological and physical damage these victims face throughout their time of study as female rape victims. This is an empirical study designed to elicit information from students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Imo State Nigeria on whether they have been sexually assaulted or raped and how they handled it thereafter. This institution was used as a case study because the provost of this tertiary institution is a woman whose name is Dr( Mrs ) C.U Njoku who has made consented efforts to ensure these rape victims rise above the social stigma associated with it. This rector has also put in some measures to bring about a decline in cases of rape within and outside the campus environment. She also granted the researcher an oral interview on how she has been able to achieve these and the challenges she hitherto faced in the process. Three research questions and a hypothesis guided the study. Samples of 119 students were used and stratification was done for sex, age and the academic level of the students. 14 item questionnaires were used and data generated from the survey were analyzed using percentages. This workshop would engage the participants by investigating some courses that may help in declining the rate of rape cases within a campus. Also, necessary measures that would be taken to help in sensitizing the tertiary institutions in areas that can aid the healing procedures of these victims. The need also for guidance and counseling unit is also a necessity for the psychological survival of these rape victims. As a result, the participants would gain an increased awareness of the influence of rape and sexual assault on campus. There ought to be a paradigm shift in institutions of higher learning in policies, administrative decisions and introduction of courses that will uplift ethical standards in order to bring about a change both locally and globally.

Keywords: institutions, psychological, sexual assault, socio-cultural

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