Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 169

Search results for: Anne Theresa Eidhoff

169 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth

Abstract:

Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation

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168 Drivers of Digital Product Innovation in Firms: An Empirical Study of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth, Sarah Gundlach

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With digitalization increasingly changing the rules of competition, firms face the need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies in order to remain competitive. Firms can choose from various possibilities to integrate digital technologies including the option to embed digital technologies aiming to innovate products or to develop digital products. However, the question of which specific factors influence a firm’s decision to pursue digital product innovation remains unanswered in research. By adopting the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-framework we have designed a qualitative exploratory study including eleven German practitioners to investigate relevant contingency factors. Our results indicate that the most critical factors for a company’s decision to pursue digital product innovation can be found in the technological and environmental dimensions, namely customers, competitive pressure, technological change, as well as digitalization fit. 

Keywords: digital innovation, digitalization, product innovation, TOE-framework

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167 Findings from an Access Improvement Project for Antiretroviral Therapy Uptake through Traditional Birth Attendants at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Afolayan, Christina Olawepo, Francis Olowookanga, Nguhemen Tingir, Olawale Fadare, John Oko

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In Nigeria, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can play an important role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, their role in improving access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. Catholic Caritas Foundation of Nigeria (Caritas Nigeria) is an implementing agency supporting increased access to HIV testing and treatment services in Lagos state through health facilities including Mother Theresa Hospital. Despite intra-facility testing and community outreaches, ART uptake at Mother Theresa Hospital, Lagos was low with 6 individuals on antiretroviral drugs 3 months post-activation. This study explored improving access to ART through linkages with TBAs for ART uptake at the facility. Plan-Do-Study-Act model was used. The goal was to improve uptake of ART from 6 to 80 in 5 months (end of project year). Scanning revealed a network of 15 TBAs with potential as satellites for HIV testing. Caritas Nigeria linked the facility with 15 TBAs who were provided with HIV test kits and trained on HIV testing services for provider-initiated testing and outreaches. Weekly reports and referrals of positives were received, tracked and feedback given on testing yield. These TBAs serve individuals of various age and gender at their trado-medical centres. At the end of 5 months, HIV testing increased by 10,575 (78% from TBAs) and HIV positives obtained improved by 77 (44.2% from TBAs). 55 new individuals were enrolled and commenced on ART (61.8% from TBAs). There was a successful linkage of all clients with escort services due to incentives. Total uptake of ART was 61 (76.3% of target). Structured partnerships between TBAs and HIV care and treatment centers should be strengthened to improve access to ART.

Keywords: access improvement, antiretroviral therapy, traditional birth attendants, uptake

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166 Filling the Gaps with Representation: Netflix’s Anne with an E as a Way to Reveal What the Text Hid

Authors: Arkadiusz Adam Gardaś

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In his theory of gaps, Wolfgang Iser states that literary texts often lack direct messages. Instead of using straightforward descriptions, authors leave the gaps or blanks, i.e., the spaces within the text that come into existence only when readers fill them with their understanding and experiences. This paper’s aim is to present Iser’s literary theory in an intersectional way by comparing it to the idea of intersemiotic translation. To be more precise, the author uses the example of Netflix’s adaption of Lucy Maud Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables as a form of rendering a book into a film in such a way that certain textual gaps are filled with film images. Intersemiotic translation is a rendition in which signs of one kind of media are translated into the signs of the other media. Film adaptions are the most common, but not the only, type of intersemiotic translation. In this case, the role of the translator is taken by a screenwriter. A screenwriter’s role can reach beyond the direct meaning presented by the author, and instead, it can delve into the source material (here – a novel) in a deeper way. When it happens, a screenwriter is able to spot the gaps in the text and fill them with images that can later be presented to the viewers. Anne with an E, the Netflix adaption of Montgomery’s novel, may be used as a highly meaningful example of such a rendition. It is due to the fact that the 2017 series was broadcasted more than a hundred years after the first edition of the novel was published. This means that what the author might not have been able to show in her text can now be presented in a more open way. The screenwriter decided to use this opportunity to represent certain groups in the film, i.e., racial and sexual minorities, and women. Nonetheless, the series does not alter the novel; in fact, it adds to it by filling the blanks with more direct images. In the paper, fragments of the first season of Anne with an E are analysed in comparison to its source, the novel by Montgomery. The main purpose of that is to show how intersemiotic translation connected with the Iser’s literary theory can enrich the understanding of works of art, culture, media, and literature.

Keywords: intersemiotic translation, film, literary gaps, representation

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165 ‘A Ghost of One’s Own’: Spectral Intrusions and Trauma in the Poetry of Joanna Baillie and Anne Bannerman

Authors: Elli Karampela

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In Specters of Marx (1993), Jacques Derrida refers to the ghost as an Other presence that occupies the space of the self and emanates from there, haunting in its shadowy pastness and threatening/striving to break free. In times of change, ghosts both reflect the dissolution of set principles and voice traumas of the past that create a sense of fear and instability. This paper observes the way female ghosts create connections with the living in the poetry of Joanna Baillie and Anne Bannerman, both integral, albeit under-researched in different ways, writers of the English Romantic period working in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Especially at the beginning of the nineteenth century, when ghost narratives were devoured by readers and enjoyed as stories that re-awakened sensation in times of revolution, there was at the same time fear of intrusion by terror’s unruly forces that threatened to turn the readers restless. The ghost was particularly dangerous because it was associated with memory and the intrusion of past trauma in the here and now. As will be seen, both Baillie and Bannerman explore the idea of the female ghost’s ‘return’ (a Freudian term that will be approached) which breaks both time and space boundaries to raise the suppressed female voice, threaten stability, and correct wrongs. As a result, the varied manifestations of female ghosts render Baillie and Bannerman active in the contemporary discourse about human rights and the reclamation of the agency.

Keywords: poetry, romanticism, spectrality, trauma, women

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164 Educaton for Social Reconstruction: Impact of Social Terrorism on Women Education in Nigeria

Authors: Theresa Chinyere ONU

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This paper examines the effect of social terrorism on education in Nigeria. The article looked into some prevailing conditions of international political unrest and insecurity. The fear and risk of these conditions to national security and the struggle for power establishment which has further intensified and taken the shape of terrorism has imposed devastating effects on the growth and prosperity of Nigeria; as traffic patterns get disturbed, hospitals and schools get dysfunctional. This has also affected the educational standard in Nigeria as parents are no longer comfortable in sending their children to schools in some states for the fear of terrorist attacks. The study emphasized the integrated the effort of the government management institutions.

Keywords: education, social terrorism, women, Nigeria

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163 Neuropsychology of Social Awareness: A Research Study Applied to University Students in Greece

Authors: Argyris Karapetsas, Maria Bampou, Andriani Mitropoulou

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The aim of the present work is to study the role of brain function in social awareness processing. Mind controls all the psychosomatic functions. Mind’s functioning enables individual not only to recognize one's own self and propositional attitudes, but also to assign such attitudes to other individuals, and to consider such observed mental states in the elucidation of behavior. Participants and Methods: Twenty (n=20) undergraduate students (mean age 18 years old) were involved in this study. Students participated in a clinical assessment, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Assessment included both electrophysiological (i.e.Event Related Potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests (Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and Sally-Anne test). Results: Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant differences between the males and females, as well as in score performance to the tests applied. Strong correlations emerged between prefrontal lobe functioning, RPM, Sally-Anne test and P300 latencies. Also, significant dysfunction of mind has been found, regarding its three dimensions (straight, circular and helical). At the end of the assessment, students received consultation and appropriate guidelines in order to improve their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Conclusions: Mind and social awareness phenomena play a vital role in human development and may act as determinants of the quality of one’s own life. Meanwhile, brain function is highly correlated with social awareness and it seems that different set of brain structures are involved in social behavior.

Keywords: brain activity, emotions, ERP's, social awareness

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162 The Home as Memory Palace: Three Case Studies of Artistic Representations of the Relationship between Individual and Collective Memory and the Home

Authors: Laura M. F. Bertens

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The houses we inhabit are important containers of memory. As homes, they take on meaning for those who live inside, and memories of family life become intimately tied up with rooms, windows, and gardens. Each new family creates a new layer of meaning, resulting in a palimpsest of family memory. These houses function quite literally as memory palaces, as a walk through a childhood home will show; each room conjures up images of past events. Over time, these personal memories become woven together with the cultural memory of countries and generations. The importance of the home is a central theme in art, and several contemporary artists have a special interest in the relationship between memory and the home. This paper analyses three case studies in order to get a deeper understanding of the ways in which the home functions and feels like a memory palace, both on an individual and on a collective, cultural level. Close reading of the artworks is performed on the theoretical intersection between Art History and Cultural Memory Studies. The first case study concerns works from the exhibition Mnemosyne by the artist duo Anne and Patrick Poirier. These works combine interests in architecture, archaeology, and psychology. Models of cities and fantastical architectural designs resemble physical structures (such as the brain), architectural metaphors used in representing the concept of memory (such as the memory palace), and archaeological remains, essential to our shared cultural memories. Secondly, works by Do Ho Suh will help us understand the relationship between the home and memory on a far more personal level; outlines of rooms from his former homes, made of colourful, transparent fabric and combined into new structures, provide an insight into the way these spaces retain individual memories. The spaces have been emptied out, and only the husks remain. Although the remnants of walls, light switches, doors, electricity outlets, etc. are standard, mass-produced elements found in many homes and devoid of inherent meaning, together they remind us of the emotional significance attached to the muscle memory of spaces we once inhabited. The third case study concerns an exhibition in a house put up for sale on the Dutch real estate website Funda. The house was built in 1933 by a Jewish family fleeing from Germany, and the father and son were later deported and killed. The artists Anne van As and CA Wertheim have used the history and memories of the house as a starting point for an exhibition called (T)huis, a combination of the Dutch words for home and house. This case study illustrates the way houses become containers of memories; each new family ‘resets’ the meaning of a house, but traces of earlier memories remain. The exhibition allows us to explore the transition of individual memories into shared cultural memory, in this case of WWII. Taken together, the analyses provide a deeper understanding of different facets of the relationship between the home and memory, both individual and collective, and the ways in which art can represent these.

Keywords: Anne and Patrick Poirier, cultural memory, Do Ho Suh, home, memory palace

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161 A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process

Authors: Theresa Robinson Harris

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Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.

Keywords: leadership, small business, entrepreneurship, success, failure

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160 Sand Dollars: Sex Tourism and Coloniality of Power in the Dominican Republic

Authors: Fernando Valerio-Holguin

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Over the recent three decades, the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had an enormous impact on the country’s culture. The arrival of tourists from Germany, France, Italy, Russia and the United States has rewritten Dominican cultural identity and created a cultural palimpsest in the areas of language, gastronomy, habits, fashion, values, and gender relations. As a consequence of tourism, a prostitution network has flourished across the country. In the film Sand Dollars (2015) directed by Laura Amelia Guzmán and Israel Cárdenas, Noelí (Janet Mojica), a young mulatto woman, altogether with her boyfriend (Ricardo Ariel Toribio), strips tourists of dollars and euro through prostitution. One of her frequent clients is Anne, a mature French woman (Geraldine Chaplin). While Noeli’s goal is to get all the euros she can, Anne falls in love with her and tries to bring her to France. Both the content of the film and its cinematographic languages are analyzed in light of theory of coloniality. This concept shows how European and American tourism, through the power of money, perpetuates colonial discourse, i. e., how race and ethnocentrism permeate cultural activities in their former colonies. Moreover, in the content analysis of the film the concepts of exchange value and fetishism are crucial to understanding how the colonial body becomes sexual commodity. They facilitate grasping the film’s inequity in terms of power in the relationship between the two women: the white old European woman and the young, poor, third-world mulatta. Even though the film attempts to break away from compulsory heterosexuality, the power relation between the two women persists due to the presence of the axis of race, ethnicity, age and gender. Both the novel Les dollars des sables written by Jean-Noel Pancrazi, and the film Sand Dollars offer an interesting insight into sex tourism and coloniality and shed additional light on the power relations between the former colonizers and its colonies.

Keywords: coloniality, ethnocentrism, exchange value, Europe, fetishism, money, power, prostitution, sex tourism, United States of America

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159 Condom Attitudes and Self-Efficacy: Unwrapping Safer Sex Practices among Heterosexual Bahamian Men

Authors: Theresa Adderley

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Background: Aside from abstinence, correct and consistent use of latex condoms is the best known effective method to reduce HIV transmission among sexually active heterosexual individuals. When condoms are correctly used, the risk of HIV transmission is reduced by approximately 85%, relative to risk when not protected during sexual intercourse. The literature provides evidence that heterosexual young adults continue to be the group among whom STI rates are highest and the group that engages in more sexual risk-taking behaviors such as inconsistent or no condom usage. This study examines condom attitudes, condom use self-efficacy and their contributions to safer sex behaviors among heterosexual men living in The Bahamas. Methods: Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, and a convenience sample of 185 heterosexual males (Mage= 31.95, SD = 11.35), three standardized instruments were used to assess behaviors that may not only place heterosexual males at risk for HIV infection but also their female partners. Results: The results of this study suggest that condom attitudes, and condom use self-efficacy are important in explaining 24% variance in safer sex behaviors among Bahamian men. Income (β= -.15, p < .01; condom attitudes, (β= .36, p < .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β= .1, p < .01) were significantly associated with safer sex behaviors. Conclusion: Rather than focusing only on the use of safer sex behaviors, an effective HIV prevention strategy must consider condom attitudes and condom use self-efficacy as specific variables that may contribute to perpetuating the transmission of HIV.

Keywords: condom attitudes, safer sex behaviors, HIV, condom self-efficacy

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158 A Systematic Review on Communication and Relations between Health Care Professionals and Patients with Cancer in Outpatient Settings Matter

Authors: Anne Prip, Kirsten Alling Møller, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Mary Jarden, Marie-Helene Olsen, Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen

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Background: The development in cancer care has shifted towards shorter hospital stays and more outpatient treatment. Today, cancer care and treatment predominantly takes place in outpatient settings where encounters between patients and health care professionals are often brief. This development will probably continue internationally as the global cancer burden seems to be growing significantly. Furthermore, the number of patients who require ambulatory treatments such as chemotherapy is increasing. Focusing on the encounters between health care professionals and patients during oncology treatment has thus become increasingly important due to a growing trend in outpatient cancer management. Objective: The aim of the systematic review was to summarize the literature from the perspective of the patient, on experiences of and the need for communication and relationships with the health care professional during chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient setting. Method: The review was designed and carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines and PICO framework. The systematic search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database. Results: In all, 1174 studies were identified by literature search. After duplicates were removed, the remaining studies (n = 1053) were screened for inclusion. Nine studies were included; qualitative (n = 5) and quantitative (n = 4) as they met the inclusions criteria. The review identified that communication and relationships between health care professionals and patients were important for the patients’ ability to cope with cancer and also had an impact on patients’ satisfaction with care in the outpatient clinic. Furthermore, the review showed that hope and positivity was a need and strategy for patients with cancer and was facilitated by health care professionals. Finally, it revealed that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. Conclusions: This review identified the significance of communication and the relationships between patients and health care professionals in the outpatient setting as it supports patients’ ability to cope with cancer. The review showed the need for health care professionals to pay attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic as encounters are often brief. Furthermore, the review helps to specify which elements of the communication are central in the patient-health care professional interaction from the patients' perspective. Finally, it shows a need for more research to investigate which type of interaction and intervention would be the most effective in supporting patients’ coping during chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic.

Keywords: ambulatory chemotherapy, communication, health care professional-patient relation, nurse-patient relation, outpatient care, systematic review

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157 Predictive Power of Achievement Motivation on Student Engagement and Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

Authors: Theresa Marie Miller, Ma. Nympha Joaquin

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The aim of this study was to check the predictive power of social-oriented and individual-oriented achievement motivation on student engagement and collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. A sample of 277 fourth year high school students from the Philippines were selected. Surveys and videos of collaborative problem solving activity were used to collect data from respondents. The mathematics teachers of the participants were interviewed to provide qualitative support on the data. Systemaitc correlation and regression analysis were employed. Results of the study showed that achievement motivations−SOAM and IOAM− linearly predicted student engagement but was not significantly associated to the collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. Student engagement correlated positively with collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. The results contribute to theorizing about the predictive power of achievement motivations, SOAM and IOAM on the realm of academic behaviors and outcomes as well as extend the understanding of collaborative problem-solving skills of 21st century learners.

Keywords: achievement motivation, collaborative problem-solving skills, individual-oriented achievement motivation, social-oriented achievement motivation, student engagement

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156 Agile Manifesto Construct for the Film Industry

Authors: Kiri Trier, Theresa Treffers

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In the course of continuous volatility like production stops due to the COVID-19 pandemic, video-on-demand player monopolizing the film industry, filmmakers are stuck in traditional, linear content development processes. The industry has to become more agile in order to react quickly and easily to changes. Since content development in agile project management is scientifically–empirically not at all recorded, and a lack beyond the software development in terms of agile methods consists, we examined if the agile manifesto values and principles from the software development can be adapted to the film industry to enable agility and digitalization of content development in the industry. We conducted an online questionnaire with 184 German filmmakers (producers, authors, directors, actors, film financiers) for a first cross-sectional assessment for adaptability of the agile manifesto from the software development to the film industry, factor analysis was used to validate the construct. Our results show that it is crucial to digitalize traditional content development to agile content development end-to-end, with tools, lean processes, new collaboration structures, and holacracy to prepare for any volatility. Overall, we examined the first construct for an agile manifesto for the film industry with four values related to nine own principles. Our findings help to get a better understanding of the agile manifesto beyond the software development as a guideline for implementing agility in the film industry.

Keywords: agile manifesto, agile project management, agility, film industry

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155 Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Polyaniline/Nickel Sulphide Nanocomposite

Authors: Ugwu Laeticia Udodiri, Bashiru Lukuman, Okpaneje Onyinye Theresa

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This work is on the synthesis and study of optical characterization of polyaniline/nickel sulphide nanocomposite. Polyaniline (PANI) and nickel sulphide (NiS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization and sol gel method. The polyaniline nickel sulphide nanocomposites with various concentrations of NiS were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer. In each case, the nickel sulphide nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the aniline hydrochloride before initiation of chemical oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulphate. The samples formed were subjected to optical characterization using ultraviolet (UV)-visible light (VIS) spectrophotometer (model: 756S UV – VIS). Optical analysis of the synthesized nanoparticles and nanocomposites showed absorption of radiation within VIS regions. Other optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient and energy band gap were evaluated. Tauc model was used to obtain the optical band gap. Energy band gap values of PANI and NiS were found to be 2.50 eV and 1.95 eV, respectively. PANI/NiS nanocomposites have an energy band gap that decreased from 2.25 eV to 1.90 eV as the amount of NiS increased (from 0.5g to 2.0g). These optical results showed that these nanocomposites are potential materials to be considered in solar cell and optoelectronics devices.

Keywords: polyaniline, nickel sulphide, polyaniline-nickel sulphide nanocomposite, optical characterization

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154 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

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153 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Rake Angle on Turning Ti-6Al-4V with TiAlN Coated Carbides

Authors: Satyanarayana Kosaraju, Venu Gopal Anne, Sateesh Nagari

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In this paper, the effect of cutting speed, feedrate and rake angle in tool geometry on cutting forces and temperature generated on the tool tip in turning were investigated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments conducted on precision lathe according to the full factorial design to observe the effect of each factor level on the process performance. During the tests, depth of cut were kept constant and each test was conducted with a sharp coated tool insert. Ti-6Al-4V was used as the workpiece material. The effects of cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting forces and tool tip temperature were analyzed. The main cutting force was observed to have a decreasing trend and temperature found to be increasing trend as the rake angle increased.

Keywords: cutting force, tool tip temperature, rake angle, machining

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152 The Socio-Religious, Economic, and Cultural Impacts of Aso-Ebi on South-East Nigeria

Authors: Nwaoga, Theresa Chinyere

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The paper examines the impacts of Aso-Ebi, a Yoruba term for ‘uniform’ on the people of south-east Nigeria. Aso-Ebi is used to denote uniform wear which is typical of the people of south-west Nigeria. In the 1980s and 1990s, uniform wears were used only by immediate family members of a deceased person. This is for easy identification by visitors—to know those who are related to the deceased person. Aso-Ebi is now part of a culture that has existed in Nigeria from the Yoruba and transcended to other parts of Nigeria, precisely south-east Nigeria. The buying of Aso-Ebi and attending the occasions in the attire is the only way of showing solidarity and support to the celebrant. Aso-Ebi has led to creating a sense of belonging, opening of doors for marriage by those single, and fundraising. As part of the findings, it was discovered that Aso-Ebi has led to an increase in marital infidelity and divorce, robbery, prostitution, depression, and an increase in enmity between friends in south-east Nigeria. Data was generated through oral interviews, focus group discussion and participant observation. Secondary data were obtained from journals, textbooks, the internet and periodicals. The phenomenological method of research was used as the methodology. This method allows for an objective report and analysis of the research problem. Aso-Ebi has come to stay in Igbo culture, so there should be a proper re-orientation on the uses of Aso-Ebi during occasions like burial in Igbo land. The campaign can start from the church by discouraging people from using Aso-Ebi during burials and wedding ceremonies.

Keywords: Asho Ebi, uniformed women, burial ceremonies, August meetings

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151 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Maria Theresa G. De Leon

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This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: deep reactive ion etching, finite element method, microelectromechanical systems, multiphysics analysis, surface roughness, vibrational energy harvester

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150 Designing an Intelligent Voltage Instability System in Power Distribution Systems in the Philippines Using IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Authors: Pocholo Rodriguez, Anne Bernadine Ocampo, Ian Benedict Chan, Janric Micah Gray

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The state of an electric power system may be classified as either stable or unstable. The borderline of stability is at any condition for which a slight change in an unfavourable direction of any pertinent quantity will cause instability. Voltage instability in power distribution systems could lead to voltage collapse and thus power blackouts. The researchers will present an intelligent system using back propagation algorithm that can detect voltage instability and output voltage of a power distribution and classify it as stable or unstable. The researchers’ work is the use of parameters involved in voltage instability as input parameters to the neural network for training and testing purposes that can provide faster detection and monitoring of the power distribution system.

Keywords: back-propagation algorithm, load instability, neural network, power distribution system

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149 Basic Need Satisfaction and Students’ Willingness to Use Spreadsheet Software

Authors: Anne Sørebø

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The present study was designed to test how fulfilment of three basic psychological needs influence students development of perceived usefulness (PU) and ease of use (EOU) in connection with use of a spreadsheet. Both PU and EOU are assumed to be critical for development of students' willingness to utilize spreadsheet in future work within business administration. A questionnaire was completed by 196 business students in Norway. We found that satisfying the need for competence and autonomy is most critical for willingness to utilize the software package. The results also indicate that satisfying the need for relatedness, surprisingly, has no influence on students’ willingness to utilize the software package. A key implication of the present research is that teachers mainly should focus on fulfilling students need for competence and self-determination when the purpose is to motivate them to utilize new software. That students’ should develop their own competence when using a new technology is somewhat obvious, but that the feeling of being self-determined needs to be a complementary element in this connection is not necessary seen as obvious.

Keywords: spreadsheet, business students, technology acceptance, basic psychological needs

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148 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor

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The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: aerobic, cardiovascular, concentric, stretch-shortening cycle, plyometric

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147 Determining Antecedents of Employee Turnover: A Study on Blue Collar vs White Collar Workers on Marco Level

Authors: Evy Rombaut, Marie-Anne Guerry

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Predicting voluntary turnover of employees is an important topic of study, both in academia and industry. Researchers try to uncover determinants for a broader understanding and possible prevention of turnover. In the current study, we use a data set based approach to reveal determinants for turnover, differing for blue and white collar workers. Our data set based approach made it possible to study actual turnover for more than 500000 employees in 15692 Belgian corporations. We use logistic regression to calculate individual turnover probabilities and test the goodness of our model with the AUC (area under the ROC-curve) method. The results of the study confirm the relationship of known determinants to employee turnover such as age, seniority, pay and work distance. In addition, the study unravels unknown and verifies known differences between blue and white collar workers. It shows opposite relationships to turnover for gender, marital status, the number of children, nationality, and pay.

Keywords: employee turnover, blue collar, white collar, dataset analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
146 Development of a Congestion Controller of Computer Network Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm

Authors: Mary Anne Roa

Abstract:

Congestion in network occurs due to exceed in aggregate demand as compared to the accessible capacity of the resources. Network congestion will increase as network speed increases and new effective congestion control methods are needed, especially for today’s very high speed networks. To address this undeniably global issue, the study focuses on the development of a fuzzy-based congestion control model concerned with allocating the resources of a computer network such that the system can operate at an adequate performance level when the demand exceeds or is near the capacity of the resources. Fuzzy logic based models have proven capable of accurately representing a wide variety of processes. The model built is based on bandwidth, the aggregate incoming traffic and the waiting time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides not only good utilization but also low packet loss.

Keywords: congestion control, queue management, computer networks, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
145 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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144 Selection of Soil Quality Indicators of Rice Cropping Systems Using Minimum Data Set Influenced by Imbalanced Fertilization

Authors: Theresa K., Shanmugasundaram R., Kennedy J. S.

Abstract:

Nutrient supplements are indispensable for raising crops and to reap determining productivity. The nutrient imbalance between replenishment and crop uptake is attempted through the input of inorganic fertilizers. Excessive dumping of inorganic nutrients in soil cause stagnant and decline in yield. Imbalanced N-P-K ratio in the soil exacerbates and agitates the soil ecosystems. The study evaluated the fertilization practices of conventional (CFs), organic and Integrated Nutrient Management system (INM) on soil quality using key indicators and soil quality indices. Twelve rice farming fields of which, ten fields were having conventional cultivation practices, one field each was organic farming based and INM based cultivated under monocropping sequence in the Thondamuthur block of Coimbatore district were fixed and properties viz., physical, chemical and biological were studied for four cropping seasons to determine soil quality index (SQI). SQI was computed for conventional, organic and INM fields. Comparing conventional farming (CF) with organic and INM, CF was recorded with a lower soil quality index. While in organic and INM fields, the higher SQI value of 0.99 and 0.88 respectively were registered. CF₄ received with a super-optimal dose of N (250%) showed a lesser SQI value (0.573) as well as the yield (3.20 t ha⁻¹) and the CF6 which received 125 % N recorded the highest SQI (0.715) and yield (6.20 t ha⁻¹). Likewise, most of the CFs received higher N beyond the level of 125 % except CF₃ and CF₉, which recorded lower yields. CFs which received super-optimal P in the order of CF₆&CF₇>CF₁&CF₁₀ recorded lesser yields except for CF₆. Super-optimal K application also recorded lesser yield in CF₄, CF₇ and CF₉.

Keywords: rice cropping system, soil quality indicators, imbalanced fertilization, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
143 Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite

Authors: Jordy Herfandi, Faris Naufal, Anne Zulfia Syahrial

Abstract:

Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticle, antibacterial, solution-based chemical precipitation, polyester composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
142 Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role Family Planning Programs

Authors: Vincent Otieno, Alfred Agwanda, Anne Khasakhala

Abstract:

Among the neo-Malthusian adherents, it is believed that rapid population growth strain countries’ capacity and performance. Fertility have however decelerated in most of the countries in the recent past. Scholars have concentrated on wide range of factors associated with fertility majorly at the national scale with some opining that analysis of trends and differentials in the various fertility parameters have been discussed extensively. However, others believe that considerably less attention has been paid to the fertility preference- a pathway through which various variables act on fertility. The Sub-Saharan African countries’ disparities amid almost similarities in policies is a cause of concern to demographers. One would point at the meager synergies that have been focused on the fertility preference as well, especially at the macro scale. Using Bongaarts reformulation of Easterlin and Crimmins (1985) conceptual scheme, the understanding of the current transition based on the fertility preference in general would help to provide explanations to the observed latest dynamics. This study therefore is an attempt to explain the current fertility transition through women’s fertility preference. Results reveal that indeed fertility transition is on course in most of the sub-Saharan countries with huge disparities in fertility preferences and its implementation indices.

Keywords: fertility preference, the degree of implementation index, sub-Saharan Africa, transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
141 High Temperature Behaviour of Various Limestone Used in Heritage Buildings at Material and Block Scales

Authors: Ayoub Daoudi, Javad Eslami, Anne-Lise Beaucour, Martin Vigroux, Albert Noumowé

Abstract:

As a fact, many cultural heritage masonry buildings have undergone violent fires during their history. In order to investigate the high temperature behaviour of stone masonry, six French limestones were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 9 °C/min. The main focus is the comparison between the high temperature behaviour of stones at the material and at the structural scale. In order to evaluate the risk of spalling, the tests have been carried out on the stone blocks (12x30x30 cm) instrumented with thermocouples and subjected to an unidirectional heating on one face. Thereafter, visual assessments and non-destructive measurements (dynamic elastic modulus) performed on blocks demonstrate a different behaviour from what was observed at the material scale. Finally, a series of thermo-mechanical computations, using finite element method, allowed us to highlight the difference between the behaviour of stones at material and block scales.

Keywords: limestones, hight temperature behaviour, damage, thermo-mechanical modeling, material and blocks scales, color change

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
140 Laboratory Testing Regime for Quantifying Soil Collapsibility

Authors: Anne C. Okwedadi, Samson Ng’ambi, Ian Jefferson

Abstract:

Collapsible soils go through radical rearrangement of their particles when triggered by water, stress or/and vibration, causing loss of volume. This loss of volume in soil as seen in foundation failures has caused millions of dollars’ worth of damages to public facilities and infrastructure and so has an adverse effect on the society and people. Despite these consequences and the several studies that are available, more research is still required in the study of soil collapsibility. Discerning the pedogenesis (formation) of soils and investigating the combined effects of the different geological soil properties is key to elucidating and quantifying soils collapsibility. This study presents a novel laboratory testing regime that would be undertaken on soil samples where the effects of soil type, compactive variables (moisture content, density, void ratio, degree of saturation) and loading are analyzed. It is anticipated that results obtained would be useful in mapping the trend of the combined effect thus the basis for evaluating soil collapsibility or collapse potentials encountered in construction with volume loss problems attributed to collapse.

Keywords: collapsible soil, geomorphological process, soil collapsibility properties, soil test

Procedia PDF Downloads 374