Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15244

Search results for: 'worst case' spatial correlation length

15244 Finite Difference Based Probabilistic Analysis to Evaluate the Impact of Correlation Length on Long-Term Settlement of Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

Probabilistic analysis has become one of the most popular methods to quantify and manage geotechnical risks due to the spatial variability of soil input parameters. The correlation length is one of the key factors of quantifying spatial variability of soil parameters which is defined as a distance within which the random variables are correlated strongly. This paper aims to assess the impact of correlation length on the long-term settlement of soft soils improved with preloading. The concept of 'worst-case' spatial correlation length was evaluated by determining the probability of failure of a real case study of Vasby test fill. For this purpose, a finite difference code was developed based on axisymmetric consolidation equations incorporating the non-linear elastic visco-plastic model and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion method. The results show that correlation length has a significant impact on the post-construction settlement of soft soils in a way that by increasing correlation length, probability of failure increases and the approach to asymptote.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, probability of failure, soft soil settlement, 'worst case' spatial correlation length

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15243 Evaluation of Spatial Correlation Length and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Terms for Predicting Reliability Level of Long-Term Settlement in Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi

Abstract:

The spectral random field method is one of the widely used methods to obtain more reliable and accurate results in geotechnical problems involving material variability. Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion method was applied to perform random field discretization of cross-correlated creep parameters. Karhunen-Loeve expansion method is based on eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of covariance function adopting Kernel integral solution. In this paper, the accuracy of Karhunen-Loeve expansion was investigated to predict long-term settlement of soft soils adopting elastic visco-plastic creep model. For this purpose, a parametric study was carried to evaluate the effect of K-L expansion terms and spatial correlation length on the reliability of results. The results indicate that small values of spatial correlation length require more K-L expansion terms. Moreover, by increasing spatial correlation length, the coefficient of variation (COV) of creep settlement increases, confirming more conservative and safer prediction.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, long-term settlement, reliability analysis, spatial correlation length

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15242 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral

Abstract:

The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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15241 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju

Abstract:

Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

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15240 Reduced Power Consumption by Randomization for DSI3

Authors: David Levy

Abstract:

The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines 3 modulation levels from which 16 valid symbols are coded. This structure creates power consumption variations depending on the transmitted data of a factor of more than 2 between minimum and maximum. The power generation unit has to consider therefore the worst case maximum consumption all the time and be built accordingly. This paper proposes a method to reduce both the average current consumption and worst case current consumption. The transmitter randomizes the data using several pseudo-random sequences. It then estimates the energy consumption of the generated frames and selects to transmit the one which consumes the least. The transmitter also prepends the index of the pseudo-random sequence, which is not randomized, to allow the receiver to recover the original data using the correct sequence. We show that in the case that the frame occupies most of the DSI3 synchronization period, we achieve average power consumption reduction by up to 13% and the worst case power consumption is reduced by 17.7%.

Keywords: DSI3, energy, power consumption, randomization

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15239 Morphometric Relationships of Unfarmed Puntius sophore, Collected from Chenab River, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Alina Zafar

Abstract:

In this particular research, various morphometric characters such as total length (TL), wet weight (WW), standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL), head width (HW), body depth (BD), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), pelvic fin length (PelFL), pectoral fin length (PecFL), anal fin length (AFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), anal fin base (AFB), caudal fin length (CFL) and caudal fin width (CFW) of wild collected Puntius sophore were studied, to know the types of growth patterns and correlations in reference to length and weight, however, high significant relationships were recorded between total length and wet weight, as the correlation coefficient (r) possessed value of 0.989. The growth pattern was observed to be positively allometric as the value of ‘b’ was 3.22 (slightly higher than the ideal value, 3) with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 3.076 to 3.372. Wet weight and total length parameters showed high significant correlations (p < 0.001) with all other morphometric characters.

Keywords: Puntius sophore, length and weight relation, morphometrics, small indigenous species

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15238 Impact of Map Generalization in Spatial Analysis

Authors: Lin Li, P. G. R. N. I. Pussella

Abstract:

When representing spatial data and their attributes on different types of maps, the scale plays a key role in the process of map generalization. The process is consisted with two main operators such as selection and omission. Once some data were selected, they would undergo of several geometrical changing processes such as elimination, simplification, smoothing, exaggeration, displacement, aggregation and size reduction. As a result of these operations at different levels of data, the geometry of the spatial features such as length, sinuosity, orientation, perimeter and area would be altered. This would be worst in the case of preparation of small scale maps, since the cartographer has not enough space to represent all the features on the map. What the GIS users do is when they wanted to analyze a set of spatial data; they retrieve a data set and does the analysis part without considering very important characteristics such as the scale, the purpose of the map and the degree of generalization. Further, the GIS users use and compare different maps with different degrees of generalization. Sometimes, GIS users are going beyond the scale of the source map using zoom in facility and violate the basic cartographic rule 'it is not suitable to create a larger scale map using a smaller scale map'. In the study, the effect of map generalization for GIS analysis would be discussed as the main objective. It was used three digital maps with different scales such as 1:10000, 1:50000 and 1:250000 which were prepared by the Survey Department of Sri Lanka, the National Mapping Agency of Sri Lanka. It was used common features which were on above three maps and an overlay analysis was done by repeating the data with different combinations. Road data, River data and Land use data sets were used for the study. A simple model, to find the best place for a wild life park, was used to identify the effects. The results show remarkable effects on different degrees of generalization processes. It can see that different locations with different geometries were received as the outputs from this analysis. The study suggests that there should be reasonable methods to overcome this effect. It can be recommended that, as a solution, it would be very reasonable to take all the data sets into a common scale and do the analysis part.

Keywords: generalization, GIS, scales, spatial analysis

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15237 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Act, 2013 in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality: Case Study of Apel Nodal Point

Authors: Hlabishi Peter Ntloana

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the effectiveness of the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, in addressing key spatial challenges in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality, mainly focusing on Apel nodal point. Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, popularly known as SPLUMA, aimed at addressing emerging and existing spatial planning and land use management challenges in South Africa. There are critical key spatial challenges that are continuously encountered in Apel Nodal Point, which include dispersed rural settlement mainly in a communal settlement. The spatial patterns and rural settlements development patterns are a challenge, and such results in uncoordinated human settlements. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the spatial planning of Apel nodal points and determine the effectiveness of the SPLUMA policy. Key Informant interviews were conducted with 20 participants, and also the municipal Spatial Development Framework was considered to explore more challenges and proposed recommendations. The results divulged that there is a huge gap in addressing spatial planning, mainly in rural areas, and correlation with the findings of the Municipal Spatial Development framework. In conclusion, spatial planning remains a critical dilemma in most rural settlements, and there must be programmes and strategies to balance the effectiveness of spatial planning in urban and rural settlements.

Keywords: land use management, rural settlement, spatial development framework, spatial planning

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15236 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Lariouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, egg, morphometry of eggs, analysis of variance

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15235 A Spatial Information Network Traffic Prediction Method Based on Hybrid Model

Authors: Jingling Li, Yi Zhang, Wei Liang, Tao Cui, Jun Li

Abstract:

Compared with terrestrial network, the traffic of spatial information network has both self-similarity and short correlation characteristics. By studying its traffic prediction method, the resource utilization of spatial information network can be improved, and the method can provide an important basis for traffic planning of a spatial information network. In this paper, considering the accuracy and complexity of the algorithm, the spatial information network traffic is decomposed into approximate component with long correlation and detail component with short correlation, and a time series hybrid prediction model based on wavelet decomposition is proposed to predict the spatial network traffic. Firstly, the original traffic data are decomposed to approximate components and detail components by using wavelet decomposition algorithm. According to the autocorrelation and partial correlation smearing and truncation characteristics of each component, the corresponding model (AR/MA/ARMA) of each detail component can be directly established, while the type of approximate component modeling can be established by ARIMA model after smoothing. Finally, the prediction results of the multiple models are fitted to obtain the prediction results of the original data. The method not only considers the self-similarity of a spatial information network, but also takes into account the short correlation caused by network burst information, which is verified by using the measured data of a certain back bone network released by the MAWI working group in 2018. Compared with the typical time series model, the predicted data of hybrid model is closer to the real traffic data and has a smaller relative root means square error, which is more suitable for a spatial information network.

Keywords: spatial information network, traffic prediction, wavelet decomposition, time series model

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15234 An Investigation of the Quantitative Correlation between Urban Spatial Morphology Indicators and Block Wind Environment

Authors: Di Wei, Xing Hu, Yangjun Chen, Baofeng Li, Hong Chen

Abstract:

To achieve the research purpose of guiding the spatial morphology design of blocks through the indicators to obtain a good wind environment, it is necessary to find the most suitable type and value range of each urban spatial morphology indicator. At present, most of the relevant researches is based on the numerical simulation of the ideal block shape and rarely proposes the results based on the complex actual block types. Therefore, this paper firstly attempted to make theoretical speculation on the main factors influencing indicators' effectiveness by analyzing the physical significance and formulating the principle of each indicator. Then it was verified by the field wind environment measurement and statistical analysis, indicating that Porosity(P₀) can be used as an important indicator to guide the design of block wind environment in the case of deep street canyons, while Frontal Area Density (λF) can be used as a supplement in the case of shallow street canyons with no height difference. Finally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to quantify the impact of block height difference and street canyons depth on λF and P₀, finding the suitable type and value range of λF and P₀. This paper would provide a feasible wind environment index system for urban designers.

Keywords: urban spatial morphology indicator, urban microclimate, computational fluid dynamics, block ventilation, correlation analysis

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15233 Spatial Differentiation Patterns and Influencing Mechanism of Urban Greening in China: Based on Data of 289 Cities

Authors: Fangzheng Li, Xiong Li

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Significant differences in urban greening have occurred in Chinese cities, which accompanied with China's rapid urbanization. However, few studies focused on the spatial differentiation of urban greening in China with large amounts of data. The spatial differentiation pattern, spatial correlation characteristics and the distribution shape of urban green space ratio, urban green coverage rate and public green area per capita were calculated and analyzed, using Global and Local Moran's I using data from 289 cities in 2014. We employed Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model to assess the impacts of urbanization process on urban greening of China. Then we used Geographically Weighted Regression to estimate the spatial variations of the impacts. The results showed: 1. a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in urban greening values, and the differentiation patterns were featured by the administrative grade and the spatial agglomeration simultaneously; 2. it revealed that urbanization has a negative correlation with urban greening in Chinese cities. Among the indices, the the proportion of secondary industry, urbanization rate, population and the scale of urban land use has significant negative correlation with the urban greening of China. Automobile density and per capita Gross Domestic Product has no significant impact. The results of GWR modeling showed that the relationship between urbanization and urban greening was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggested significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on urban greening.

Keywords: China’s urbanization, geographically weighted regression, spatial differentiation pattern, urban greening

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15232 The Use of Geographically Weighted Regression for Deforestation Analysis: Case Study in Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Ana Paula Camelo, Keila Sanches

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The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was proposed in geography literature to allow relationship in a regression model to vary over space. In Brazil, the agricultural exploitation of the Cerrado Biome is the main cause of deforestation. In this study, we propose a methodology using geostatistical methods to characterize the spatial dependence of deforestation in the Cerrado based on agricultural production indicators. Therefore, it was used the set of exploratory spatial data analysis tools (ESDA) and confirmatory analysis using GWR. It was made the calibration a non-spatial model, evaluation the nature of the regression curve, election of the variables by stepwise process and multicollinearity analysis. After the evaluation of the non-spatial model was processed the spatial-regression model, statistic evaluation of the intercept and verification of its effect on calibration. In an analysis of Spearman’s correlation the results between deforestation and livestock was +0.783 and with soybeans +0.405. The model presented R²=0.936 and showed a strong spatial dependence of agricultural activity of soybeans associated to maize and cotton crops. The GWR is a very effective tool presenting results closer to the reality of deforestation in the Cerrado when compared with other analysis.

Keywords: deforestation, geographically weighted regression, land use, spatial analysis

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15231 Forecasting Regional Data Using Spatial Vars

Authors: Taisiia Gorshkova

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, spatial correlation models have been used more often to model regional indicators. An increasingly popular method for studying regional indicators is modeling taking into account spatial relationships between objects that are part of the same economic zone. In 2000s the new class of model – spatial vector autoregressions was developed. The main difference between standard and spatial vector autoregressions is that in the spatial VAR (SpVAR), the values of indicators at time t may depend on the values of explanatory variables at the same time t in neighboring regions and on the values of explanatory variables at time t-k in neighboring regions. Thus, VAR is a special case of SpVAR in the absence of spatial lags, and the spatial panel data model is a special case of spatial VAR in the absence of time lags. Two specifications of SpVAR were applied to Russian regional data for 2000-2017. The values of GRP and regional CPI are used as endogenous variables. The lags of GRP, CPI and the unemployment rate were used as explanatory variables. For comparison purposes, the standard VAR without spatial correlation was used as “naïve” model. In the first specification of SpVAR the unemployment rate and the values of depending variables, GRP and CPI, in neighboring regions at the same moment of time t were included in equations for GRP and CPI respectively. To account for the values of indicators in neighboring regions, the adjacency weight matrix is used, in which regions with a common sea or land border are assigned a value of 1, and the rest - 0. In the second specification the values of depending variables in neighboring regions at the moment of time t were replaced by these values in the previous time moment t-1. According to the results obtained, when inflation and GRP of neighbors are added into the model both inflation and GRP are significantly affected by their previous values, and inflation is also positively affected by an increase in unemployment in the previous period and negatively affected by an increase in GRP in the previous period, which corresponds to economic theory. GRP is not affected by either the inflation lag or the unemployment lag. When the model takes into account lagged values of GRP and inflation in neighboring regions, the results of inflation modeling are practically unchanged: all indicators except the unemployment lag are significant at a 5% significance level. For GRP, in turn, GRP lags in neighboring regions also become significant at a 5% significance level. For both spatial and “naïve” VARs the RMSE were calculated. The minimum RMSE are obtained via SpVAR with lagged explanatory variables. Thus, according to the results of the study, it can be concluded that SpVARs can accurately model both the actual values of macro indicators (particularly CPI and GRP) and the general situation in the regions

Keywords: forecasting, regional data, spatial econometrics, vector autoregression

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15230 Worst-Case Load Shedding in Electric Power Networks

Authors: Fu Lin

Abstract:

We consider the worst-case load-shedding problem in electric power networks where a number of transmission lines are to be taken out of service. The objective is to identify a prespecified number of line outages that lead to the maximum interruption of power generation and load at the transmission level, subject to the active power-flow model, the load and generation capacity of the buses, and the phase-angle limit across the transmission lines. For this nonlinear model with binary constraints, we show that all decision variables are separable except for the nonlinear power-flow equations. We develop an iterative decomposition algorithm, which converts the worst-case load shedding problem into a sequence of small subproblems. We show that the subproblems are either convex problems that can be solved efficiently or nonconvex problems that have closed-form solutions. Consequently, our approach is scalable for large networks. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of our algorithm to a critical point, and the objective value is guaranteed to decrease throughout the iterations. Numerical experiments with IEEE test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

Keywords: load shedding, power system, proximal alternating linearization method, vulnerability analysis

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15229 Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students

Authors: Allahyar Arabmomeni, Hojjatollah Alaei

Abstract:

Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p<0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p<0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.

Keywords: anthropometric variables, physical fitness factors, students, body composition

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15228 Explore Urban Spatial Density with Boltzmann Statistical Distribution

Authors: Jianjia Wang, Tong Yu, Haoran Zhu, Kun Liu, Jinwei Hao

Abstract:

The underlying pattern in the modern city is agglomeration. To some degree, the distribution of urban spatial density can be used to describe the status of this assemblage. There are three intrinsic characteristics to measure urban spatial density, namely, Floor Area Ratio (FAR), Building Coverage Ratio (BCR), and Average Storeys (AS). But the underlying mechanism that contributes to these quantities is still vague in the statistical urban study. In this paper, we explore the corresponding extrinsic factors related to spatial density. These factors can further provide the potential influence on the intrinsic quantities. Here, we take Shanghai Inner Ring Area and Manhattan in New York as examples to analyse the potential impacts on urban spatial density with six selected extrinsic elements. Ebery single factor presents the correlation to the spatial distribution, but the overall global impact of all is still implicit. To handle this issue, we attempt to develop the Boltzmann statistical model to explicitly explain the mechanism behind that. We derive a corresponding novel quantity, called capacity, to measure the global effects of all other extrinsic factors to the three intrinsic characteristics. The distribution of capacity presents a similar pattern to real measurements. This reveals the nonlinear influence on the multi-factor relations to the urban spatial density in agglomeration.

Keywords: urban spatial density, Boltzmann statistics, multi-factor correlation, spatial distribution

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15227 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

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An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: finite element method, geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, soil-structure interaction, spatial variability

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15226 The Role of Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthosis on Temporo-Spatial Parameters of Gait and Balance in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis: Six-Months Follow Up

Authors: Suat Erel, Gozde Gur

Abstract:

Background: Recently a supramalleolar type of dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) has been increasingly used to support all of the dynamic arches of the foot and redistribute the pressure under the plantar surface of the foot to reduce the muscle tone. DAFO helps to maintain balance and postural control by providing stability and proprioceptive feedback in children with disease like Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies, Down syndrome, and congenital hypotonia. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) on temporo-spatial parameters of gait and balance in three children with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). Material Method: 13, 14, and 8 years old three children with HSP were included in the study. To provide correction on weight bearing and to improve gait, DAFO was made. Lower extremity spasticity (including gastocnemius, hamstrings and hip adductor muscles) using modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (0-5), The temporo-spatial gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, base of support, step length) and Timed Up & Go test (TUG) were evaluated. All of the assessments about gait were compared with (with DAFO and shoes) and without DAFO (with shoes only) situations. Also after six months follow up period, assessments were repeated by the same physical therapist. Results: MAS scores for lower extremity were between “2-3” for the first child, “0-2” for the second child and “1-2” for the third child. TUG scores (sec) decreased from 20.2 to 18 for case one, from 9.4 to 9 for case two and from 12,4 to 12 for case three in the condition with shoes only and also from 15,2 to 14 for case one, from 7,2 to 7,1 for case two and from 10 to 7,3 for case three in the condition with DAFO and shoes. Gait speed (m/sec) while wearing shoes only was similar but while wearing DAFO and shoes increased from 0,4 to 0,5 for case one, from 1,5 to 1,6 for case two and from 1,0 to 1,2 for case three. Base of support scores (cm) wearing shoes only decreased from 18,5 to 14 for case one, from 13 to 12 for case three and were similar as 11 for case two. While wearing DAFO and shoes, base of support decreased from 10 to 9 for case one, from 11,5 to 10 for case three and was similar as 8 for case two. Conclusion: The use of a DAFO in a patient with HSP normalized the temporo-spatial gait parameters and improved balance. Walking speed is a gold standard for evaluating gait quality. With the use of DAFO, walking speed increased in this three children with HSP. With DAFO, better TUG scores shows that functional ambulation improved. Reduction in base of support and more symmetrical step lengths with DAFO indicated better balance. These encouraging results warrant further study on wider series.

Keywords: dynamic ankle foot orthosis, gait, hereditary spastic paraparesis, balance in patient

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15225 128-Multidetector CT for Assessment of Optimal Depth of Electrode Array Insertion in Cochlear Implant Operations

Authors: Amina Sultan, Mohamed Ghonim, Eman Oweida, Aya Abdelaziz

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the diagnostic reliability of multi-detector CT in pre and post-operative evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. Material and Methods: The study includes 40 patients (18 males and 22 females); mean age 5.6 years. They were classified into two groups: Group A (20 patients): cochlear implant device was Nucleus-22 and Group B (20 patients): the device was MED-EL. Cochlear length (CL) and cochlear height (CH) were measured pre-operatively by 128-multidetector CT. Electrode length (EL) and insertion depth angle (α) were measured post-operatively by MDCT. Results: For Group A mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.4 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.3 SD; mean EL was 18 ± 2.7 SD; mean α angle was 299.05 ± 37 SD. Significant statistical correlation (P < 0.05) was found between preoperative CL and post-operative EL (r²=0.6); as well as EL and α angle (r²=0.7). Group B's mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.3 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.4 SD; mean EL was 27 ± 2.1 SD; mean α angle was 287.6 ± 41.7 SD. Significant statistical correlation was found between CL and EL (r²= 0.6) and α angle (r²=0.5). Also, a strong correlation was found between EL and α angle (r²=0.8). Significant statistical difference was detected between the two devices as regards to the electrode length. Conclusion: Multidetector CT is a reliable tool for preoperative planning and post-operative evaluation of the outcomes of cochlear implant operations. Cochlear length is a valuable prognostic parameter for prediction of the depth of electrode array insertion which can influence criteria of device selection.

Keywords: angle of insertion (α angle), cochlear implant (CI), cochlear length (CL), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

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15224 A Remote Sensing Approach to Calculate Population Using Roads Network Data in Lebanon

Authors: Kamel Allaw, Jocelyne Adjizian Gerard, Makram Chehayeb, Nada Badaro Saliba

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In developing countries, such as Lebanon, the demographic data are hardly available due to the absence of the mechanization of population system. The aim of this study is to evaluate, using only remote sensing data, the correlations between the number of population and the characteristics of roads network (length of primary roads, length of secondary roads, total length of roads, density and percentage of roads and the number of intersections). In order to find the influence of the different factors on the demographic data, we studied the degree of correlation between each factor and the number of population. The results of this study have shown a strong correlation between the number of population and the density of roads and the number of intersections.

Keywords: population, road network, statistical correlations, remote sensing

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15223 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

Abstract:

This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
15222 Techno-Economic Analysis of the Production of Aniline

Authors: Dharshini M., Hema N. S.

Abstract:

The project for the production of aniline is done by providing 295.46 tons per day of nitrobenzene as feed. The material and energy balance calculations for the different equipment like distillation column, heat exchangers, reactor and mixer are carried out with simulation via DWSIM. The conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline by hydrogenation process is considered to be 96% and the total production of the plant was found to be 215 TPD. The cost estimation of the process is carried out to estimate the feasibility of the plant. The net profit and percentage return of investment is estimated to be ₹27 crores and 24.6%. The payback period was estimated to be 4.05 years and the unit production cost is ₹113/kg. A techno-economic analysis was performed for the production of aniline; the result includes economic analysis and sensitivity analysis of critical factors. From economic analysis, larger the plant scale increases the total capital investment and annual operating cost, even though the unit production cost decreases. Uncertainty analysis was performed to predict the influence of economic factors on profitability and the scenario analysis is one way to quantify uncertainty. In scenario analysis the best-case scenario and the worst-case scenario are compared with the base case scenario. The best-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 120 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹112.05/kg and the worst-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 60 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹115.9/kg. The base case is closely related to the best case by 99.2% in terms of unit production cost. since the unit production cost is less and the profitability is more with less payback time, it is feasible to construct a plant at this capacity.

Keywords: aniline, nitrobenzene, economic analysis, unit production cost

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15221 Appraisal of Humanitarian Supply Chain Risks Using Best-Worst Method

Authors: Ali Mohaghar, Iman Ghasemian Sahebi, Alireza Arab

Abstract:

In the last decades, increasing in human and natural disaster occurrence had very irreparable effects on human life. Hence, one of the important issues in humanitarian supply chain management is identifying and prioritizing the different risks and finding suitable solutions for encountering them at the time of disaster occurrence. This study is an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of humanitarian supply chain risks in a case study of Tehran Red Crescent Societies. For this purpose, Best-Worst method (BWM) has been used for analyzing the risks of the humanitarian supply chain. 22 risks of the humanitarian supply chain were identified based on the literature and interviews with four experts. According to BWM method, the importance of each risk was calculated. The findings showed that culture contexts, little awareness of people, and poor education system are the most important humanitarian supply chain risks. This research provides a useful guideline for managers so that they can benefit from the results to prioritize their solutions.

Keywords: Best-Worst Method, humanitarian logistics, humanitarian supply chain, risk management

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15220 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships for 14 Sparidae Species, from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea Coast of Turkey

Authors: Hacer Yeldan, Erhan Akamca, Sedat Gündogdu

Abstract:

Length-Weight and Length-length relationship were estimated of 14 species Sparidae (Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Diplodus cervinus, Dipladus puntazzo, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Lithognathus mormyrus, Oblada melanura, Pagellus acarne, Pagellus erythrinus, Pagrus auriga, Pagrus caeruleostictus, Sarpa salpa, Sparus aurata) sampled from in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey, Iskenderun Bay. Samples were collected from July 2014 to June 2015, using bottom trawl and trammel net into three different depth; 0-10 m, 10-20 m, 20-50m. Length-length relationships were determined size measurements: standard length (SL) and fork length (FL) to total length (TL) for fish species. The relationships between TL, FL and TL, SL were all linear. The values of the exponent b of the length-weight relationships ranged between 2.685 and 3.473. The type of growth for fish species was algometric growth.

Keywords: Sparidae, Iskenderun bay, length-length, length-weight relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
15219 Multi-Actors’ Scenario for Measuring Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: A Case Study of Bangalore, India

Authors: H. S. Kumara

Abstract:

The rapid process of urbanization and the growing number of the metropolitan cities and its region call for better governance in India. This article attempts to argue that spatial planning really matters for measuring the governance at metropolitan scale. These study explore to metropolitan governance and spatial planning and its interrelationship issues, concepts and evolution of spatial planning in India and critically examines the multi actors’ scenario for measuring metropolitan governance by means of spatial planning in context with reviewing various master plans, concept of multi-actors viewpoint on role of spatial planning related to zoning regulations, master plan implementations and effective service delivery issues. This paper argues and concludes that the spatial planning of Bangalore directly impact on measuring metropolitan governance.

Keywords: metropolitan governance, spatial planning, service delivery, multi-actors’, opinion survey, master plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
15218 In vitro Culture of Stem Node Segments of Maerua crassifolia

Authors: Abobaker Abrahem M. Saad, Asma Abudasalam

Abstract:

The stem node segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. In the case of using MS+ Zeatin (1 mg/l), small shoot buds were formed directly in 70% of explants after 15 days, their length range between 0.1 to 0.3 cm after two weeks and reached 0.3 cm in length and three shoots in numbers after 4 weeks. When those small shoots were sub cultured on the same medium, they increased in length, number and reached 0.4 cm with 4 shoots, 0.4 cm with 5 shoots after six, eight and ten weeks respectively. In the case of using MS free hormones, MS+IAA (0.2mg/l) +BA (0.5mg/l), MS + kin(0.5mg/l), MS + kin (3mg/l) and MS +NAA (3mg/l) +BA (1mg/l), no sign of responses were noticed and only change in color in some cases. Different types of parenchyma cells and many layers of thick wall sclerenchyma cells were observed on MS+BA (1mg/l).

Keywords: Maerua, stem node, shoots, buds, In vitro

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
15217 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar

Abstract:

Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: rice, morphological traits, association, germplasm, genetic diversity, water levels, variation

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15216 Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution Effects on Blood Metabolic Factors of Periophthalmus waltoni from Northern Coast of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

The present study provides information about the nature of adverse effects on fish and the ecological impact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutant are having in the northern coast of Hormuz Strait. The glucose and cholesterol levels were higher in fish from the St3 than in Walton's mudskipper from other stations however St3 samples had lowest total proteins levels. There was a significant positive correlation between glucose and cholesterol with PAHs concentrations in sediment and tissue samples (P<0.05). However, total proteins had adverse significant correlation with PAHs concentrations (P>0.05). The adverse correlation was seen between length and body weight of fish samples with PAHs concentrations. According to the results of this study, the monitoring of contaminants bioaccumulation in the northern part of Hormuz Strait is necessary, because this will give an indication of the temporal and spatial extent of the process, as well as an assessment of the potential impact on aquatic organisms health.

Keywords: PAHs, blood metabolic factors, Periophthalmus waltoni, Hormuz Strait

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15215 An Exploration of the Dimensions of Place-Making: A South African Case Study

Authors: W. J. Strydom, K. Puren

Abstract:

Place-making is viewed here as an empowering process in which people represent, improve and maintain their spatial (natural or built) environment. With the above-mentioned in mind, place-making is multi-dimensional and include a spatial dimension (including visual properties or the end product/plan), a procedural dimension during which (negotiation/discussion of ideas with all relevant stakeholders in terms of end product/plan) and a psychological dimension (inclusion of intrinsic values and meanings related to a place in the end product/plan). These three represent dimensions of place-making. The purpose of this paper is to explore these dimensions of place-making in a case study of a local community in Ikageng, Potchefstroom, North-West Province, South Africa. This case study represents an inclusive process that strives to empower a local community (forcefully relocated due to Apartheid legislation in South Africa). This case study focussed on the inclusion of participants in the decision-making process regarding their daily environment. By means of focus group discussions and a collaborative design workshop, data is generated and ultimately creates a linkage with the theoretical dimensions of place-making. This paper contributes to the field of spatial planning due to the exploration of the dimensions of place-making and the relevancy of this process on spatial planning (especially in a South African setting).

Keywords: community engagement, place-making, planning theory, spatial planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 320