Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: journalists

63 Killing Journalists in the Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Karwan Karim

Abstract:

The powerlessness of the journalists syndicate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been divided against the journalists' case like all the other syndicates that exist in Iraqi Kurdistan on two parties, like Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, this syndicate could not prove its neutrality. It was created under the shadow of these two parties. This has created problems for neutral journalists, the Iraqi Kurdistan Journalists Syndicate should have supported all journalists completely and had a positive role in their cases and supported the freedom of journalists in Iraqi Kurdistan and avoid them from threat, fear, and terror by the ruling parties, so far many journalists have been assassinated and have not been accused in a court and have not played any positive role in the cases of journalists only issued a statement. They couldn't settle the case of assassinating journalists in international court. This syndicate has become a slave of the ruling parties under the party and role only as an illusion. This syndicate has been created and worked for the PUK party. Neutral journalists do not find any syndicate to be able to complain about the violence against journalists.

Keywords: Kurdistan, Ranya, Iraq, journalist

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
62 Ethical Challenges for Journalists in Times of Fake News and Hate Speech: A Survey with German Journalists

Authors: Laura C. Solzbacher, Caja Thimm

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Journalists worldwide have been confronted with a variety of ethical challenges over the last years. Because of massive changes in media technology and the public sphere, especially online journalism has trouble to uphold the fundamental values of journalism. In particular, the increasing amount of fake news and hate speech puts journalists under more and more pressure. In order to understand better how journalists judge this development and how they adapt in their daily work, a survey with journalists in Germany was carried out. 303 professional journalists participated in an online questionnaire. Results show that 65% underline that economic pressure grows and nearly the same number describe a change in the role of journalists in society. Furthermore, 61% agree that they put more time into research to secure their work against accusations of fabricating fake news. Interestingly, over 60% see a change in the role of journalists in society. The majority (85%) confirms that print journalism has to give way for online platforms and that the influence of social media for journalism grows (75%). Half of the surveyed advocate for more personalized public activism on part of journalists, such as appearance in talk shows and public talks. The results of the study will be discussed in light of the ongoing debate on ethical standards as a condition for a sustainable and trustworthy digital public sphere.

Keywords: ethics, fake news, journalism, public sphere

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61 From News Breakers to News Followers: The Influence of Facebook on the Coverage of the January 2010 Crisis in Jos

Authors: T. Obateru, Samuel Olaniran

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In an era when the new media is affording easy access to packaging and dissemination of information, the social media have become a popular avenue for sharing information for good or ill. It is evident that the traditional role of journalists as ‘news breakers’ is fast being eroded. People now share information on happenings via the social media like Facebook, Twitter and the rest, such that journalists themselves now get leads on happenings from such sources. Beyond the access to information provided by the new media is the erosion of the gatekeeping role of journalists who by their training and calling, are supposed to handle information with responsibility. Thus, sensitive information that journalists would normally filter is randomly shared by social media activists. This was the experience of journalists in Jos, Plateau State in January 2010 when another of the recurring ethnoreligious crisis that engulfed the state resulted in another widespread killing, vandalism, looting, and displacements. Considered as one of the high points of crises in the state, journalists who had the duty of covering the crisis also relied on some of these sources to get their bearing on the violence. This paper examined the role of Facebook in the work of journalists who covered the 2010 crisis. Taking the gatekeeping perspective, it interrogated the extent to which Facebook impacted their professional duty positively or negatively vis-à-vis the peace journalism model. It employed survey to elicit information from 50 journalists who covered the crisis using questionnaire as instrument. The paper revealed that the dissemination of hate information via mobile phones and social media, especially Facebook, aggravated the crisis situation. Journalists became news followers rather than news breakers because a lot of them were put on their toes by information (many of which were inaccurate or false) circulated on Facebook. It recommended that journalists must remain true to their calling by upholding their ‘gatekeeping’ role of disseminating only accurate and responsible information if they would remain the main source of credible information on which their audience rely.

Keywords: crisis, ethnoreligious, Facebook, journalists

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60 Factors Affecting on Mid-Career Training for Arab Journalists, United Arab Emirates Case Study

Authors: Maha Abdulmajeed, Nagwa Fahmy

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Improving journalism practice in the UAE requires a clear understanding of the mid-career training environment; what Arab journalists’ think about the professional training available to them, what training needs they have and still not achieved, and what factors they think it could help to improve the mid-career training outcomes. This research paper examines the validity and effectiveness of mid-career professional journalistic training in the UAE. The research focuses on Arab journalists’ perceptions and attitudes towards professional training, and the state of journalistic training courses available to them, in comparison to modern trends of professional training. The two main objectives of this paper are to examine how different factors affect the effectiveness of the mid-career training offered to Arab Journalists in UAE, whether they are institutional factories, socio-economic factors, personal factors, etc. Then, to suggest a practical roadmap to improve the mid-career journalism training in the UAE. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. As researchers conduct in-depth interviews with a sample of Arab journalists in the UAE, Media outlets in UAE encompass private and governmental entities, with media products in Arabic and/or English, online and/or offline as well. Besides, content analysis will be applied to the available online and offline journalistic training courses offered to Arab journalists’ in UAE along the past three years. Research outcomes are expected to be helpful and practical to improve professional training in the UAE and to determine comprehensive and concrete criteria to provide up-to-date professional training, and to evaluate its validity. Results and research outcomes can help to better understand the current status of mid-career journalistic training in the UAE, to evaluate it based on studying both; the targeted trainees and the up-to-date journalistic training trends.

Keywords: Arab journalists, Arab journalism culture, journalism practice, journalism and technology

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59 Future Prospects of Female Journalists in Mass Media of Bangladesh

Authors: M. Nurus Safa, Jiang Jinzhang, Akter Tahera

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This study explores the female are overcoming the odds and doing well as journalist during the last decade in Bangladesh. Female journalists are contributing to the society for economic prosperity and changing the attitude towards the development concept and process. But the path is not smooth for involving women in journalism. The findings are female journalist facing many barriers like family pressure, Society problem, pay-allowances, gender discrimination, sexual harassment and even lack of workplace. According to their skill and merit, they face problems in getting maternity leave and assignments. But their role in this sector cannot be neglected. It is possible to survive if have the passion, professionalism, and love on this profession. Day by day, the female participation in journalism sector is increasing in Bangladesh. Despite the barriers, female journalists are showing strong interest in journalism as a career. As much gender balance in Mass media as the women's freedom and scope will increase. As a result, the spread of female’s workplace in the media will spread. Good number of female journalists is working in different policy making positions of the organization. In future, experienced female journalists will be more because now day's they taking challenges and working religiously according to the company and public need. In recent time Bangladesh is encouraging her women to work outside of home. Currently, a significant change has come into the social attitude which represents by women’s advancement in journalism sector of Bangladesh. This study uses the survey method and 6 depth interview to find out a fruitful result. As a sampling, the study uses purposive sampling technique to collect the data from the 120 female respondents of television, online and print media journalists.

Keywords: attitude, Bangladesh, challenges, female journalists, prospects

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58 Smartphones as a Tool of Mobile Journalism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Deen

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The introduction of the mobile devices which were equipped with internet access and a camera, as well as the messaging services, has become a major inspiration for the use of the mobile devices in the growth in the reporting of news. Mobile journalism (MOJO) was a creation of modern technology, especially the use of mobile technology for video journalism purposes. MOJO, thus, is the process by which information is collected and disseminated to society, through the use of mobile technology, and even the use of the tablets. This paper seeks to better understand the ethics of Saudi mobile journalists towards news coverage. Also, this study aims to explore the relationship between minimizing harms and truth-seeking efforts among Saudi mobile journalists. Three main ethics were targeted in this study, which are seek truth and report it, minimize harm, and being accountable. Diffusion of innovation theory applied to reach this study’s goals. The non- probability sampling approach, ‘Snowball Sampling’ was used to target 124 survey participants, an online survey via SurveyMonkey that was distributed through social media platforms as a web link. The code of ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists has applied as a scale in this study. This study found that the relationship between minimizing harm and truth-seeking efforts is significantly moderate among Saudi mobile journalists. Also, it is found that the level journalistic experiences and using smartphones to cover news are weakly and negatively related to the perceptions of mobile journalism among Saudi journalists, while Saudi journalists who use their smartphone to cover the news between 1-3 years, were the majority of participants (55 participants by 51.4%).

Keywords: mobile journalism, Saudi journalism, smartphone, Saudi Arabia

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57 Workaholism: A Study of Iranian Journalists at Gender, Career, and Educational Diversity

Authors: Minavand Mohammad, Maghsoudi Masoud, Mousavi Mahdis, Vahed Zahra, Hamidi Shabnam

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While workaholism in organizations has received considerable popular attention, our understanding of it on the basis of research proof is limited. This comes from the deficiency of both appropriate definitions and measures of the concept. The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender, career and educational diversity in three workaholism components among Iranian journalists. Data were collected from 243 journalists (110 men and 133 women) using nameless completed questionnaires, with a 48 percent response rate. No gender differences found between male and female respondents, so there seems no consistency with previous findings. Furthermore, the results showed that different levels of jobs and education score correspondingly on the measures of work involvement, feeling driven to work and work enjoyment. All data are gathered using self report questionnaires. It is not evident the extent to which these findings would generalize to men and women in other vocations. This investigation has a contribution to the small but growing literature on flow and optimal experience in media organizations in Iran.

Keywords: gender, career, education, workaholism, Iranian journalists, work involvement, work enjoyment, feeling driven to work

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56 The Adoption and Use of Social Media as a Source of Information by Egyptian Government Journalists

Authors: Essam Mansour

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This study purposes to explore the adoption and use of social media as a source of information by Egyptian government journalists. It applied a survey with a total of 386 journalists representing the three official newspapers of Egypt. Findings showed that 27.2% of journalists were found to not use social media, mainly males (69.7%), older than 40 years (77.7%) and mostly with a BA degree (80.4%). On the other hand, 72.8% of them were found to use these platforms who were also males (59.1%), younger than 40 years (65.9%) and mostly with a BA degree (93.2%). More than two-thirds (69.9%) were somewhat old users whose experience ranged from seven to ten years, and more than two-thirds (73.5%) have been heavily using these platforms (four to more than six hours a day. Such results confirm that a large number (95.7%) of users were found to be at least advanced users. Social media users’ home and work were the most significant places to access these platforms, which were found to be easy and useful to use. Most types of social media used were social news, media sharing and micro blogging, blogs comments and forums, social networking sites and bookmarking sites to perform tasks, such as finding information, making communication, keeping up to date, checking materials, sharing information and making discussions. A large number of users tend to accept these media platforms to be a source of information since they are accessible, linked references updated sources, accurate, promote current work, convenient, secured, credible, reliable, stabled, easily identified, copyrighted, build confident and contain filtered information. However, lack of know-how to cite sources, followed by lack of credibility of the source of news, lack of quality of information sources and lack of time were at least significant to journalists when using social media platforms.

Keywords: social media, social networking sites, newspapers, journalists, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
55 The Relationship between Self-Censorship and Satisfaction of Iran Newspaper's Readers, Case Study: Iran Newspaper

Authors: Elham Taghizade Sigarodi, Ani Mirzakhanian

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Journalism atmosphere in present era is highly competitive so that what matters the most is “the speed of news broadcasting”. The first newspaper that lets out the news is therefore of higher validity. The value of the news is in fact in its truthfulness. Expressing the facts and reality is an accepted norm in professional media arena and it is as well considered the acceptable and trustworthy language for journalism. However, different conditions generate self-censorship. The present study seeks to explore the relationship between self-censorship and satisfaction of Iran newspaper’s readers. Thus, the statistical population including journalists of Iran newspaper for Tehran’s readers was estimated 384 persons based on Morgan table. Through cluster sampling, 50 journalists were selected so that totally the sample size was 434 persons and questionnaire was applied for data analysis and based on Alpha Chronbache, it was supported. Through Pierson correlation, the main and all subsidiary hypotheses were supported except the forth one.

Keywords: newspaper, satisfaction of audiences, self-censorship, journalists

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54 The Role of Media Relations in the Brand Image: Case Study in Three Brands of the Automobile Industry

Authors: Rosa Sobreira, Paula Arriscado

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Marketers are aware that media relations is an important touch point, which is also cheaper, to bring their products and their brands to the consumer. They recognize the role of journalists as moderators and transformers of public opinion, and they realize their influence on brand image. And also, they know that readers, listeners, viewers and internet users "believe" more what they read, hear and see in the news than in an advertisement. The study is focused on the automotive industry and analyses the news published about three brands that share industrial facilities and components. We wanted to understand the role of the information created by the brand`s media team in the journalists’ work, and the impact on management, activation and differentiation of brands and their products` attributes and benefits. Based on a qualitative methodology, the analysis focused on press news, making comparison between media coverage and their “narratives” about the three cars from different brands. The results point to the fact that journalists easily integrate speech from the marks on their products. In the case of this study, we found that apart from the description of the many similarities between the three cars, the average speech also "struggled" for revealing the attributes that differentiate them. This interpretation of the results helps us to understand the "marriage" between branding and media. We believe also this paper let us to understand how journalists, through news, join the speech of the brands.

Keywords: brand management, media relations, differentiation, positioning

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53 Critical Analysis of the Level of Subjectivity and Objectivity While Reporting Kashmir Conflict

Authors: Pardeep Singh, N. S. Johal

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In this research paper the level of subjectivity and objectivity adopted by journalists of different newspapers of the two provinces of the Jammu and Kashmir state has been analysed. This research paper emphasized upon the professionalism of the journalists of two provinces in catering to readers of particular province. In this study it was found that Kashmir based reporters are subjective in their reporting while covering Kashmir sentiments and use hard language against New Delhi, whereas Jammu based reporters are subjective only when it comes to defend security forces and are also bitterly critical of Pakistan, accusing it of being a sponsor of violence in Kashmir.

Keywords: conflict, Jammu and Kashmir, print media, reporter, critical, violence

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52 Searching for the ‘Why’ of Gendered News: Journalism Practices and Societal Contexts

Authors: R. Simões, M. Silveirinha

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Driven by the need to understand the results of previous research that clearly shows deep unbalances of the media discourses about women and men in spite of the growing numbers of female journalists, our paper aims to progress from the 'what' to the 'why' of these unbalanced representations. Furthermore, it does so at a time when journalism is undergoing a dramatic change in terms of professional practices and in how media organizations are organized and run, affecting women in particular. While some feminist research points to the fact that female and male journalists evaluate the role of the news and production methods in similar ways feminist theorizing also suggests that thought and knowledge are highly influenced by social identity, which is also inherently affected by the experiences of gender. This is particularly important at a time of deep societal and professional changes. While there are persuasive discussions of gender identities at work in newsrooms in various countries studies on the issue will benefit from cases that focus on the particularities of local contexts. In our paper, we present one such case: the case of Portugal, a country hit hard by austerity measures that have affected all cultural industries including journalism organizations, already feeling the broader impacts of the larger societal changes of the media landscape. Can we gender these changes? How are they felt and understood by female and male journalists? And how are these discourses framed by androcentric, feminist and post-feminist sensibilities? Foregrounding questions of gender, our paper seeks to explore some of the interactions of societal and professional forces, identifying their gendered character and outlining how they shape journalism work in general and the production of unbalanced gender representations in particular. We do so grounded in feminist studies of journalism as well as feminist organizational and work studies, looking at a corpus of 20 in-depth interviews of female and male Portuguese journalists. The research findings illustrate how gender in journalism practices interacts with broader experiences of the cultural and economic contexts and show the ambivalences of these interactions in news organizations.

Keywords: gender, journalism, newsroom culture, Portuguese journalists

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51 When Journalism Becomes a Burden: Practical Effect of Journalism Practices in Nigeria’s Developing Democracy under Muhammadu Buhari

Authors: Israel Oguche

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Journalism practice has faced several challenges across the globe, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria. While Nigeria has thrived under democratic experiment for twenty years since the return to democracy in 1999, there is still a great lacuna in freedom of expression, such that the presidents, though elected democratically, have had the tendencies to use military might in clamping down on journalism practices across the country. Under Muhammadu Buhari, it seems Nigeria has returned to the military era when powers were used against who says what, on a media, so today, in Nigeria, there are obvious cases of outright human rights violations and detention of journalists whose offenses were not spelled out. From Abiri Jones to Abba Jalingo and Omoyele Sowore, Nigeria journalists have been placed under the cocoon of the tyrannical administration of Muhammadu Buhari, the president, with subsequent clamping down on the instruments of freedoms such as access to justice and fair hearing. This paper gave vivid analytical and empirical perspectives of journalism practice under the dark days of Muhammadu Buhari as Nigeria’s president. The objectives include; examining the core cases of attacks on journalists since 2015 to date, determining the burden of practicing journalism in a tyrannical government, reeling out the effects of restrictive practices of journalism on freedom of expression among Nigerians and proffering solutions for improvement in the years ahead. Using the cognitive dissonance theory, the survey method was used for the study, with qualitative research analysis as a tool for data presentation. In the findings, the number of journalists in jail for publishing objectively under the Buhari administration remains high while the government has clamped down on freedom of expression among the people. The study concluded that there is a need for repelling of laws made by the Nigeria government in order to save the Nigerian journalism industry from total collapse.

Keywords: communication, developing democracy, press freedom, journalism practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
50 Observing the Observers: Journalism and the Gendered Newsroom

Authors: M. Silveirinha, P. Lobo

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In the last few decades, many studies have documented a systematic under-representation of women in the news. Aside from being fewer than men, research has also shown that they are frequently portrayed according to traditional stereotypes that have been proven to be disadvantageous for women. When considering this problem, it has often been argued that news content will be more gender balanced when the number of female journalists increases. However, the recent so-called ‘feminization’ of media professions has shown that this assumption is too simplistic. If we want to better grasp gender biases in news content we will need to take a deeper approach into the processes of news production and into journalism culture itself, taking the study of newsmaking as a starting point and theoretical framework, with the purpose of examining the actual newsroom routines, professional values, structures and news access that eventually lead to an unbalanced media representation of women. If journalists consider themselves to be observers of everyday social and political life, of specific importance, as a vast body of research shows, is the observation of women journalist’s believes and of their roles and practices in a gendered newsroom. In order to better understand the professional and organizational context of news production, and the gender power relations in decision-making processes, we conducted a participant observation in two television newsrooms. Our approach involved a combination of methods, including overt observation itself, formal and informal interviews and the writing-up and analysis of our own diaries. Drawing insights in organizational sociology, we took newsroom practices to be a result of professional routines and socialization and focused on how women and men respond to newsroom dynamics and structures. We also analyzed the gendered organization of the newsmaking process and the subtle and/or obvious glass-ceiling obstacles often reported on. In our paper we address two levels of research: first, we look at our results and establish an overview of the patterns of continuity between the gendering of organizations, working conditions and professional journalist beliefs. At this level, the study not only interrogates how journalists handle views on gender and the practice of the profession but also highlights the structural inequalities in journalism and the pervasiveness of family–work tensions for female journalists. Secondly, we reflect on our observation method, and establish a critical assessment of the method itself.

Keywords: gender, journalism, participant observation, women

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49 Citizen Journalist: A Case Study of Audience Participation in Mainstream TV News Production in India

Authors: Sindhu Manjesh

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This paper examines citizen journalism in India, specifically the inclusion of user-generated content (UGC) by mainstream media, by focusing on the case study of the Citizen Journalist show on CNN-News 18, a national television news broadcaster. It studies the processes of production involved in Citizen Journalist to find out how professional journalists and citizens interact to put together the show in order to help readers understand the relationship between journalists and the public in the evolving media landscape of India, the world’s largest democracy, and a leader in the Global South. Using an in-depth case study approach involving newsroom ethnography, interviews, and an examination of Citizen Journalist content, it studies the implications of audience participation for traditional journalistic routines and values – specifically gatekeeping and objectivity. Citizen Journalist began to much fanfare and promise about including neglected citizen views and voices. Based on evidence gathered, this study, however, argues that claims made by CNN-News18 about democratizing news production through Citizen Journalist were overstated. It made some effort to do this and broadcast a lot of important stories. But overall, in terms of bringing in citizen voices, it did not live up to its initial promise because the show was anchored in traditional journalistic norms and roles and the channel’s economic imperatives. Professional journalists were ironically the producers of 'citizen journalism' in this case. Mainstream media’s authority in defining journalistic work –who says what, where, when, why, and how– remains predominant in India. This has implications for democratic participation in India. The example of Citizen Journalist –the model it followed, its partial success, and many limitations– could well presage outcomes for other news outlets, in India and beyond, which copy its template.

Keywords: citizen journalism, digital journalism, participatory journalism, public sphere

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48 Mediatization of Politics and Democracy in Pakistan: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Shahid Imran

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'Mediatization' has influenced the politics by shaping and transforming the attitudes and practices of political actors. It is a serious challenge to democracy in today’s era. This study aims to analyze the dynamics of media politics interplay in Pakistan and the contextual factors which govern this interplay. It will also address the perceived influence of media on the practices of politicians from the perspectives of the actors. The objectives have been achieved qualitatively through Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The phenomenological data have been collected using semi-structured interviews of journalists and politicians of Pakistan. The findings depict that politics in Pakistan is more driven by media logic than political or democratic logic. Media and politics have a ‘Tom and Jerry’ relationship. Political ecology is highly media-induced: politicians strategically adopt and adapt the media logic to be in the ‘media spotlight’; journalists, on the other hands, do not practice ‘fair journalism rather a more politically parallelized. The mediatized political communication behaviours of the actors are the undermining the public service logic and affecting the spirit of democracy in Pakistan. The study offers some valued implications for media, politicians and policy makers.

Keywords: medialization, media logic, politics, political logic

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47 Violations of Press Freedom

Authors: Khalid Achaat

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It is difficult to speak about freedom of the press in Algeria without first talking to fifty-seven journalists killed in the country between 1993 and 1997 and the five missing journalists. No serious investigation was conducted to find the culprits. When a State is not able to guarantee law, there is no justice and violations of the law become "systematic". How to claim the freedom of press in Algeria, when death becomes "banal"? In these circumstances, can we talk of rights of the Algerian press? It is impossible to understand the problems of the press in Algeria, focusing solely legal issues. Take into account technical, financial and political. Their respective roles varies depending on whether one focuses on the collection of information, the regime of the newspaper company or publication and dissemination. Can we say that the Algerian press is "the freest in the Arab world", while the latter reflects only partially the real problems facing the country? While any newspaper company is subject, de facto, to an authorization scheme, permanently subjected to the constant threat of withdrawal of the authorization, suspension, prohibition or closure without it has the right to a remedy? Can it be free when the majority of "media owners", head of the largest daily newspapers are derived from the single party in power since independence? Some of this release does not it serves the interests of the Algerian power?

Keywords: freedom, press, power, closure, suspension

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46 The Coexistence of Creativity and Information in Convergence Journalism: Pakistan's Evolving Media Landscape

Authors: Misha Mirza

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In recent years, the definition of journalism in Pakistan has changed, so has the mindset of people and their approach towards a news story. For the audience, news has become more interesting than a drama or a film. This research thus provides an insight into Pakistan’s evolving media landscape. It tries not only to bring forth the outcomes of cross-platform cooperation among print and broadcast journalism but also gives an insight into the interactive data visualization techniques being used. The storytelling in journalism in Pakistan has evolved from depicting merely the truth to tweaking, fabricating and producing docu-dramas. It aims to look into how news is translated to a visual. Pakistan acquires a diverse cultural heritage and by engaging audience through media, this history translates into the storytelling platform today. The paper explains how journalists are thriving in a converging media environment and provides an analysis of the narratives in television talk shows today.’ Jack of all, master of none’ is being challenged by the journalists today. One has to be a quality information gatherer and an effective storyteller at the same time. Are journalists really looking more into what sells rather than what matters? Express Tribune is a very popular news platform among the youth. Not only is their newspaper more attractive than the competitors but also their style of narrative and interactive web stories lead to well-rounded news. Interviews are used as the basic methodology to get an insight into how data visualization is compassed. The quest for finding out the difference between visualization of information versus the visualization of knowledge has led the author to delve into the work of David McCandless in his book ‘Knowledge is beautiful’. Journalism in Pakistan has evolved from information to combining knowledge, infotainment and comedy. What is being criticized the most by the society most often becomes the breaking news. Circulation in today’s world is carried out in cultural and social networks. In recent times, we have come across many examples where people have gained overnight popularity by releasing songs with substandard lyrics or senseless videos perhaps because creativity has taken over information. This paper thus discusses the various platforms of convergence journalism from Pakistan’s perspective. The study concludes with proving how Pakistani pop culture Truck art is coexisting with all the platforms in convergent journalism. The changing media landscape thus challenges the basic rules of journalism. The slapstick humor and ‘jhatka’ in Pakistani talk shows has evolved from the Pakistani truck art poetry. Mobile journalism has taken over all the other mediums of journalism; however, the Pakistani culture coexists with the converging landscape.

Keywords: convergence journalism in Pakistan, data visualization, interactive narrative in Pakistani news, mobile journalism, Pakistan's truck art culture

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45 WhatsApp Application and Challenges of Radio Broadcasting in Northern Nigeria: Special Interest on FRCN Kaduna

Authors: Aliyu Damri

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This study analyzed the emergence of WhatsApp and how employees at the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna defined the concept base on their vast broadcasting experiences for over five decades and application of the phenomenon to the radio station. It also analyzed the nature, patterns, dimensions, features, challenges as well as the effects of WhatsApp as a social networking site with specific interest on the radio outlet. Also, the study identified how the radio organization responded to the challenges in an attempt to adapt to the new pattern of broadcasting characterized by many technological transformations. The study further explained in details such skills journalists need to function optimally using WhatsApp as well as the impacts of the WhatsApp on radio broadcasting. It used a combination of published materials, focus group discussion, in depth interviews and participant observation on the activities of the radio stations to address the research questions. The data generated provided insight to better understand the challenges posed to FRCN Kaduna as a result of WhatsApp application and how FRCN Kaduna responded to the challenges. It also provided information on the skills journalists need to function optimally in using WhatsApp application in the radio station. The interview and focus group discussion’s transcripts and the published materials were analyzed along thematic pattern related to the research questions in the study. The dominant response relied heavily on change in the radio station’s organizational and technical integration of newsrooms, the use of a multiskilled workforce, application of a flexible and user-friendly technology in all aspects of production, expansion of the station’s services in to new media such as internet and mobile phones as well as sharing of ideas across different units in the radio outfit.

Keywords: broadcasting, challenge, northern Nigeria, radio, WhatsApp application

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44 “Post-Industrial” Journalism as a Creative Industry

Authors: Lynette Sheridan Burns, Benjamin J. Matthews

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The context of post-industrial journalism is one in which the material circumstances of mechanical publication have been displaced by digital technologies, increasing the distance between the orthodoxy of the newsroom and the culture of journalistic writing. Content is, with growing frequency, created for delivery via the internet, publication on web-based ‘platforms’ and consumption on screen media. In this environment, the question is not ‘who is a journalist?’ but ‘what is journalism?’ today. The changes bring into sharp relief new distinctions between journalistic work and journalistic labor, providing a key insight into the current transition between the industrial journalism of the 20th century, and the post-industrial journalism of the present. In the 20th century, the work of journalists and journalistic labor went hand-in-hand as most journalists were employees of news organizations, whilst in the 21st century evidence of a decoupling of ‘acts of journalism’ (work) and journalistic employment (labor) is beginning to appear. This 'decoupling' of the work and labor that underpins journalism practice is far reaching in its implications, not least for institutional structures. Under these conditions we are witnessing the emergence of expanded ‘entrepreneurial’ journalism, based on smaller, more independent and agile - if less stable - enterprise constructs that are a feature of creative industries. Entrepreneurial journalism is realized in a range of organizational forms from social enterprise, through to profit driven start-ups and hybrids of the two. In all instances, however, the primary motif of the organization is an ideological definition of journalism. An example is the Scoop Foundation for Public Interest Journalism in New Zealand, which owns and operates Scoop Publishing Limited, a not for profit company and social enterprise that publishes an independent news site that claims to have over 500,000 monthly users. Our paper demonstrates that this journalistic work meets the ideological definition of journalism; conducted within the creative industries using an innovative organizational structure that offers a new, viable post-industrial future for journalism.

Keywords: creative industries, digital communication, journalism, post industrial

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43 Nigerian Media Coverage of the Chibok Girls Kidnap: A Qualitative News Framing Analysis of the Nation Newspaper

Authors: Samuel O. Oduyela

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Over the last ten years, many studies have examined the media coverage of terrorism across the world. Nevertheless, most of these studies have been inclined to the western narrative, more so in relation to the international media. This study departs from that partiality to explore the Nigerian press and its coverage of the Boko Haram. The study intends to illustrate how the Nigerian press has reported its homegrown terrorism within its borders. On 14 April 2014, the Shekau-led Boko Haram kidnapped over 200 female students from Chibok in the Borno State. This study analyses a structured sample of news stories, feature articles, editorial comments, and opinions from the Nation newspaper. The study examined the representation of the Chibok girls kidnaps by concentrating on four main viewpoints. The news framing of the Chibok girls’ kidnap under Presidents Goodluck Jonathan (2014) and Mohammadu Buhari (2016-2018), the sourcing model present in the news reporting of the kidnap and the challenges Nation reporters face in reporting Boko Haram. The study adopted the use of qualitative news framing analysis to provide further insights into significant developments established from the examination of news contents. The study found that the news reportage mainly focused on the government response to Chibok girls kidnap, international press and Boko Haram. Boko Haram was also framed, as a political conspiracy, as prevailing, and as instilling fear. Political, and economic influence appeared to be a significant determinant of the reportage. The study found that the Nation newspaper's portrayal of the crisis under President Jonathan differed significantly from under President Buhari. While the newspaper framed the action of President Jonathan as lacklustre, dismissive, and confusing, it was less critical of President Buhari's government's handling of the crisis. The Nation newspaper failed to promote or explore non-violent approaches. News reports of the kidnap, thus, were presented mainly from a political and ethnoreligious perspective. The study also raised questions of what roles should journalists play in covering conflicts? Should they merely report comments on and interpret it, or should they be actors in the resolution or, more importantly, the prevention of conflicts? The study underlined the need for the independence of the media, more training for journalists to advance a more nuanced and conflict-sensitive news coverage in the Nigerian context.

Keywords: boko haram, chibok girls kidnap, conflict in nigeria, media framing

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42 Natural Language News Generation from Big Data

Authors: Bastian Haarmann, Likas Sikorski

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce an NLG application for the automatic creation of ready-to-publish texts from big data. The fully automatic generated stories have a high resemblance to the style in which the human writer would draw up a news story. Topics may include soccer games, stock exchange market reports, weather forecasts and many more. The generation of the texts runs according to the human language production. Each generated text is unique. Ready-to-publish stories written by a computer application can help humans to quickly grasp the outcomes of big data analyses, save time-consuming pre-formulations for journalists and cater to rather small audiences by offering stories that would otherwise not exist.

Keywords: big data, natural language generation, publishing, robotic journalism

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41 Iraqi Media Entrepreneurs across Social Media: Factors and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Omar Bali, Sherko Jabar, Hazhar Jalal, Mahdi Sofi-Karim

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For a long while in Iraq, media organizations were owned by political parties, particularly the ruling parties, because media traditional organizations required big capital and human resources. This paper has examined the dynamics of Iraqi media market transformation with emphasizing on factors that help to merge media entrepreneurs and digital media firms which target audience on social media. A qualitative method was adopted in this study using open, in-depth interviews with 19 media entrepreneurs and three managers of media firms. The study revealed that relative freedom and advanced communication technologies have encouraged media entrepreneurs to drive the new media on producing short videos and broadcast them on social media which has become popular among media consumers.

Keywords: media entrepreneur, Iraq, journalists, media technicians, digital media firms, media market

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40 The Trumping of Science: Exploratory Study into Discrepancy between Politician and Scientist Sources in American Covid-19 News Coverage

Authors: Wafa Unus

Abstract:

Science journalism has been vanishing from America’s national newspapers for decades. Reportage on scientific topics is limited to only a handful of newspapers and of those, few employ dedicated science journalists to cover stories that require this specialized expertise. News organizations' lack of readiness to convey complex scientific concepts to a mass populace becomes particularly problematic when events like the Covid-19 pandemic occur. The lack of coverage of Covid-19 prior to its onset in the United States, suggests something more troubling - that the deprioritization of reporting on hard science as an educational tool in favor of political frames of coverage, places dangerous blinders on the American public. This research looks at the disparity between voices of health and science experts in news articles and the voices of political figures, in order to better understand the approach of American newspapers in conveying expert opinion on Covid-19. A content analysis of 300 articles on Covid-19 by major newspapers in the United States between January 1st, 2020 and April 30th, 2020 illuminates this investigation. The Boston Globe, the New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times are included in the content analysis. Initial findings reveal a significant disparity in the number of articles that mention Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute Allergy and Infectious Disease, and the number that make reference to political figures. Covid-related articles in the New York Times that focused on health topics (as opposed to economic or social issues) contained the voices of 54 different politicians who were mentioned a total of 608 times. Only five members of the scientific community were mentioned a total of 24 times (out of 674 articles). In the Boston Globe, 36 different politicians were mentioned a total of 147 times, and only two members of the scientific community, one being Anthony Fauci, were mentioned a total of nine times (out of 423 articles). In the Los Angeles Times, 52 different politicians were mentioned a total of 600 times, and only six members of the scientific community were included and were mentioned a total of 82 times with Fauci being mentioned 48 times (out of 851 articles). Results provide a better understanding of the frames in which American journalists in Covid hotspots conveyed information of expert analysis on Covid-19 during one of the most pressing news events of the century. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to utilize the exploratory data to evaluate the nature, extent and impact of Covid-19 reporting in the context of trustworthiness and scientific expertise. Secondarily, this data will illuminate the degree to which Covid-19 reporting focused on politics over science.

Keywords: science reporting, science journalism, covid, misinformation, news

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39 Impact of Social Media on Content of Saudi Television News Networks

Authors: Majed Alshaibani

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Social media has emerged as a serious contender to TV news networks in Saudi Arabia. The growing usage of social media as a source of news and information has led to significant impact on the content presented by the news networks in Saudi Arabia. This study explored the various ways in which social media has influenced content aired on Saudi news networks. Data were collected by using semi structured interviews with 13 journalists and content editors working for four Saudi TV news networks and six senior academic experts on TV and media teaching in Saudi universities. The findings of the study revealed that social media has affected four aspects of the content on Saudi TV news networks. As a result the content aired on Saudi news networks is more neutral, real time, diverse in terms of sources and includes content on broader subjects and from different parts of the world. This research concludes that social media has contributed positively and significantly to improving the content on Saudi TV news networks.

Keywords: TV news networks, Saudi Arabia, social media, media content

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38 The Industrial Property in the Context of Wine Production in Brazil

Authors: Fátima R. Zan, Daniela C. Guimarães, Rosângela O. Soares, Suzana L. Russo

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The wine until it reaches the consumer has a long way to go, from planting the wine to the bottling and the placing on the market, bringing many years of experimentation, and through several generations to have recognition for quality and excellence. The winemaking grew dramatically and are today many brands, including the associated locations, demonstrating their origin and cultural order that is associated with their production. The production, circulation and marketing of wines and products of grape and wine in Brazil is regulated by Law 7.678/88, amended by Law 10970/04, and adjusting the legislation to Regulation Wine Mercosur. This study was based on a retrospective study, and aimed to identify and characterize the modalities of industrial property used in wine production in Brazil. The wineries were selected from the 2014 ranking list, drawn up by the World Association of Journalists and Writers of Wines and Spirits (WAWWJ). The results show that the registration with INPI, regarding Patents, Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications, is not used by the wineries analyzed.

Keywords: counterfeiting, industrial property, protection, wine production

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37 Networked Media, Citizen Journalism and Political Participation in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia: Insight from a European Research Project

Authors: Andrea Miconi

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The research will focus on the results of the Tempus European Project eMEDia dedicated to Cross-Media Journalism. The project is founded by the European Commission as it involves four European partners - IULM University, Tampere University, University of Barcelona, and the Mediterranean network Unimed - and three Tunisian Universities – IPSI La Manouba, Sfax and Sousse – along with the Tunisian Ministry for Higher Education and the National Syndicate of Journalists. The focus on Tunisian condition is basically due to the role played by digital activists in its recent history. The research is dedicated to the relationship between political participation, news-making practices and the spread of social media, as it is affecting Tunisian society. As we know, Tunisia during the Arab Spring had been widely considered as a laboratory for the analysis the use of new technologies for political participation. Nonetheless, the literature about the Arab Spring actually fell short in explaining the genesis of the phenomenon, on the one hand by isolating technologies as a casual factor in the spread of demonstrations, and on the other by analyzing North-African condition through a biased perspective. Nowadays, it is interesting to focus on the consolidation of the information environment three years after the uprisings. And what is relevant, only a close, in-depth analysis of Tunisian society is able to provide an explanation of its history, and namely of the part of digital media in the overall evolution of political system. That is why the research is based on different methodologies: desk stage, interviews, and in-depth analysis of communication practices. Networked journalism is the condition determined by the technological innovation on news-making activities: a condition upon which professional journalist can no longer be considered the only player in the information arena, and a new skill must be developed. Along with democratization, nonetheless, the so-called citizen journalism is also likely to produce some ambiguous effects, such as the lack of professional standards and the spread of information cascades, which may prove to be particularly dangerous in an evolving media market as the Tunisian one. This is why, according to the project, a new profile must be defined, which is able to manage this new condition, and which can be hardly reduced to the parameters of traditional journalistic work. Rather than simply using new devices for news visualization, communication professionals must also be able to dialogue with all new players and to accept the decentralized nature of digital environments. This networked nature of news-making seemed to emerge during the Tunisian revolution, when bloggers, journalists, and activists used to retweet each other. Nonetheless, this intensification of communication exchange was inspired by the political climax of the uprising, while all media, by definition, are also supposed to bring some effects on people’s state of mind, culture and daily life routines. That is why it is worth analyzing the consolidation of these practices in a normal, post-revolutionary situation.

Keywords: cross-media, education, Mediterranean, networked journalism, social media, Tunisia

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36 Political Economy of Electronic News Media in Pakistan

Authors: Asad Ullah Khalid

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This paper encompasses the application of the concept of political economy of mass media in Pakistan. The media has developed at a massive pace and now is considered as one of the vital parts in having better administration furthermore helps in conveying the issues identified with the government to the public. Albeit Pakistani media has gained much independence after 2003 but there are many social, political and economy factors which influence the content of the media. The study employs triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods. In terms of methods, content analysis and interview method both are used. The content of Pakistani media is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Moreover, interviews with various journalists are conducted, and their findings are disclosed in this paper. Pakistan's communication landscape is neither well documented nor well understood, leaving its public off guard with regards to reviewing the role and impact of news inflow, correspondence and media in political, economic and social life. It has been found out that on particular issues some media channels have strong affiliations with certain political parties, moreover reporting and coverage have also been affected by the factors like terrorism, state policies(written and verbal), advertising/economic and demographic factors like the composition of the population.

Keywords: political economy, news media, Pakistan, electronic news media, journalism, mass media

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35 Popularization of Persian Scientific Articles in the Public Media: An Analysis Based on Experimental Meta-function View Point

Authors: Behnaz Zolfaghari

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In civilized societies, linguists seek to find suitable equivalents for scientific terms in the common language of their society. Many researches have conducted surveys about language of science on one hand and media discourse on the other, but the goal of this research is the comparative analysis of science discourse in Persian academic media and public discourse in the general Persian media by applying experimental meta-function as one of the four theoretical tools introduced by Holiday’s Systemic Functional Grammar .The said analysis aims to explore the processes that can convert the language in which scientific facts are published to a language well suited to the interested layman. The results of comparison show that these two discourses use differently six processes of experimental meta-function. Comparing the redundancy of different processes, the researcher tried to re-identify these differences in these two discourses and present a model for the procedures of converting science discourse to popularized discourse. This model can be useful for those journalists and textbook authors who want to restate scientific technical texts in a simple style for inexpert addresser including general people and students.

Keywords: systemic functional grammar, discourse analysis, science language, popularization, media discourse

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34 Genesis and Achievements of Madhesh Movement in Nepal

Authors: Deepak Chaudhary

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to explore the genesis and achievements of the Madhesh movement. Madhesh Movement is a social movement that brought massive political changes and contributed a lot to the nation-building process in the modern history of Nepal. This movement erupted in January 2007 in the Tarai/Madhesh region following the promulgation of the Interim Constitution that left the incorporation of federalism and proportional representation in the Constitution. The most excluded community in Nepal- Madheshi community, seemed to have angered against state-sponsored discrimination and exclusion that have been occurred for centuries. Since Madheshis were treated as non-Nepali, though the history of Nepal’s Tarai/Madhesh has been ancient. In the beginning, this movement was against Maoist, but later, it went against the state's prejudices and discriminations. It extended across the Tarai/Madhesh region of Nepal for a month. The movement was spontaneous to a large extent. A researcher himself is a witness to the movement. Key Informant Interviews with participants, including politicians, journalists, and activists, have mainly carried out for the study. This movement ensured Madheshi identity first. Secondly, the number of electoral constituencies was increased as it reached 120 in Tarai/Madhesh while it was 80 only. As a result, Madheshi representation in the Constitution Assembly reached 35 %, while it was 20% only. The main thing that this movement played a major role in ensuring the federalism as a political system in Nepal.

Keywords: dignity, exclusion, federalism, inclusion, Madhesh movement, nation-building

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