Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Markus Voeth

46 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth

Abstract:

Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
45 Drivers of Digital Product Innovation in Firms: An Empirical Study of Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors

Authors: Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Sarah E. Stief, Markus Voeth, Sarah Gundlach

Abstract:

With digitalization increasingly changing the rules of competition, firms face the need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies in order to remain competitive. Firms can choose from various possibilities to integrate digital technologies including the option to embed digital technologies aiming to innovate products or to develop digital products. However, the question of which specific factors influence a firm’s decision to pursue digital product innovation remains unanswered in research. By adopting the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-framework we have designed a qualitative exploratory study including eleven German practitioners to investigate relevant contingency factors. Our results indicate that the most critical factors for a company’s decision to pursue digital product innovation can be found in the technological and environmental dimensions, namely customers, competitive pressure, technological change, as well as digitalization fit. 

Keywords: digital innovation, digitalization, product innovation, TOE-framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
44 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
43 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
42 An Examination of Thai Tourists' Motivation Behavior and Perception of Cultural Heritage in Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Sujui Yang, Peeraya Somsak, Markus Blut

Abstract:

This research examines the international tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It aims to study non-Thai tourists’ of this region to better understand their behavior and motives influencing the choice of cultural heritage tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The data includes questionnaires of 250 tourists in the study area. The most important motives influencing decisions choices are several concerning customers’ perspectives on tourist destinations in cultural heritage in Chiang Mai province. Thai tourists in Chiang Mai are single, 72.5 percent are in the age of 21-40 years old and 50% of sample group are from central and northern of Thailand. Tourists’ motives capture the factor loading as well as the corresponding show 5 components: relaxation motives, place/ physical motives, learning motives, image motives, and achievement motives.

Keywords: tourists motives, cultural heritage, Chiang Mai, customers’ perspectives

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
41 Production Planning, Scheduling and SME

Authors: Markus Heck, Hans Vettiger

Abstract:

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are the backbone of central Europe’s economies and have a significant contribution to the gross domestic product. Production planning and scheduling (PPS) is still a crucial element in manufacturing industries of the 21st century even though this area of research is more than a century old. The topic of PPS is well researched especially in the context of large enterprises in the manufacturing industry. However, the implementation of PPS methodologies within SME is mostly unobserved. This work analyzes how PPS is implemented in SME with the geographical focus on Switzerland and its vicinity. Based on restricted resources compared to large enterprises, SME have to face different challenges. The real problem areas of selected enterprises in regards of PPS are identified and evaluated. For the identified real-life problem areas of SME clear and detailed recommendations are created, covering concepts and best practices and the efficient usage of PPS. Furthermore, the economic and entrepreneurial value for companies is lined out and why the implementation of the introduced recommendations is advised.

Keywords: central Europe, PPS, production planning, SME

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
40 The Effect of Magnetic Water on the Growth of Radish Cherry

Authors: Elisha Didam Markus, Thapelo Maqame

Abstract:

This paper focuses on studying the effects of magnetism on water and their impact to plant growth. Magnetic fields are known to induce higher rate of biochemical reaction and therefore can be used for growth related reactions in plants. For the purpose of this study, two 2 litres bottles were taken, one with two opposite poles magnets (500 mT) one on top and one at the bottom of the bottle. Another bottle was not altered in any way (used as control). Each bottle contained tap water stored up for 24 hours. Plants planted into different pots were watered using water from these bottles. Four pots with soil and manure equally mixed were used and equal volume of radish berry seeds were planted. Two pots were watered with magnetised water and the other two with normal tap water. The developments of plants were monitored in terms of their lengths for a period of 21 days. After 21 days, the lengths of plants watered with magnetised water were found to be 5.6% longer than those watered with tap water.

Keywords: magnetised water, radish berry, growth percentage, magnetic fields

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
39 Modeling and Control Design of a Centralized Adaptive Cruise Control System

Authors: Markus Mazzola, Gunther Schaaf

Abstract:

A vehicle driving with an Adaptive Cruise Control System (ACC) is usually controlled decentrally, based on the information of radar systems and in some publications based on C2X-Communication (CACC) to guarantee stable platoons. In this paper, we present a Model Predictive Control (MPC) design of a centralized, server-based ACC-System, whereby the vehicular platoon is modeled and controlled as a whole. It is then proven that the proposed MPC design guarantees asymptotic stability and hence string stability of the platoon. The Networked MPC design is chosen to be able to integrate system constraints optimally as well as to reduce the effects of communication delay and packet loss. The performance of the proposed controller is then simulated and analyzed in an LTE communication scenario using the LTE/EPC Network Simulator LENA, which is based on the ns-3 network simulator.

Keywords: adaptive cruise control, centralized server, networked model predictive control, string stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
38 Sentiment Analysis: Comparative Analysis of Multilingual Sentiment and Opinion Classification Techniques

Authors: Sannikumar Patel, Brian Nolan, Markus Hofmann, Philip Owende, Kunjan Patel

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis and opinion mining have become emerging topics of research in recent years but most of the work is focused on data in the English language. A comprehensive research and analysis are essential which considers multiple languages, machine translation techniques, and different classifiers. This paper presents, a comparative analysis of different approaches for multilingual sentiment analysis. These approaches are divided into two parts: one using classification of text without language translation and second using the translation of testing data to a target language, such as English, before classification. The presented research and results are useful for understanding whether machine translation should be used for multilingual sentiment analysis or building language specific sentiment classification systems is a better approach. The effects of language translation techniques, features, and accuracy of various classifiers for multilingual sentiment analysis is also discussed in this study.

Keywords: cross-language analysis, machine learning, machine translation, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
37 The Impact of the Genetic Groups of Microorganisms on the Production of Mousy-Compounds

Authors: Pierre Moulis, Markus Herderich, Doris Rauhut, Patricia Ballestra

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is starting to be more frequent to detect wines with mousy off-flavor. The reasons behind this could be the significant decrease in sulphur dioxide, the increase in pH, and the trend for spontaneous fermentation in wine. This off-flavor can be produced by Brettanomyces bruxellensis or some Lactic acid bacteria. So far there is no study working on the influence of the genetic group on the production of these microorganisms. Objectives: The objectives of this research are to increase knowledge and to have a better understanding of the microbiological phenomena related to the production of the mousy off-flavor in the wine. Methodologies: In this research, microorganisms were screened in an N-heterocycle assay medium (this medium contained all known precursors) and the production of mousy compounds was quantified by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). Main contributions: Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni could produce mousiness at a different amount depending on the strain. But there is no group effect.

Keywords: mousy off-flavor, wine, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Oenococcus oeni

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
36 Formalizing a Procedure for Generating Uncertain Resource Availability Assumptions Based on Real Time Logistic Data Capturing with Auto-ID Systems for Reactive Scheduling

Authors: Lars Laußat, Manfred Helmus, Kamil Szczesny, Markus König

Abstract:

As one result of the project “Reactive Construction Project Scheduling using Real Time Construction Logistic Data and Simulation”, a procedure for using data about uncertain resource availability assumptions in reactive scheduling processes has been developed. Prediction data about resource availability is generated in a formalized way using real-time monitoring data e.g. from auto-ID systems on the construction site and in the supply chains. The paper focuses on the formalization of the procedure for monitoring construction logistic processes, for the detection of disturbance and for generating of new and uncertain scheduling assumptions for the reactive resource constrained simulation procedure that is and will be further described in other papers.

Keywords: auto-ID, construction logistic, fuzzy, monitoring, RFID, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
35 Hemocompatible Thin-Film Materials Recreating the Structure of the Cell Niches with High Potential for Endothelialization

Authors: Roman Major, Klaudia Trembecka- Wojciga, Juergen Markus Lackner, Boguslaw Major

Abstract:

The future and the development of science is therefore seen in interdisciplinary areas such as bio medical engineering. Self-assembled structures, similar to stem cell niches would inhibit fast division process and subsequently capture the stem cells from the blood flow. By means of surface topography and the stiffness as well as micro structure progenitor cells should be differentiated towards the formation of endothelial cells monolayer which effectively will inhibit activation of the coagulation cascade. The idea of the material surface development met the interest of the clinical institutions, which support the development of science in this area and are waiting for scientific solutions that could contribute to the development of heart assist systems. This would improve the efficiency of the treatment of patients with myocardial failure, supported with artificial heart assist systems. Innovative materials would enable the redesign, in the post project activity, construction of ventricular heart assist.

Keywords: bio-inspired materials, electron microscopy, haemocompatibility, niche-like structures, thin coatings

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
34 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon

Abstract:

Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
33 Board Regulation and Its Impact on Composition and Effects: Evidence from German Cooperative Banks

Authors: Markus Stralla

Abstract:

This study employs a GMM framework to examine the impact of potential regulatory intervention regarding the occupations of supervisory board members in cooperative banking. To achieve insights, the study proceeds in two different ways. First, it investigates the changes in board structure prior and following to the German Act to Strengthen Financial Market and Insurance Supervision (FinVAG). Second, the study estimates the influence of Ph.D.Share, professional concentration and supervisory power on bank-risk changes in consideration of the implementation of FinVAG. Therefore, the study is based on a sample of 246 German cooperative banks from 2006-2011 while applying four different measures of bank risk, namely credit-, equity-, liquidity-risk, and Z-Score, with the former three also being addressed in FinVAG. Results indicate that the implementation of FinVAG results in (most likely unintentional) structural changes, especially at the expense of farmers, and affects all risk measures and relations between risk measures and supervisory board characteristics in a risk-reducing and therefore intended way. To disentangle the complex relationship between board characteristics and risk measures, the study utilizes two-step system GMM estimator to account for unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity in order to reduce endogeneity problems. The findings may be especially relevant for stakeholders, regulators, supervisors and managers.

Keywords: bank governance, bank risk-taking, board of directors, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
32 An Application of Meta-Modeling Methods for Surrogating Lateral Dynamics Simulation in Layout-Optimization for Electric Drivetrains

Authors: Christian Angerer, Markus Lienkamp

Abstract:

Electric vehicles offer a high variety of possible drivetrain topologies with up to 4 motors. Multi-motor-designs can have several advantages regarding traction, vehicle dynamics, safety and even efficiency. With a rising number of motors, the whole drivetrain becomes more complex. All permutations of gearings, drivetrain-layouts, motor-types and –sizes lead up in a very large solution space. Single elements of this solution space can be analyzed by simulation methods. In addition to longitudinal vehicle behavior, which most optimization-approaches are restricted to, also lateral dynamics are important for vehicle dynamics, stability and efficiency. In order to compete large solution spaces and to find an optimal result, genetic algorithm based optimization is state-of-the-art. As lateral dynamics simulation is way more CPU-intensive, optimization takes much more time than in case of longitudinal-only simulation. Therefore, this paper shows an approach how to create meta-models from a 14-degree of freedom vehicle model in order to enable a numerically efficient drivetrain-layout optimization process under consideration of lateral dynamics. Different meta-modelling approaches such as neural networks or DoE are implemented and comparatively discussed.

Keywords: driving dynamics, drivetrain layout, genetic optimization, meta-modeling, lateral dynamicx

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
31 Increased Nitrogen Removal in Cold Deammonification Biofilm Reactor (9-15°C) by Smooth Temperature Decreasing

Authors: Ivar Zekker, Ergo Rikmann, Anni Mandel, Markus Raudkivi, Kristel Kroon, Liis Loorits, Andrus Seiman, Hannu Fritze, Priit Vabamäe, Toomas Tenno, Taavo Tenno

Abstract:

The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitritation-anammox (deammonification) processes are widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment nowadays. A deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with a high maximum total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 1.5 g N m-2 d-1 was started up and similarly high TNRR was sustained at low temperature of 15°C. During biofilm cultivation, temperature in MBBR was lowered by 0.5° C week-1 sustaining the high TNRR. To study the short-term effect of temperature on the TNRR, a series of batch-scale experiments performed showed sufficient TNRRs even at 9-15° C (4.3-5.4 mg N L-1 h-1, respectively). After biomass was adapted to lower temperature (15°C), the TNRR increase at lower temperature (15°C) was relatively higher (15-20%) than with biomass adapted to higher temperatures (17-18°C). Anammox qPCR showed increase of Candidatus Brocadia quantities from 5×103 to 1×107 anammox gene copies g-1 TSS despite temperature lowered to 15°C. Modeling confirmed causes of stable and unstable periods in the reactor and in batch test high Arrhenius constant of 29.7 kJ mol-1 of the process as high as at 100 mg NO2--N L-1 were determined. 

Keywords: deammonification, reject water, intermittent aeration, nitrite inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
30 Concept for Determining the Focus of Technology Monitoring Activities

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Christina Koenig, Nico Schoen, Markus Wellensiek

Abstract:

Identification and selection of appropriate product and manufacturing technologies are key factors for competitiveness and market success of technology-based companies. Therefore many companies perform technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure the identification of evolving technologies at the right time. Technology monitoring is one of the three base activities of TI, besides scanning and scouting. As the technological progress is accelerating, more and more technologies are being developed. Against the background of limited resources it is therefore necessary to focus TI activities. In this paper, we propose a concept for defining appropriate search fields for technology monitoring. This limitation of search space leads to more concentrated monitoring activities. The concept will be introduced and demonstrated through an anonymized case study conducted within an industry project at the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology. The described concept provides a customized monitoring approach, which is suitable for use in technology-oriented companies especially those that have not yet defined an explicit technology strategy. It is shown in this paper that the definition of search fields and search tasks are suitable methods to define topics of interest and thus to direct monitoring activities. Current as well as planned product, production and material technologies as well as existing skills, capabilities and resources form the basis of the described derivation of relevant search areas. To further improve the concept of technology monitoring the proposed concept should be extended during future research e.g. by the definition of relevant monitoring parameters.

Keywords: monitoring radar, search field, technology intelligence, technology monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
29 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: esters, latent heat storage, phase change materials, thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
28 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
27 Defining a Reference Architecture for Predictive Maintenance Systems: A Case Study Using the Microsoft Azure IoT-Cloud Components

Authors: Walter Bernhofer, Peter Haber, Tobias Mayer, Manfred Mayr, Markus Ziegler

Abstract:

Current preventive maintenance measures are cost intensive and not efficient. With the available sensor data of state of the art internet of things devices new possibilities of automated data processing emerge. Current advances in data science and in machine learning enable new, so called predictive maintenance technologies, which empower data scientists to forecast possible system failures. The goal of this approach is to cut expenses in preventive maintenance by automating the detection of possible failures and to improve efficiency and quality of maintenance measures. Additionally, a centralization of the sensor data monitoring can be achieved by using this approach. This paper describes the approach of three students to define a reference architecture for a predictive maintenance solution in the internet of things domain with a connected smartphone app for service technicians. The reference architecture is validated by a case study. The case study is implemented with current Microsoft Azure cloud technologies. The results of the case study show that the reference architecture is valid and can be used to achieve a system for predictive maintenance execution with the cloud components of Microsoft Azure. The used concepts are technology platform agnostic and can be reused in many different cloud platforms. The reference architecture is valid and can be used in many use cases, like gas station maintenance, elevator maintenance and many more.

Keywords: case study, internet of things, predictive maintenance, reference architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
26 Modeling and Experimental Verification of Crystal Growth Kinetics in Glass Forming Alloys

Authors: Peter K. Galenko, Stefanie Koch, Markus Rettenmayr, Robert Wonneberger, Evgeny V. Kharanzhevskiy, Maria Zamoryanskaya, Vladimir Ankudinov

Abstract:

We analyze the structure of undercooled melts, crystal growth kinetics and amorphous/crystalline microstructure of rapidly solidifying glass-forming Pd-based and CuZr-based alloys. A dendrite growth model is developed using a combination of the kinetic phase-field model and mesoscopic sharp interface model. The model predicts features of crystallization kinetics in alloys from thermodynamically controlled growth (governed by the Gibbs free energy change on solidification) to the kinetically limited regime (governed by atomic attachment-detachment processes at the solid/liquid interface). Comparing critical undercoolings observed in the crystallization kinetics with experimental data on melt viscosity, atomistic simulation's data on liquid microstructure and theoretically predicted dendrite growth velocity allows us to conclude that the dendrite growth kinetics strongly depends on the cluster structure changes of the melt. The obtained data of theoretical and experimental investigations are used for interpretation of microstructure of samples processed in electro-magnetic levitator on board International Space Station in the frame of the project "MULTIPHAS" (European Space Agency and German Aerospace Center, 50WM1941) and "KINETIKA" (ROSKOSMOS).

Keywords: dendrite, kinetics, model, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
25 Polymer Patterning by Dip Pen Nanolithography

Authors: Ayse Cagil Kandemir, Derya Erdem, Markus Niederberger, Ralph Spolenak

Abstract:

Dip Pen nanolithography (DPN), which is a tip based method, serves a novel approach to produce nano and micro-scaled patterns due to its high resolution and pattern flexibility. It is introduced as a new constructive scanning probe lithography (SPL) technique. DPN delivers materials in the form of an ink by using the tip of a cantilever as pen and substrate as paper in order to form surface architectures. First studies rely on delivery of small organic molecules on gold substrate in ambient conditions. As time passes different inks such as; polymers, colloidal particles, oligonucleotides, metallic salts were examined on a variety of surfaces. Discovery of DPN also enabled patterning with multiple inks by using multiple cantilevers for the first time in SPL history. Specifically, polymer inks, which constitute a flexible matrix for various materials, can have a potential in MEMS, NEMS and drug delivery applications. In our study, it is aimed to construct polymer patterns using DPN by studying wetting behavior of polymer on semiconductor, metal and polymer surfaces. The optimum viscosity range of polymer and effect of environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature are examined. It is observed that there is an inverse relation with ink viscosity and depletion time. This study also yields the optimal writing conditions to produce consistent patterns with DPN. It is shown that written dot sizes increase with dwell time, indicating that the examined writing conditions yield repeatable patterns.

Keywords: dip pen nanolithography, polymer, surface patterning, surface science

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
24 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

Abstract:

An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
23 Agile Smartphone Porting and App Integration of Signal Processing Algorithms Obtained through Rapid Development

Authors: Marvin Chibuzo Offiah, Susanne Rosenthal, Markus Borschbach

Abstract:

Certain research projects in Computer Science often involve research on existing signal processing algorithms and developing improvements on them. Research budgets are usually limited, hence there is limited time for implementing the algorithms from scratch. It is therefore common practice, to use implementations provided by other researchers as a template. These are most commonly provided in a rapid development, i.e. 4th generation, programming language, usually Matlab. Rapid development is a common method in Computer Science research for quickly implementing and testing new developed algorithms, which is also a common task within agile project organization. The growing relevance of mobile devices in the computer market also gives rise to the need to demonstrate the successful executability and performance measurement of these algorithms on a mobile device operating system and processor, particularly on a smartphone. Open mobile systems such as Android, are most suitable for this task, which is to be performed most efficiently. Furthermore, efficiently implementing an interaction between the algorithm and a graphical user interface (GUI) that runs exclusively on the mobile device is necessary in cases where the project’s goal statement also includes such a task. This paper examines different proposed solutions for porting computer algorithms obtained through rapid development into a GUI-based smartphone Android app and evaluates their feasibilities. Accordingly, the feasible methods are tested and a short success report is given for each tested method.

Keywords: SMARTNAVI, Smartphone, App, Programming languages, Rapid Development, MATLAB, Octave, C/C++, Java, Android, NDK, SDK, Linux, Ubuntu, Emulation, GUI

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
22 Development of a Telemedical Network Supporting an Automated Flow Cytometric Analysis for the Clinical Follow-up of Leukaemia

Authors: Claude Takenga, Rolf-Dietrich Berndt, Erling Si, Markus Diem, Guohui Qiao, Melanie Gau, Michael Brandstoetter, Martin Kampel, Michael Dworzak

Abstract:

In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treatment response is increasingly evaluated with minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses. Flow Cytometry (FCM) is a fast and sensitive method to detect MRD. However, the interpretation of these multi-parametric data requires intensive operator training and experience. This paper presents a pipeline-software, as a ready-to-use FCM-based MRD-assessment tool for the daily clinical practice for patients with ALL. The new tool increases accuracy in assessment of FCM-MRD in samples which are difficult to analyse by conventional operator-based gating since computer-aided analysis potentially has a superior resolution due to utilization of the whole multi-parametric FCM-data space at once instead of step-wise, two-dimensional plot-based visualization. The system developed as a telemedical network reduces the work-load and lab-costs, staff-time needed for training, continuous quality control, operator-based data interpretation. It allows dissemination of automated FCM-MRD analysis to medical centres which have no established expertise for the benefit of an even larger community of diseased children worldwide. We established a telemedical network system for analysis and clinical follow-up and treatment monitoring of Leukaemia. The system is scalable and adapted to link several centres and laboratories worldwide.

Keywords: data security, flow cytometry, leukaemia, telematics platform, telemedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
21 Comparison of FNTD and OSLD Detectors' Responses to Light Ion Beams Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Exprimental Data

Authors: M. R. Akbari, H. Yousefnia, A. Ghasemi

Abstract:

Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) and Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) are becoming two of the applied detectors in ion dosimetry. Therefore, the response of these detectors to hadron beams is highly of interest in radiation therapy (RT) using ion beams. In this study, these detectors' responses to proton and Helium-4 ion beams were compared using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated data for proton beams were compared with Markus ionization chamber (IC) measurement (in water phantom) from M.D. Anderson proton therapy center. Monte Carlo simulations were performed via the FLUKA code (version 2011.2-17). The detectors were modeled in cylindrical shape at various depths of the water phantom without shading each other for obtaining relative depth dose in the phantom. Mono-energetic parallel ion beams in different incident energies (100 MeV/n to 250 MeV/n) were collided perpendicularly on the phantom surface. For proton beams, the results showed that the simulated detectors have over response relative to IC measurements in water phantom. In all cases, there were good agreements between simulated ion ranges in the water with calculated and experimental results reported by the literature. For proton, maximum peak to entrance dose ratio in the simulated water phantom was 4.3 compared with about 3 obtained from IC measurements. For He-4 ion beams, maximum peak to entrance ratio calculated by both detectors was less than 3.6 in all energies. Generally, it can be said that FLUKA is a good tool to calculate Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD detectors responses to therapeutic proton and He-4 ion beams. It can also calculate proton and He-4 ion ranges with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: comparison, FNTD and OSLD detectors response, light ion beams, Monte Carlo simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
20 Human Leukocyte Antigen Class 1 Phenotype Distribution and Analysis in Persons from Central Uganda with Active Tuberculosis and Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

Authors: Helen K. Buteme, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Moses L. Joloba, Henry W. Boom, Gunilla Kallenius, Markus Maeurer

Abstract:

Background: The Ugandan population is heavily affected by infectious diseases and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity plays a crucial role in the host-pathogen interaction and affects the rates of disease acquisition and outcome. The identification of HLA class 1 alleles and determining which alleles are associated with tuberculosis (TB) outcomes would help in screening individuals in TB endemic areas for susceptibility to TB and to predict resistance or progression to TB which would inevitably lead to better clinical management of TB. Aims: To be able to determine the HLA class 1 phenotype distribution in a Ugandan TB cohort and to establish the relationship between these phenotypes and active and latent TB. Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 32 HIV negative individuals with active TB and 45 HIV negative individuals with latent MTB infection. DNA was extracted from the blood samples and the DNA samples HLA typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. The allelic frequencies were determined by direct count. Results: HLA-A*02, A*01, A*74, A*30, B*15, B*58, C*07, C*03 and C*04 were the dominant phenotypes in this Ugandan cohort. There were differences in the distribution of HLA types between the individuals with active TB and the individuals with LTBI with only HLA-A*03 allele showing a statistically significant difference (p=0.0136). However, after FDR computation the corresponding q-value is above the expected proportion of false discoveries (q-value 0.2176). Key findings: We identified a number of HLA class I alleles in a population from Central Uganda which will enable us to carry out a functional characterization of CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses to MTB. Our results also suggest that there may be a positive association between the HLA-A*03 allele and TB implying that individuals with the HLA-A*03 allele are at a higher risk of developing active TB.

Keywords: HLA, phenotype, tuberculosis, Uganda

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
19 Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines

Authors: Gozel Judakova, Markus Bause

Abstract:

We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and transformation processes during transportation is important for the sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently, stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the comparative numerical study.

Keywords: discontinuous Galerkin method, Euler system, inviscid two-fluid model, streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method, twophase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
18 Investigations on the Influence of Web Openings on the Load Bearing Behavior of Steel Beams

Authors: Felix Eyben, Simon Schaffrath, Markus Feldmann

Abstract:

A building should maximize the potential for use through its design. Therefore, flexible use is always important when designing a steel structure. To create flexibility, steel beams with web openings are increasingly used, because these offer the advantage that cables, pipes and other technical equipment can easily be routed through without detours, allowing for more space-saving and aesthetically pleasing construction. This can also significantly reduce the height of ceiling systems. Until now, beams with web openings were not explicitly considered in the European standard. However, this is to be done with the new EN 1993-1-13, in which design rules for different opening forms are defined. In order to further develop the design concepts, beams with web openings under bending are therefore to be investigated in terms of damage mechanics as part of a German national research project aiming to optimize the verifications for steel structures based on a wider database and a validated damage prediction. For this purpose, first, fundamental factors influencing the load-bearing behavior of girders with web openings under bending load were investigated numerically without taking material damage into account. Various parameter studies were carried out for this purpose. For example, the factors under study were the opening shape, size and position as well as structural aspects as the span length, arrangement of stiffeners and loading situation. The load-bearing behavior is evaluated using resulting load-deformation curves. These results are compared with the design rules and critically analyzed. Experimental tests are also planned based on these results. Moreover, the implementation of damage mechanics in the form of the modified Bai-Wierzbicki model was examined. After the experimental tests will have been carried out, the numerical models are validated and further influencing factors will be investigated on the basis of parametric studies.

Keywords: damage mechanics, finite element, steel structures, web openings

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
17 Wear Progress and -Mechanisms in Torpedo Ladles in Steel Industry

Authors: Mattahias Maj, Fabio Tatzgern, Karl Adam, Damir Kahrimanovic, Markus Varga

Abstract:

Torpedo ladles are necessary transport carriages in steel production to move the molten crude iron from the blast furnace to the steel refining plant. This requires the ladles to be high temperature resistant and insulate well to preserve the temperature and hold the risk of solidification at bay. Therefore, the involved refractories lining the inside of the torpedo ladles are chosen mostly according to their thermal properties, although wear of the materials by the liquid iron is also of major importance. In this work, we combined investigations of the thermal behaviour with wear studies of the lining over the whole lifetime of a torpedo ladle. Additional numerical simulations enabled a detailed model of the mechanical loads and temperature propagation at the various stations (heating, filling, emptying, cooling). The core of the investigation were detailed 3D measurements of the ladle’s cavity and thereby quantitative information of the wear progress at different time intervals during the lifetime of the ladles. The measurements allowed for a separation of different wear zones according to severity, namely the “splash zone” where the melt directly hits the ladle, the “melt zone” where during transport always liquid melt is present, and the “slag zone”, where the slag floats on the melt causing the most severe wear loss. Numerical simulations of the filling process were taken to calculate stress levels and temperature gradients, which led to the different onset of wear on those zones. Thermal imaging and punctual temperature measurements allowed for a study of the thermal consequences entailed by the wear onset. Additional “classical” damage analysis of the worn refractories complete the investigation. Thereby the wear mechanisms leading to the substantial wear loss were disclosed.

Keywords: high temperature, tribology, liquid-solid interaction, refractories, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 68