Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14396

Search results for: banking system

14396 Realizing the Full Potential of Islamic Banking System: Proposed Suitable Legal Framework for Islamic Banking System in Tanzania

Authors: Maulana Ayoub Ali, Pradeep Kulshrestha

Abstract:

Laws of any given secular state have a huge contribution in the growth of the Islamic banking system because the system uses conventional laws to govern its activities. Therefore, the former should be ready to accommodate the latter in order to make the Islamic banking system work properly without affecting the current conventional banking system and therefore without affecting its system. Islamic financial rules have been practiced since the birth of Islam. Following the recent world economic challenges in the financial sector, a quick rebirth of the contemporary Islamic ethical banking system took place. The coming of the Islamic banking system is due to various reasons including but not limited to the failure of the interest based economy in solving financial problems around the globe. Therefore, the Islamic banking system has been adopted as an alternative banking system in order to recover the highly damaged global financial sector. But the Islamic banking system has been facing a number of challenges which hinder its smooth operation in different parts of the world. It has not been the aim of this paper to discuss other challenges rather than the legal ones, but the same was partly discussed when it was justified that it was proper to do so. Generally, there are so many things which have been discovered in the course of writing this paper. The most important part is the issue of the regulatory and supervisory framework for the Islamic banking system in Tanzania and in other nations is considered to be a crucial part for the development of the Islamic banking industry. This paper analyses what has been observed in the study on that area and recommends for necessary actions to be taken on board in a bid to make Islamic banking system reach its climax of serving the larger community by providing ethical, equitable, affordable, interest-free and society cantered banking system around the globe.

Keywords: Islamic banking, interest free banking, ethical banking, legal framework

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14395 Exploring the Possibility of Islamic Banking as a Viable Alternative to the Conventional Banking Model

Authors: Lavan Vickneson

Abstract:

In today’s modern economy, the conventional banking model is the primary banking system used around the world. A significant problem faced by the conventional banking model is the recurring nature of banking crises. History’s record of the various banking crises, ranging from the Great Depression to the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis, is testament to the fact that banking crises continue to strike despite the preventive measures in place, such as bank’s minimum capital requirements and deposit guarantee schemes. If banking crises continue to occur despite these preventive measures, it necessarily follows that there are inherent flaws with the conventional banking model itself. In light of this, a possible alternative banking model to the conventional banking model is Islamic banking. To date, Islamic banking has been a niche market, predominantly serving Muslim investors. This paper seeks to explore the possibility of Islamic banking being more than just a niche market and playing a greater role in banking sectors around the world, by being a viable alternative to the conventional banking model.

Keywords: bank crises, conventional banking model, Islamic banking, niche market

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14394 A Decade of Creating an Alternative Banking System in Tanzania: The Current State of Affairs of Islamic Banks

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The concept of financial inclusion has been tabled in the whole world where practitioners, academicians, policy makers and economists are working hard to look for the best possible opportunities in order to enable the whole society to be in the banking cycle. The Islamic banking system is considered to be one of the said opportunities. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States of America, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the whole of the United Arab Emirates and many African countries have accommodated the aspect of Islamic banking in the conventional banking system as one of the financial inclusion strategies. This paper tries to analyse the current state of affairs of the Islamic Banking system in Tanzania in order to understand the improvement of the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the said country. The paper discusses the historical background of the banking system in Tanzania, the level of penetration of banking products and services and the coming of the Islamic banking system in the country. Furthermore, the paper discusses banking regulatory bodies, legal instruments governing banking operations as well as number of legal challenges facing Islamic banking operations in the country. Following a critical literature review, the paper discovered that there is no legal instrument which talks about the introduction and provision of Islamic banking system in Tanzania. Furthermore, the Islamic banking system was considered as a banking product which is absolutely incorrect because Islamic banking is considered to be as a banking system of its own. In addition to that, it has been discovered that lack of a proper regulatory system and legal instruments to harmonize the conventional and Islamic banking systems has resulted in the closure of one Islamic window in the country, which in the end affects the credibility of the newly introduced banking system. In its conclusive remarks, the paper suggests that Tanzania should work on all legal challenges affecting the smooth operations of the Islamic banking system. This can be in a way of adopting various Islamic banking legal models which are used in countries like Malaysia and others, or a borrowing legal harmonization process which has been adopted by the UK, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic windows, regulations, banks

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14393 The Role of Electronic Banking Technology in the Modernization of Algerian Banking System

Authors: Azzi Mohammed Amin

Abstract:

In the last decade Algeria has investigated in a scale of economic reforms including different areas, among these; reforms in the banking system. This was mainly through the implementation of some regulations that facilitate the shift to market economy and guarantee integration into global economy. The most important new ideas that have emerged in this area are perhaps to find a possibility of integrating the so called e-banking. Based on what has already been stated, we will try in this study to highlight the significant role of electronic banking services as novel trends in the modernization and development of Algerian banks.

Keywords: banking technology, Internet banks, modernization of banks, virtual banks

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14392 Survival of Islamic Banking Services in Tanzania: A Quick Survey on Conflicting Legal Framework

Authors: Ayoub Ali Maulana

Abstract:

“The success and sustainability of an Islamic finance system depends on the ability to establish a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework that supports synergy amongst the components in the system”. Numbers of banks have introduced Islamic banking windows claiming that their products follow Islamic banking values without any compromise. National Bank of Commerce Limited, Stanbic Bank Limited, Kenya Commercial Bank, The Peoples Bank of Zanzibar and Amana Bank Limited are some of the banks which offer Islamic banking products in Tanzania. To date, there is no single provision in Tanzanian laws that speak of Islamic banking activities in the country. Despite the fact that consultancy commissioned to International Monetary Fund (IMF) to research on the best laws to govern Islamic banking industry in the country, the speed is not encouraging in making sure that the same is introduced as soon as possible. This paper highlights the trend of the banking services in Tanzania and examines the application of Islamic banking system in the Tanzanian conventional banking environment. In particular the paper considers whether the Islamic banking services in Tanzania can survive without an appropriate legal framework that accommodates it.

Keywords: islamic banks, interest, islamic windows, Tanzania

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14391 An Overview of the Islamic Banking Development in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The level of penetration of Islamic banking products and services has recorded a reasonable growth at an exponential rate in many parts of the world. There are many factors which have contributed to this growth including, but not limited to the rapid growth of number of Muslims who are uncomfortable with the conventional ways of banking, interest and higher interest rates scheduled by conventional banks and financial institutions as well as the financial inclusion campaign conducted in many countries. The system is facing legal challenges which open the research fdoor for practitioners and academicians for the sake of finding out solutions to those challenges. This paper tries to investigate the development of the Islamic banking system in the United Kingdom (UK), Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda in order to understand the modalities which have been employed to run an Islamic banking system in the aforementioned countries. The methodology which has been employed in doing this research paper is Doctrinal, of which legislations, policies and other legal tools have been carefully studied and analysed. Again, papers from academic journals, books and financial reports have been deeply analysed for the purpose of enriching the paper and come up with a tangible results. The paper found that in Asia, Malaysia has created the smoothest legal platform for Islamic banking system to work properly in the country. The United Kingdom has tried harder to smooth the banking system without affecting the conventional banking methods and without favouring the operations of Islamic banks. It also tries harder to make UK as an Islamic banking and finance hub in Europe. The entire banking system in Iran is Islamic, while Nigeria has undergone several legal reforms to suit Islamic banking system in the country. Kenya and Uganda are at a different pace in making Islamic Banking system work alongside the conventional banking system.  

Keywords: shariah, Islamic banking, law, alternative banking

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14390 From 'Tabung Haji' to Fully Islamic Bank: Analysis of the Twenty Years of Creating Alternative Banking System in Malaysia

Authors: Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

Malayan Pilgrims Savings Corporation was introduced in 1963. Six years later, Malaysian Pilgrims Fund Board (Tabung Haji) was formed. The board used to collect funds from pilgrims who expected to perform pilgrimage in the future dates. Money was collected and kept as per given rules and procedures emanated from Islamic sources of law. Twenty years later, the country was ready to run a fully fledged Islamic bank where the Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) came into existence in the year 1983. This paper investigates stages of development of Islamic banking system in Malaysia from 1983 to date. This study discovered that Malaysia had enough time to make Islamic banking system works alongside conventional banking system and for sure, has successfully managed to come up with the comprehensive and workable financial system which accommodates both the conventional and Islamic banking. As a result, Malaysia stands to be the hub of Islamic banking products and services in the world today.

Keywords: Tabung Haji, Islamic Banks, conventional law, Malaysia

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14389 Commerce and Islamic Banking System

Authors: Rahmoune Abdelhaq

Abstract:

Systemic Islamic banking has been in practice for long but started receiving due attention and high popularity since last decade. It has received a warm welcome from all over the world and these banks operating on Islamic principles have been able to get a sizeable business not only in Islamic countries but in non-Islamic countries too. Despite exemplary advancements and achievements, there remains number of controversies over various underlying concepts and practices. This paper basically explores and highlights all those controversies and challenges which are in minds of different school of thoughts and are needed to be addressed and overcome if Islamic banking continues flourishing the way it is at present. The authors have also tried to suggest suitable remedies to overcome these challenges where appropriate. As well, This paper makes an attempt to review major principles surrounding the working of Islamic banking and its historical growth. A brief overview of main differences between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking. In addition, references are particularly made to implications arising from the emergence of e-commerce and the realities that the Islamic Shari’ah law has to consider in adopting the new phenomenon into its banking system. This paper shows, whilst the conventional banking and financial system is based on the principle of rationality and interest, the Islamic financial system is based on morality and social justice which prohibits interest as a means of speculation and injustice. The concepts of e-business such as e-commerce and e-banking are acceptable in Islam as since in Islam anything is halal unless prohibited by Shari’ah, dealing with business by internet is considered as Shari’ah compliant. This paper, therefore, provides the latest thinking of e-business from an Islamic viewpoint, thus creating a reference point and valued information for a future research.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, principles of Islamic banking, Islamic commerce, Shari’ah compliant

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14388 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali

Abstract:

Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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14387 Liquidity Management in Islamic Banks: Challenges and Prospects for Non-Interest Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Fatai O. Bakare

Abstract:

This paper x-rays the liquidity problems exposed to by Islamic banks in terms of challenges in managing surplus as well as deficit liquidity positions and the attendant effects in the contemporary system of Islamic banking. Effective liquidity management is understood to be a cardinal consideration for sustainability of Islamic/non-interest banking in Nigeria and the world over. While a background is laid by considering the general situations at a global scale, a particular attention is devoted to the peculiar circumstances of the non-interest banking in Nigeria. In bring home the points various efforts of major notable supra-national institutions in bridging liquidity management gap in Islamic banks are presented. While it is believed that a good lesson could be learnt from the developmental phases of Malaysian Islamic banking system and the approaches to meeting its liquidity management problems, much emphasis is laid in maintaining that, although in the absence of political will to provide systemic support for non-interest banking in Nigeria, the challenge of liquidity management is not unsurmountable.

Keywords: deficit, liquidity management, non-interest, surplus

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14386 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam

Abstract:

Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

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14385 Implementation of 'Bay Al-Salam' in Agricultural Banking of Bangladesh: An Islamic Banking Perspective

Authors: M. Obydul Haque Kamaly

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a brief discussion on bay al-salam as a method of implementing Islamic Banking in the agricultural arena of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the nature and conditions of bay al-salam contracts will be first discussed. Next, the paper will focus on the comparison between conventional banks and Islamic banks and should answer how bay al-salam can be used as a popular method in agricultural transactions in the country. The paper is based on secondary data which is to describe bay al-salam as future proceedings for Islamic banking. Evidence suggests Islamic banking is very much practiced like modern conventional banking with certain restrictions imposed by Sharia and addresses a large number of business requirements successfully. Thus, it’s time for us to implement Islamic banking (bay al-salam) on our agricultural arena and to get most benefits from them.

Keywords: bay al-salam, agricultural banking, Islamic banking, implementation

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14384 Improving the Quantification Model of Internal Control Impact on Banking Risks

Authors: M. Ndaw, G. Mendy, S. Ouya

Abstract:

Risk management in banking sector is a key issue linked to financial system stability and its importance has been elevated by technological developments and emergence of new financial instruments. In this paper, we improve the model previously defined for quantifying internal control impact on banking risks by automatizing the residual criticality estimation step of FMECA. For this, we defined three equations and a maturity coefficient to obtain a mathematical model which is tested on all banking processes and type of risks. The new model allows an optimal assessment of residual criticality and improves the correlation rate that has become 98%.

Keywords: risk, control, banking, FMECA, criticality

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14383 Urgency of Islamic Economic System Implementation in Indonesian Banking

Authors: Muhammad Rifqi Hafizhudin Arif, Mukhamad Zulfal Faradis, Ahmad Hidayatullah

Abstract:

Indonesia is the country that uses conventional financial system adopted from European countries as a form of finance in the national banking system. Many of the derivative products of conventional banks either investment, buy and sell, saving and loan, which is not in accordance with Islamic Ethics. While the majority population in Indonesia are belief in Islam, which Islam has had financial management guide is written in the Quran, the Hadith, as well as the opinions of experts who strongly prohibits the use of interest in each transaction activities. Many different expert opinions on the application of the Islamic financial system in Indonesia. However, as the majority of the population of Indonesia, Islamic community have not been able to get the opportunities to choose the Islamic financial system that has mutual benefit between consumers and banks, particularly fairness in transactions, ethical investment, uphold the values of solidarity and brotherhood in every transaction activities, and avoid speculation. In this paper, we will discuss the reasons for the importance of providing an option for Islamic community as the majority of the population of Indonesia to use the banking system which adopted the Islamic ethical values that have been much discussed by other researchers in various countries. The existence of this research is expected to Government, academia and the general public aware of the urgency of Islamic economic system implementation in Indonesian banking as the solution and justice especially for the Islamic community to use the values which they held.

Keywords: Islamic economic system, conventional system, Islamic value, banking

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14382 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: bank, banking system, imperfect competition, profitability

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14381 Factors Affecting the Profitability of Commercial Banks: An Empirical Study of Indian Banking Sector

Authors: Neeraj Gupta, Jitendra Mahakud

Abstract:

The banking system plays a major role in the Indian economy. Banking system is the payment gateway of most of the financial transactions. Banking has gone a major transition that is still in progress. Recent banking reforms after liberalization in 1991 have led to the establishment of the foreign banks in the country. The foreign banks are not listed in the Indian stock markets and have increased the competition leading to the capture of the significant share in the revenue from the public sector banks which are still the major players in the Indian banking sector. The performance of the banking sector depends on the internal (bank specific) as well as the external (market specific and macroeconomic) factors. Profitability in banking sector is affected by numerous factors which can be internal or external. The present study examines these internal and external factors which are likely to effect the profitablilty of the Indian banks. The sample consists of a panel dataset of 64 commercial banks in India, consisting of 1088 observations over the years from 1998 to 2016. The GMM dynamic panel estimation given by Arellano and Bond has been used. The study revealed that the variables capital adequacy ratio, deposit, age, labour productivity, non-performing asset, inflation and concentration have significant effect on performance measured.

Keywords: banks in India, bank performance, bank productivity, banking management

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14380 Value Analysis of Islamic Banking and Conventional Banking to Measure Value Co-Creation

Authors: Amna Javed, Hisashi Masuda, Youji Kohda

Abstract:

This study examines the value analysis in Islamic and conventional banking services in Pakistan. Many scholars have focused on co-creation of values in services but mainly economic values not non-economic. As Islamic banking is based on Islamic principles that are more concerned with non-economic values (well-being, partnership, fairness, trust worthy, and justice) than economic values as money in terms of interest. This study is important to know the providers point of view about the co-created values, because, it may be more sustainable and appropriate for today’s unpredictable socioeconomic environment. Data were collected from 4 banks (2 Islamic and 2 conventional banks). Text mining technique is applied for data analysis, and values with 100% occurrences in Islamic banking are chosen. The results reflect that Islamic banking is more centric towards non-economic values than economic values and it promotes team work and partnership concept by applying Islamic spirit and trust worthiness concept.

Keywords: economic values, Islamic banking, non-economic values, value system

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14379 SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) Banking

Authors: Okanta Andrew, Richmond Kweku Frempong

Abstract:

As mobile networks are upgraded with technologies like WAP, GPRS and UMTS to deliver next-generation multimedia services, so are the banks and other financial institutions also getting ready to unleash the financial products on the mobile platform to meet growing demand for mobile based application services. Hence, the onset of Unstructured Supplementary Services (USSD) Banking which would make banking services available at anywhere, anytime through a string of interactive SMS sessions between a mobile device and an application server of a service provider. The aim of this studies was to find out whether the public will accept the sim banking service when it is implemented. Our target group includes: Working class. E. g. Businessmen/women, office workers, fishermen, market women, teachers etc. Nonworking class. E. g. Students (Tertiary, Senior High School), housewives. etc. The survey was in the form of a questionnaire and a verbal interview (video) which was to investigate their idea about the current banking system and the yet to be introduced sim banking concept. Meanwhile, some challenges accompanied the progression of data gathering because some populace showed reluctance in freeing their information. One other suggestion was that government should put measures against foremost challenges obstructing sim banking in Ghana counter to computers hackers. Government and individual have a key role to undertake to give suitable support to facelift the sim banking industry in the country. It was also suggested that Government put strong regulations on the use of sim banking products and services to streamline all the activities and also create awareness of the need for sim banking and emphasize its relevance in the aspect of national GDP.

Keywords: banking, mobile banking, SIM banking, mobile banking in Ghana

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14378 Policy Implications of Cashless Banking on Nigeria’s Economy

Authors: Oluwabiyi Adeola Ayodele

Abstract:

This study analysed the Policy and general issues that have arisen over time in Nigeria’ Cashless banking environment as a result of the lack of a Legal framework on Electronic banking in Nigeria. It undertook an in-depth study of the cashless banking system. It discussed the evolution, growth and development of cashless banking in Nigeria; It revealed the expected benefits of the cashless banking system; It appraised regulatory issues and other prevalent problems on cashless banking in Nigeria; and made appropriate recommendations where necessary. The study relied on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources included the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Statutes, Conventions and Judicial decisions, while the secondary sources included Books, Journals Articles, Newspapers and Internet Materials. The study revealed that cashless banking has been adopted in Nigeria but still at the developing stage. It revealed that there is no law for the regulation of cashless banking in Nigeria, what Nigeria relies on for regulation is the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Cashless Policy, 2014. The Banks and Other Financial Institutions Act Chapter B3, LFN, 2004 of Nigeria lack provision to accommodate issues on Internet banking. However, under the general principles of legality in criminal law, and by the provisions of the Nigerian Constitution, a person can only be punished for conducts that have been defined to be criminal by written laws with the penalties specifically stated in the law. Although Nigeria has potent laws for the regulation of paper banking, these laws cannot be substituted for paperless transactions. This is because the issues involved in both transactions vary. The study also revealed that the absence of law in the cashless banking environment in Nigeria will subject consumers to endless risks. This study revealed that the creation of banking markets via the Internet relies on both available technologies and appropriate laws and regulations. It revealed however that Law of some of the countries considered on cashless banking has taken care of most of the legal issues and other problems prevalent in the cashless banking environment. The study also revealed some other problems prevalent in the Nigerian cashless banking environment. The study concluded that for Nigeria to find solutions to the legal issues raised in its cashless banking environment and other problems of cashless banking, it should have a viable legal Frame work for internet banking. The study concluded that the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Policy on Cashless banking is not potent enough to tackle the challenges posed to cashless banking in Nigeria because policies only have a persuasive effect and not a binding effect. There is, therefore, a need for appropriate Laws for the regulation of cashless Banking in Nigeria. The study also concluded that there is a need to create more awareness of the system among Nigerians and solve infrastructural problems like prevalent power outage which often have been creating internet network problem.

Keywords: cashless-banking, Nigeria, policies, laws

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14377 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir

Abstract:

The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: e-banking, account aggregation, security, enterprise development

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14376 Islamic Banking: A New Trend towards the Development of Banking Law

Authors: Inese Tenberga

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, the focus of the present capitalist system of finance has shifted from the concept of productivity of money to the ‘cult of money’, which is characterized by such notions as speculative activity, squander, self-profit, vested interest, etc. The author is certain that a civilized society cannot follow this economic path any longer and therefore suggests that one solution would be to integrate the Islamic financial model in the banking sector of the EU to overcome its economic vulnerability and structurally transform its economies or build resilience against shocks and crisis. The researcher analyses the Islamic financial model, which is providing the basis for the concept of non-productivity of money, and proposes to consider it as a new paradigm of economic thinking. The author argues that it seeks to establish a broad-based economic well-being with an optimum rate of economic growth, socio-economic justice, equitable distribution of income and wealth. Furthermore, the author analyses and proposes to use the experience of member states of the Islamic Development Bank for the formation of a new EU interest free banking. It is offered to create within the EU banking system a credit sector and investment sector respectively. As a part of the latter, it is recommended to separate investment banks specializing in speculative investments and non­speculative investment banks. Meanwhile, understanding of the idea of Islamic banking exclusively from the perspective of the manner of yielding profit that differs from credit banking, without considering the legal, social, ethical guidelines of Islam impedes to value objectively the advantages of this type of financial activities at the non-Islamic jurisdictions. However, the author comes to the conclusion the imperative of justice and virtue, which is inherent to all of us, exists regardless of religion. The author concludes that the global community should adopt the experience of the Muslim countries and focus on the Islamic banking model.

Keywords: credit sector, EU banking system, investment sector, Islamic banking

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14375 Optimal Risk and Financial Stability

Authors: Rahmoune Abdelhaq

Abstract:

Systemic risk is a key concern for central banks charged with safeguarding overall financial stability. In this work, we investigate how systemic risk is affected by the structure of the financial system. We construct banking systems that are composed of a number of banks that are connected by interbank linkages. We then vary the key parameters that define the structure of the financial system — including its level of capitalization, the degree to which banks are connected, the size of interbank exposures and the degree of concentration of the system — and analyses the influence of these parameters on the likelihood of contagious (knock-on) defaults. First, we find that the better-capitalized banks are, the more resilient is the banking system against contagious defaults and this effect is non-linear. Second, the effect of the degree of connectivity is non-monotonic, that is, initially a small increase in connectivity increases the contagion effect; but after a certain threshold value, connectivity improves the ability of a banking system to absorb shocks. Third, the size of interbank liabilities tends to increase the risk of knock-on default, even if banks hold capital against such exposures. Fourth, more concentrated banking systems are shown to be prone to larger systemic risk, all else equal. In an extension to the main analysis, we study how liquidity effects interact with banking structure to produce a greater chance of systemic breakdown. We finally consider how the risk of contagion might depend on the degree of asymmetry (tier) inherent in the structure of the banking system. A number of our results have important implications for public policy, which this paper also draws out. This paper also discusses why bank risk management is needed to get the optimal one.

Keywords: financial stability, contagion, liquidity risk, optimal risk

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14374 Market-Power, Stability, and Risk-Taking: An Analysis Surrounding the Riba-Free Banking

Authors: Louati Salma, Louhichi Awatef, Boujelbene Younes

Abstract:

Analysis of the trade-off between competition and financial stability has been at the center of academic and policy debate for over two decades and especially since the 2007-2008 global financial crises. We use information on 10 OIC countries from 2005 to 2014 to investigate the influence of bank competition on individual bank stability and risk-taking. Alternatively, we explore whether the quality of prudential regulation may affect the nexus between competition and banking stability/risk-taking. We provide a particular attention to the Islamic banking system which principally involves with the Riba-free instruments as compared to the conventional interest-based system. We first run a dynamic panel regression (GMM), and then we apply a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) methodology to compare both banking business models.

Keywords: Lerner index, Islamic banks, non-performing loans, prudential regulations, z-score

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14373 Customer Adoption and Attitudes in Mobile Banking in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This paper intends to identify and analyze customer adoption and attitudes towards mobile banking facilities. The study uses six perceived characteristics of innovation that can be used to form a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an innovation, namely: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trailability, risk, and observability. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. The results showed that mobile bank users were predominantly males. There is a growing trend among young, educated customers towards converting to mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The research outcomes suggested that all the six factors are statistically highly significant in influencing mobile banking adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The major reasons for adopting mobile banking services are the accessibility and availability of services regardless of time and place. Over the 75 percent of the respondents mentioned that savings in time and effort and low financial costs of conducting mobile banking were advantageous. Issue of security was found to be the most important factor that motivated consumer adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking. Main barriers to mobile banking were the lack of technological skills, the traditional cash‐carry banking culture, and the lack of awareness and insufficient guidance to using mobile banking.

Keywords: compatibility, complexity, mobile banking, observability, risk

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14372 Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Zaheer Shaikh, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jaime Yong, Ume Laila Shah

Abstract:

Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.

Keywords: Islamic finance, challenges, Islamic banking, Pakistan

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14371 Brexit and Financial Stability: An Agent-Based Simulation

Authors: Aristeidis Samitas, Stathis Polyzos

Abstract:

As the UK and the EU prepare to start negotiations for Brexit, it is important for both sides to comprehend the full extent of the consequences of this process. In this paper, we employ an object oriented simulation framework in order to test for the short-term and long-term effects of Brexit on both sides of the Channel. The relative strength of the UK economy and the banking sector vis-à-vis the EU is taken under consideration. Our results confirm predictions in the relevant literature regarding the output cost of Brexit, with particular emphasis on the EU. Furthermore, we show that financial stability is also an important issue on both sides, with the banking system suffering significant losses, particularly over the longer term. Our findings suggest that policymakers should be extremely careful in handling Brexit negotiations, making sure to consider dynamic effects that may be caused by UK bank assets moving to the EU after Brexit. The model results show that, as the UK banking system loses its assets, the end state of the UK economy is deteriorated while the end state of EU economy is improved.

Keywords: Banking Crises, Brexit, Financial Stability, VBanking

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14370 Islamic Banking Adoption Model from Technology Prospective

Authors: Amer Alzaidi

Abstract:

Islamic banking is an alternative solution to those people who are worried about Riba (interest) in all forms of transaction while using banking services and products. Today, banks around the world have Islamic banking services and products the in one form or another. The use of Islamic banking is not only restricted to Muslims world but have reached to non-Muslim countries like UK, USA, Australia and Canada as well. Compared to conventional banking, the adoption rate of Islamic banking is low because of unawareness of customers, financial cost, and performance issues. The interest in Islamic banking by financial institutions as well as low adoption rate motivated us to look this matter into detail in order to identify Critical Success Factors, which are positively motivating customers to use Islamic banking services/ products and Critical Risk Factors, which have significantly negative effect on the adoption of Islamic banking. The CSFs and CRFs will be initially identified from the literature using methodology called Systematic Literature Review, followed by the empirical analysis of these factors using survey research method. Later, we will develop Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM) to help banks to assess their Islamic banking strategic positioning and to improve their operational efficiency. The first potential contribution of this research study will be the development of IBAM protocol that will provide us guidelines for conducting our actual SLR. The second major contribution of this research will be the development of Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM), and the third contribution of this research study will be the evaluation of the developed IBMA.

Keywords: Islamic banking, adoption model, protocol, technology

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14369 E-Service and the Nigerian Banking Sector: A Review of ATM Architecture and Operations

Authors: Bashir Aliyu Yauri, Rufai Aliyu Yauri

Abstract:

With the introduction of cash-less society policy by the Central Bank of Nigeria, the concept of e-banking services has experienced a significant improvement over the years. Today quite a number of people are embracing e-banking activities especially ATM, thereby moving away from the conventional banking system. This paper presents a review of the underlying Architectural Layout of Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. The paper further investigates and discusses factors affecting the Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. And as well possible solutions to these factors affecting ATM Connectivity and Operations are proposed.

Keywords: architectural layout, automated teller machine, e-services, postilion

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14368 Effect of Islamic Finance on Jobs Generation in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: B. Ashraf, A. M. Malik

Abstract:

The study was accomplished at the Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics, Pir Mahar Ali Shah ARID Agriculture University, Punjab, Pakistan during 2013-16 with a purpose to discover the effect of Islamic finance/banking on employment in Punjab, Pakistan. Islamic banking system is sub-component of conventional banking system in various countries of the world; however, in Pakistan, it has been established as a separate Islamic banking system. The Islamic banking operates under the doctrine of Shariah. It is claimed that the referred banking is free of interest (Riba) and addresses the philosophy and basic values of Islam in finance that reduces the factors of uncertainty, risk and others speculative activities. Two Islamic bank’s; Meezan Bank Limited (Pakistan) and Al-Baraka Bank Limited (Pakistan) from North Punjab (Bahawalnagar) and central Punjab (Lahore) west Punjab (Gujrat), Pakistan were randomly selected for the conduct of research. A total of 206 samples were collected from the define areas and banks through questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Multiple linear regressions were applied to prove the hypothesis. The results revealed that the assets formation had significant positive; whereas, the technology, length of business (experience) and bossiness size had significant negative impact with employment generation in Islamic finance/banking in Punjab, Pakistan. This concludes that the employment opportunities may be created in the country by extending the finance to business/firms to start new business and increase the Public awareness by the Islamic banks through intensive publicity. However; Islamic financial institutions may be encouraged by Government as it enhances the employment in the country.

Keywords: assets formation, borrowers, employment generation, Islamic banks, Islamic finance

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14367 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

Procedia PDF Downloads 207