Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3839

Search results for: constructivist theory

3839 The Role of the Constructivist Learning Theory and Collaborative Learning Environment on Wiki Classroom and the Relationship between Them

Authors: Ibraheem Alzahrani


This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified through given an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, wiki can be used to understand the relationship between constructivist learning theory and collaborative learning environment. However, several evidences will come in this paper to support the idea of why wiki is the suitable method to explore the relationship between social constructivist theory and the collaborative learning and their role in learning. Moreover, learning activities in wiki classroom will be discussed in this paper to find out the result of the learners' interaction in the classroom groups, which will be through two types of communication; synchronous and asynchronous.

Keywords: social constructivist, collaborative, environment, wiki, activities

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3838 Extent of Constructivist Learning in Science Classes of the College Department of Southville International School and Colleges: Implication to Effective College Teaching

Authors: Mark Edward S. Paulo


This study was conducted to determine the extent of constructivist learning in science classes of the college department of Southville International School and Colleges. This explores the students’ assessment of their learning when professors would give lecture and various activities in the classroom and at the same time their perception on how their professors maintain a constructivist learning environment. In this study, a total of 185 students participated. These students were enrolled in Science courses offered in the first semester of AY 2014 to 2015. Descriptive correlational method was used in this study while simple random sampling technique was utilized in getting the number of target population. The results revealed that student often observed that their professors apply constructivist approach when teaching sciences. A positive correlation was found between students’ level of learning and extent of constructivism.

Keywords: college teaching, constructivism, pedagogy, student-centered approach

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3837 Student Learning and Motivation in an Interculturally Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Jonathan H. Westover, Jacque P. Westover, Maureen S. Andrade


Though learning theories vary in complexity and usefulness, a thorough understanding of foundational learning theories is a necessity in today’s educational environment. Additionally, learning theories lead to approaches in instruction that can affect student motivation and learning. The combination of a learning theory and elements to enhance student motivation can create a learning context where the student can thrive in their educational pursuits. This paper will provide an overview of three main learning theories: (1) Behavioral Theory, (2) Cognitive Theory, and (3) Constructivist Theory and explore their connection to elements of student learning motivation. Finally, we apply these learning theories and elements of student motivation to the following two context: (1) The FastStart Program at the Community College of Denver, and (2) An Online Academic English Language Course. We discussed potential of the program and course to have success in increasing student success outcomes.

Keywords: learning theory, student motivation, inclusive pedagogy, developmental education

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3836 Inductive Grammar, Student-Centered Reading, and Interactive Poetry: The Effects of Teaching English with Fun in Schools of Two Villages in Lebanon

Authors: Talar Agopian


Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) is a common practice in many Lebanese schools. However, ESL teaching is done in traditional ways. Methods such as constructivism are seldom used, especially in villages. Here lies the significance of this research which joins constructivism and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in ESL classes in Lebanese villages. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of applying constructivist student-centered strategies in teaching grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry on students in elementary ESL classes in two villages in Lebanon, Zefta in South Lebanon and Boqaata in Mount Lebanon. 20 English teachers participated in a training titled “Teaching English with Fun”, which focused on strategies that create a student-centered class where active learning takes place and there is increased learner engagement and autonomy. The training covered three main areas in teaching English: grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry. After participating in the training, the teachers applied the new strategies and methods in their ESL classes. The methodology comprised two phases: in phase one, practice-based research was conducted as the teachers attended the training and applied the constructivist strategies in their respective ESL classes. Phase two included the reflections of the teachers on the effects of the application of constructivist strategies. The results revealed the educational benefits of constructivist student-centered strategies; the students of teachers who applied these strategies showed improved engagement, positive attitudes towards poetry, increased motivation, and a better sense of autonomy. Future research is required in applying constructivist methods in the areas of writing, spelling, and vocabulary in ESL classrooms of Lebanese villages.

Keywords: active learning, constructivism, learner engagement, student-centered strategies

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3835 Rigorous Literature Review: Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn


This article documents how open science policy is perceived in the scientific literature globally throughout the history. It also presents what policy needs are persistent to enable safe and effective dissemination of scientific knowledge. This information may be of interest to open science and science policy makers globally, especially in the view of recent adoption of supranational open science policies such as Plan S. Evaluation of open science policy landscape is in pressing need of assessment regarding its impact on the research community and society at wide as no previous literature review has been conducted on the topic. This study is a rigorous literature review based on constructivist grounded theory method on the full body of scientific open science policy publications. Selection of these articles has been conducted in 2019 and 2020 in major global knowledge databases. Through the analysis of these articles, two key themes emerged that are seen to shape the relationship between science and society. 1st is that of the policy enabling open science in a safe and effective way, and 2nd is that of the outcome of the science policy may have on the research community and the wider society. These findings accentuate that open science policies can have a major impact on not only research process and availability of knowledge but also on society itself. As an outcome of this study, a theoretical framework is constructed, and the need for further study on open science policy itself on a higher level becomes apparent.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, open science policy, rigorous literature review, science policy

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3834 Transitioning Teacher Identity during COVID-19: An Australian Early Childhood Education Perspective

Authors: J. Jebunnesa, Y. Budd, T. Mason


COVID-19 changed the pedagogical expectations of early childhood education as many teachers across Australia had to quickly adapt to new teaching practices such as remote teaching. An important factor in the successful implementation of any new teaching and learning approach is teacher preparation, however, due to the pandemic, the transformation to remote teaching was immediate. A timely question to be asked is how early childhood teachers managed the transition from face-to-face teaching to remote teaching and what was learned through this time. This study explores the experiences of early childhood educators in Australia during COVID-19 lockdowns. Data were collected from an online survey conducted through the official Facebook forum of “Early Childhood Education and Care Australia,” and a constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the data. Initial research results suggest changing expectations of teachers’ roles and responsibilities during the lockdown, with a significant category related to transitioning teacher identities emerging. The concept of transitioning represents the shift from the role of early childhood educator to educational innovator, essential worker, social worker, and health officer. The findings illustrate the complexity of early childhood educators’ roles during the pandemic.

Keywords: changing role of teachers, constructivist grounded theory, lessons learned, teaching during COVID-19

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3833 Information Communication Technologies and Renewable Technologies' Impact on Irish People's Lifestyle: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Hamilton V. Niculescu


This paper discusses findings relating to people's engagement with mobile communication technologies and remote automated systems. This interdisciplinary study employs a constructivist grounded theory methodology, with qualitative data that was generated following in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 people living in Ireland being corroborated with participants' observations and quantitative data. Additional data was collected following participants' remote interaction with six custom-built automated enclosures, located at six different sites around Dublin, Republic of Ireland. This paper argues that ownership and education play a vital role in people engaging with and adoption of new technologies. Analysis of participants' behavior and attitude towards Information Communication Technologies (ICT) suggests that innovations do not always improve peoples' social inclusion. Technological innovations are sometimes perceived as destroying communities and create a dysfunctional society. Moreover, the findings indicate that a lack of public information and support from Irish governmental institutions, as well as limited off-the-shelves availability, has led to low trust and adoption of renewable technologies. A limited variation in participants' behavior and interaction patterns with technologies was observed during the study. This suggests that people will eventually adopt new technologies according to their needs and experience, even though they initially rejected the idea of changing their lifestyle.

Keywords: automation, communication, ICT, renewables

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3832 Critique of the City-Machine: Dismantling the Scientific Socialist Utopia of Soviet Territorialization

Authors: Rachel P. Vasconcellos


The Russian constructivism is usually enshrined in history as another ''modernist ism'', that is, as an artistic phenomenon related to the early twentieth century‘s zeitgeist. What we aim in this essay is to analyze the constructivist movement not over the Art History field neither through the aesthetic debate, but through a geographical critical theory, taking the main idea of construction in the concrete sense of production of space. Seen from the perspective of the critique of space, the constructivist production is presented as a plan of totality, designed as socialist society‘s spatiality, contemplating and articulating all its scalar levels: the objects of everyday life, the building, the city and the territory. The constructivist avant-garde manifests a geographical ideology, launching the foundation‘s basis of modern planning ideology. Taken in its political sense, the artistic avant-garde of the Russian Revolution intended to anticipate the forms of a social future already put in progress: their plastic research pointed to new formal expressions to revolutionary contents. With the foundation of new institutions under a new State, it was given to the specialized labor of artists, architects, and planners the task of designing the socialist society, based on the thesis of scientific socialism. Their projects were developed under the politico-economics imperatives to the Soviet modernization – that is: the structural needs of industrialization and inclusion of all people in the productive work universe. This context shapes the creative atmosphere of the constructivist avant-garde, which uses the methods of engineering to the transform everyday life. Architecture, urban planning, and state planning integrated must then operate as spatial arrangement morphologically able to produce socialist life. But due to the intrinsic contradictions of the process, the rational and geometric aesthetic of the City-Machine appears, finally, as an image of a scientific socialist utopia.

Keywords: city-machine, critique of space, production of space, soviet territorialization

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3831 Building a Model for Information Literacy Education in School Settings

Authors: Tibor Koltay


Among varied new literacies, information literacy is not only the best-known one but displays numerous models and frameworks. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of its complex theoretical model that could be applied to information literacy education in public (K12) education, which often makes use of constructivist approaches. This paper aims to present the main features of such a model. To develop a complex model, the literature and practice of phenomenographic and sociocultural theories, as well as discourse analytical approaches to information literacy, have been reviewed. Besides these constructivist and expressive based educational approaches, the new model is intended to include the innovation of coupling them with a cognitive model that takes developing informational and operational knowledge into account. The convergences between different literacies (information literacy, media literacy, media and information literacy, and data literacy) were taken into account, as well. The model will also make use of a three-country survey that examined secondary school teachers’ attitudes to information literacy. The results of this survey show that only a part of the respondents feel properly prepared to teach information literacy courses, and think that they can teach information literacy skills by themselves, while they see a librarian as an expert in educating information literacy. The use of the resulting model is not restricted to enhancing theory. It is meant to raise the level of awareness about information literacy and related literacies, and the next phase of the model’s development will be a pilot study that verifies the usefulness of the methodology for practical information literacy education in selected Hungarian secondary schools.

Keywords: communication, data literacy, discourse analysis, information literacy education, media and information literacy media literacy, phenomenography, public education, sociocultural theory

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3830 Person-Led Organizations Nurture Bullying Behavior: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Shreya Mishra, Manosi Chaudhuri, Ajoy K. Dey


Workplace bullying is a social phenomenon which has proved to be hazardous not only for employees’ well-being but also organizations. Despite being prevalent across geographical boundaries, Indian organizations have failed to acknowledge its vices. This paper aims to understand targets’ perception on what makes bullying nurture in organizations. The paper suggests that person-led Indian work settings give birth to bullying behavior as it lacks professional acumen and systems. An analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of employees from the organized sector suggests that organizations, where decision making lies with single individual, may be a hub of hostile behavior due to the culture which promotes ‘yesmanship’, ‘authoritarianism’ and/or blind belief of leaders on certain set of employees. The study used constructivist grounded theory approach, and the data was analyzed using R Based Qualitative Data Analysis (RQDA) software. Respondents reported that bullying behavior is taken lightly by the management with 'just ignore it' attitude. According to the respondents, the behavior prolong as the perpetrator have a direct approach to the top authority. The study concludes that person-led organizations may create a family-like environment which is favored by employees; however, authoritative leaders are unable to gain the trust of employees. Also, employees who are close to the leader may either be a perpetrator or a target of bullying. It is recommended that leaders in such organizations need to acknowledge the presence of bullying which affects an employees’ commitment towards their job and/or organization. They need to have an assertive check on individuals who hide behind ‘yesman’ attitude. This may help employees feel safe in such work settings.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, person-led organization, RQDA, workplace bullying

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3829 A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study on the Impact of Automation on People and Gardening

Authors: Hamilton V. Niculescu


Following a three year study conducted on eighteen Irish people that are involved in growing vegetables in various community gardens around Dublin, Republic of Ireland, it was revealed that addition of some automated features aimed at improving agricultural practices represented a process which was regarded as potentially beneficial, and as a great tool to closely monitor climate conditions inside the greenhouses. The participants were provided with a free custom-built mobile app through which they could remotely monitor and control features such as irrigation, air ventilation, and windows to ensure optimal growing conditions for vegetables growing inside purpose-built greenhouses. While the initial interest was generally high, within weeks, the participants' level of interaction with the enclosures slowly declined. By employing a constructivist grounded theory methodology, following focus group discussions, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and observations, it was revealed that participants' trust in newer technologies, and renewables, in particular, was low. There are various reasons for this, but because the participants in this study consist of mainly working-class people, it can be argued that lack of education and knowledge are the main barriers acting against the adoption of innovations. Consequently, it was revealed that most participants eventually decided to "set and forget" the systems in automatic working mode, indicating that the immediate effect of introducing people to assisting technologies also introduced some unintended consequences into their lifestyle. It is argued that this occurrence also indicates the fact that people initially "read" newer technologies and only adopt those features that they find useful and less intrusive in regards to their current lifestyle.

Keywords: automation, communication, greenhouse, sustainable

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3828 Arguments against Innateness of Theory of Mind

Authors: Arkadiusz Gut, Robert Mirski


The nativist-constructivist debate constitutes a considerable part of current research on mindreading. Peter Carruthers and his colleagues are known for their nativist position in the debate and take issue with constructivist views proposed by other researchers, with Henry Wellman, Alison Gopnik, and Ian Apperly at the forefront. More specifically, Carruthers together with Evan Westra propose a nativistic explanation of Theory of Mind Scale study results that Wellman et al. see as supporting constructivism. While allowing for development of the innate mindreading system, Westra and Carruthers base their argumentation essentially on a competence-performance gap, claiming that cross-cultural differences in Theory of Mind Scale progression as well as discrepancies between infants’ and toddlers’ results on verbal and non-verbal false-belief tasks are fully explainable in terms of acquisition of other, pragmatic, cognitive developments, which are said to allow for an expression of the innately present Theory of Mind understanding. The goal of the present paper is to bring together arguments against the view offered by Westra and Carruthers. It will be shown that even though Carruthers et al.’s interpretation has not been directly controlled for in Wellman et al.’s experiments, there are serious reasons to dismiss such nativistic views which Carruthers et al. advance. The present paper discusses the following issues that undermine Carruthers et al.’s nativistic conception: (1) The concept of innateness is argued to be developmentally inaccurate; it has been dropped in many biological sciences altogether and many developmental psychologists advocate for doing the same in cognitive psychology. Reality of development is a complex interaction of changing elements that is belied by the simplistic notion of ‘the innate.’ (2) The purported innate mindreading conceptual system posited by Carruthers ascribes adult-like understanding to infants, ignoring the difference between first- and second-order understanding, between what can be called ‘presentation’ and ‘representation.’ (3) Advances in neurobiology speak strongly against any inborn conceptual knowledge; neocortex, where conceptual knowledge finds its correlates, is said to be largely equipotential at birth. (4) Carruthers et al.’s interpretations are excessively charitable; they extend results of studies done with 15-month-olds to conclusions about innateness, whereas in reality at that age there has been plenty of time for construction of the skill. (5) Looking-time experiment paradigm used in non-verbal false belief tasks that provide the main support for Carruthers’ argumentation has been criticized on methodological grounds. In the light of the presented arguments, nativism in theory of mind research is concluded to be an untenable position.

Keywords: development, false belief, mindreading, nativism, theory of mind

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3827 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon, Salima Hassas


During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: cognitive development, constructivist learning, hierarchical sequential learning, self-adaptation

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3826 Constructivist Design Approaches to Video Production for Distance Education in Business and Economics

Authors: C. von Essen


This study outlines and evaluates a constructivist design approach to the creation of educational video on postgraduate business degree programmes. Many online courses are tapping into the educational affordances of video, as this form of online learning has the potential to create rich, multimodal experiences. And yet, in many learning contexts video is still being used to transmit instruction to passive learners, rather than promote learner engagement and knowledge creation. Constructivism posits the notion that learning is shaped as students make connections between their experiences and ideas. This paper pivots on the following research question: how can we design educational video in ways which promote constructivist learning and stimulate analytic viewing? By exploring and categorizing over two thousand educational videos created since 2014 for over thirty postgraduate courses in business, economics, mathematics and statistics, this paper presents and critically reflects on a taxonomy of video styles and features. It links the pedagogical intent of video – be it concept explanation, skill demonstration, feedback, real-world application of ideas, community creation, or the cultivation of course narrative – to specific presentational characteristics such as visual effects including diagrammatic and real-life graphics and aminations, commentary and sound options, chronological sequencing, interactive elements, and presenter set-up. The findings of this study inform a framework which captures the pedagogical, technological and production considerations instructional designers and educational media specialists should be conscious of when planning and preparing the video. More broadly, the paper demonstrates how learning theory and technology can coalesce to produce informed and pedagogical grounded instructional design choices. This paper reveals how crafting video in a more conscious and critical manner can produce powerful, new educational design.

Keywords: educational video, constructivism, instructional design, business education

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3825 How Teachers Comprehend and Support Children's Needs to Be Scientists

Authors: Anita Yus


Several Elementary Schools (SD) ‘favored’ by parents, especially those live in big cities in Indonesia, implicitly demand each child enrolled in the first grade of SD to be able to read, write and calculate. This condition urges the parents to push the teachers in PAUD (Kindergarten) to train their children to read, write, and calculate so they have a set of knowledge. According to Piaget, each child is capable of acquiring knowledge when he is given the opportunity to interact with his environment (things, people, and atmosphere). Teachers can make the interaction occur. There are several learning approaches suitable for the characteristics and needs of child’s growth. This paper talks about a research result conducted to investigate how twelve teachers of early childhood program comprehend the constructivist theory of Piaget, and how they inquire, how the children acquire and construct a number of knowledge through occurred interactions. This is a qualitative research with an observation method followed up by a focus group discussion (FGD). The research result shows that there is a reciprocal interaction between the behaviors of teachers and children affected by the size of the classroom and learning source, teaching experiences, education background, teachers’ attitude and motivation, as well as the way the teachers interpret and support the children’s needs. The teachers involved in this research came up with varied perspective on how knowledge acquired by children at first and how they construct it. This research brings a new perspective in understanding children as scientists.

Keywords: constructivist approach, young children as a scientist, teacher practice, teacher education

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3824 Encouraging Teachers to be Reflective: Advantages, Obstacles and Limitations

Authors: Fazilet Alachaher


Within the constructivist perspective of teaching, which views skilled teaching as knowing what to do in uncertain and unpredictable situations, this research essay explores the topic of reflective teaching by investigating the following questions: (1) What is reflective teaching and why is it important? (2) Why should teachers be trained to be reflective and how can they be prepared to be reflective? (3) What is the role of the teaching context in teachers’ attempts to be reflective? This paper suggests that reflective teaching is important because of the various potential benefits to teaching. Through reflection, teachers can maintain their voices and creativeness thus have authority to affect students, curriculum and school policies. The discussions also highlight the need to prepare student teachers and their professional counterparts to be reflective, so they can develop the characteristics of reflective teaching and gain the potential benefits of reflection. This can be achieved by adopting models and techniques that are based on constructivist pedagogical approaches. The paper also suggests that maintaining teachers’ attempts to be reflective in a workplace context and aligning practice with pre-service teacher education programs require the administrators or the policy makers to provide the following: sufficient time for teachers to reflect and work collaboratively to discuss challenges encountered in teaching, fewer non-classroom duties, regular in-service opportunities, more facilities and freedom in choosing suitable ways of evaluating their students’ progress and needs.

Keywords: creative teaching, reflective teaching, constructivist pedagogical approaches, teaching context, teacher’s role, curriculum and school policies, teaching context effect

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3823 Research Opportunities in Business Process Management and Performance Measurement from a Constructivist View

Authors: R.T.O. Lacerda, L. Ensslin., S.R. Ensslin, L. Knoff


This research paper aims to discover research opportunities in business process management and performance measurement from a constructivist view. The nature of this research is exploratory and descriptive and the research method was performed in a qualitative way. The process narrowed down 2142 articles, gathered after a search in scientific databases, and identified 16 articles that were relevant to the research and highly cited. The analysis found that most of the articles uses realistic approach and there is a need to analyze the decision making process in a singular manner. The measurement criteria are identified from scientific literature searching, in most cases, using ordinal scale without any integration process to present the results to the decision maker. Regarding management aspects, most of the articles do not have a structured process to measure the current situation and generate improvements opportunities.

Keywords: performance measurement, BPM, decision, research opportunities

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3822 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig


In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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3821 Proposing Problem-Based Learning as an Effective Pedagogical Technique for Social Work Education

Authors: Christine K. Fulmer


Social work education is competency based in nature. There is an expectation that graduates of social work programs throughout the world are to be prepared to practice at a level of competence, which is beneficial to both the well-being of individuals and community. Experiential learning is one way to prepare students for competent practice. The use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a form experiential education that has been successful in a number of disciplines to bridge the gap between the theoretical concepts in the classroom to the real world. PBL aligns with the constructivist theoretical approach to learning, which emphasizes the integration of new knowledge with the beliefs students already hold. In addition, the basic tenants of PBL correspond well with the practice behaviors associated with social work practice including multi-disciplinary collaboration and critical thinking. This paper makes an argument for utilizing PBL in social work education.

Keywords: social work education, problem-based learning, pedagogy, experiential learning, constructivist theoretical approach

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3820 Problem Based Learning and Teaching by Example in Dimensioning of Mechanisms: Feedback

Authors: Nicolas Peyret, Sylvain Courtois, Gaël Chevallier


This article outlines the development of the Project Based Learning (PBL) at the level of a last year’s Bachelor’s Degree. This form of pedagogy has for objective to allow a better involving of the students from the beginning of the module. The theoretical contributions are introduced during the project to solving a technological problem. The module in question is the module of mechanical dimensioning method of Supméca a French engineering school. This school issues a Master’s Degree. While the teaching methods used in primary and secondary education are frequently renewed in France at the instigation of teachers and inspectors, higher education remains relatively traditional in its practices. Recently, some colleagues have felt the need to put the application back at the heart of their theoretical teaching. This need is induced by the difficulty of covering all the knowledge deductively before its application. It is therefore tempting to make the students 'learn by doing', even if it doesn’t cover some parts of the theoretical knowledge. The other argument that supports this type of learning is the lack of motivation the students have for the magisterial courses. The role-play allowed scenarios favoring interaction between students and teachers… However, this pedagogical form known as 'pedagogy by project' is difficult to apply in the first years of university studies because of the low level of autonomy and individual responsibility that the students have. The question of what the student actually learns from the initial program as well as the evaluation of the competences acquired by the students in this type of pedagogy also remains an open problem. Thus we propose to add to the pedagogy by project format a regressive part of interventionism by the teacher based on pedagogy by example. This pedagogical scenario is based on the cognitive load theory and Bruner's constructivist theory. It has been built by relying on the six points of the encouragement process defined by Bruner, with a concrete objective, to allow the students to go beyond the basic skills of dimensioning and allow them to acquire the more global skills of engineering. The implementation of project-based teaching coupled with pedagogy by example makes it possible to compensate for the lack of experience and autonomy of first-year students, while at the same time involving them strongly in the first few minutes of the module. In this project, students have been confronted with the real dimensioning problems and are able to understand the links and influences between parameter variations and dimensioning, an objective that we did not reach in classical teaching. It is this form of pedagogy which allows to accelerate the mastery of basic skills and so spend more time on the engineer skills namely the convergence of each dimensioning in order to obtain a validated mechanism. A self-evaluation of the project skills acquired by the students will also be presented.

Keywords: Bruner's constructivist theory, mechanisms dimensioning, pedagogy by example, problem based learning

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3819 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami


The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

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3818 Reasons for the Selection of Information-Processing Framework and the Philosophy of Mind as a General Account for an Error Analysis and Explanation on Mathematics

Authors: Michael Lousis


This research study is concerned with learner’s errors on Arithmetic and Algebra. The data resulted from a broader international comparative research program called Kassel Project. However, its conceptualisation differed from and contrasted with that of the main program, which was mostly based on socio-demographic data. The way in which the research study was conducted, was not dependent on the researcher’s discretion, but was absolutely dictated by the nature of the problem under investigation. This is because the phenomenon of learners’ mathematical errors is due neither to the intentions of learners nor to institutional processes, rules and norms, nor to the educators’ intentions and goals; but rather to the way certain information is presented to learners and how their cognitive apparatus processes this information. Several approaches for the study of learners’ errors have been developed from the beginning of the 20th century, encompassing different belief systems. These approaches were based on the behaviourist theory, on the Piagetian- constructivist research framework, the perspective that followed the philosophy of science and the information-processing paradigm. The researcher of the present study was forced to disclose the learners’ course of thinking that led them in specific observable actions with the result of showing particular errors in specific problems, rather than analysing scripts with the students’ thoughts presented in a written form. This, in turn, entailed that the choice of methods would have to be appropriate and conducive to seeing and realising the learners’ errors from the perspective of the participants in the investigation. This particular fact determined important decisions to be made concerning the selection of an appropriate framework for analysing the mathematical errors and giving explanations. Thus the rejection of the belief systems concerning behaviourism, the Piagetian-constructivist, and philosophy of science perspectives took place, and the information-processing paradigm in conjunction with the philosophy of mind were adopted as a general account for the elaboration of data. This paper explains why these decisions were appropriate and beneficial for conducting the present study and for the establishment of the ensued thesis. Additionally, the reasons for the adoption of the information-processing paradigm in conjunction with the philosophy of mind give sound and legitimate bases for the development of future studies concerning mathematical error analysis are explained.

Keywords: advantages-disadvantages of theoretical prospects, behavioral prospect, critical evaluation of theoretical prospects, error analysis, information-processing paradigm, opting for the appropriate approach, philosophy of science prospect, Piagetian-constructivist research frameworks, review of research in mathematical errors

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3817 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha


Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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3816 Engaging Students in Multimedia Constructivist Learning: Analysis of Students' Science Achievement

Authors: Maria Georgiou


This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement scores for students who received multimedia-based instructions in science. The paired samples t-test was used to address the research question and to establish whether there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores that may have occurred based on the students’ learning experience with multimedia technology. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement scores before and after a multimedia-based instruction. Students’ achievement scores were increased by approximately two points, after students received multimedia-based instruction. On a paired samples t-test, a high level of significance was found, p = 0.000. Opportunities to learn with multimedia are more likely to result in sustained improvements in student achievement and a deeper understanding of science content. Multimedia can make learning more active and student-centered and activate student motivation.

Keywords: constructivist learning, hyperstudio, multimedia, multimedia-based instruction

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3815 The Development of Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation with Addie Based on Constructive for Improving Students’ Mastery Concept in Rotational Dynamics

Authors: Silka Abyadati, Dadi Rusdiana, Enjang Akhmad Juanda


This study aims to investigate the students’ mastery concepts enhancement between students who are studying by using Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation (IRVA) and students who are studying without using IRVA. The development of IRVA is conducted by five stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) based on constructivist for Rotational Dynamics material in Physics learning. A constructivist model-based learning used is Interpretation Construction (ICON), which has the following phases: 1) Observation, 2) Construction interpretation, 3) Contextualization prior knowledge, 4) Conflict cognitive, 5) Learning cognitive, 6) Collaboration, 7) Multiple interpretation, 8) Multiple manifestation. The IRVA is developed for the stages of observation, cognitive conflict and cognitive learning. The sample of this study consisted of 32 students experimental group and a control group of 32 students in class XI of the school year 2015/2016 in one of Senior High Schools Bandung. The study was conducted by giving the pretest and posttest in the form of 20 items of multiple choice questions to determine the enhancement of mastery concept of Rotational Dynamics. Hypothesis testing is done by using T-test on the value of N-gain average of mastery concepts. The results showed that there is a significant difference in an enhancement of students’ mastery concepts between students who are studying by using IRVA and students who are studying without IRVA. Students in the experimental group increased by 0.468 while students in the control group increased by 0.207.

Keywords: ADDIE, constructivist learning, Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation, mastery concepts, rotational dynamics

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3814 Application of Constructivist-Based (5E’s) Instructional Approach on Pupils’ Retention: A Case Study in Primary Mathematics in Enugu State

Authors: Ezeamagu M.U, Madu B.C


This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of 5Es constructivist-based instructional model on students’ retention in primary Mathematics. 5Es stands for Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration and Evaluation. The study adopted the pre test post test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental research design. The sample size for the study was one hundred and thirty four pupils (134), seventy six male (76) and fifty eight female (58) from two primary schools in Nsukka education zone. Two intact classes in each of the sampled schools comprising all the primary four pupils were used. Each of the schools was given the opportunity of being assigned randomly to either experimental or control group. The Experimental group was taught using 5Es model while the control group was taught using the conventional method. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and three hypotheses were tested at p ≤ 0. 05. A Fraction Achievement Test (FAT) of ten (10) questions were used to obtain data on pupils’ retention. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result revealed that the 5Es model was more effective than the conventional method of teaching in enhancing pupils’ performance and retention in mathematics, secondly there is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught using 5Es instructional model. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things, that the 5Es instructional model should be adopted in the teaching of mathematics in primary level of the educational system. Seminar, workshops and conferences should be mounted by professional bodies, federal and state ministries of education on the use of 5Es model. This will enable the mathematics educator, serving teachers, students and all to benefit from the approach.

Keywords: constructivist, education, mathematics, primary, retention

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3813 Assumption of Cognitive Goals in Science Learning

Authors: Mihail Calalb


The aim of this research is to identify ways for achieving sustainable conceptual understanding within science lessons. For this purpose, a set of teaching and learning strategies, parts of the theory of visible teaching and learning (VTL), is studied. As a result, a new didactic approach named "learning by being" is proposed and its correlation with educational paradigms existing nowadays in science teaching domain is analysed. In the context of VTL the author describes the main strategies of "learning by being" such as guided self-scaffolding, structuring of information, and recurrent use of previous knowledge or help seeking. Due to the synergy effect of these learning strategies applied simultaneously in class, the impact factor of learning by being on cognitive achievement of students is up to 93 % (the benchmark level is equal to 40% when an experienced teacher applies permanently the same conventional strategy during two academic years). The key idea in "learning by being" is the assumption by the student of cognitive goals. From this perspective, the article discusses the role of student’s personal learning effort within several teaching strategies employed in VTL. The research results emphasize that three mandatory student – related moments are present in each constructivist teaching approach: a) students’ personal learning effort, b) student – teacher mutual feedback and c) metacognition. Thus, a successful educational strategy will target to achieve an involvement degree of students into the class process as high as possible in order to make them not only know the learning objectives but also to assume them. In this way, we come to the ownership of cognitive goals or students’ deep intrinsic motivation. A series of approaches are inherent to the students’ ownership of cognitive goals: independent research (with an impact factor on cognitive achievement equal to 83% according to the results of VTL); knowledge of success criteria (impact factor – 113%); ability to reveal similarities and patterns (impact factor – 132%). Although it is generally accepted that the school is a public service, nonetheless it does not belong to entertainment industry and in most of cases the education declared as student – centered actually hides the central role of the teacher. Even if there is a proliferation of constructivist concepts, mainly at the level of science education research, we have to underline that conventional or frontal teaching, would never disappear. Research results show that no modern method can replace an experienced teacher with strong pedagogical content knowledge. Such a teacher will inspire and motivate his/her students to love and learn physics. The teacher is precisely the condensation point for an efficient didactic strategy – be it constructivist or conventional. In this way, we could speak about "hybridized teaching" where both the student and the teacher have their share of responsibility. In conclusion, the core of "learning by being" approach is guided learning effort that corresponds to the notion of teacher–student harmonic oscillator, when both things – guidance from teacher and student’s effort – are equally important.

Keywords: conceptual understanding, learning by being, ownership of cognitive goals, science learning

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3812 Examining Terrorism through a Constructivist Framework: Case Study of the Islamic State

Authors: Shivani Yadav


The Study of terrorism lends itself to the constructivist framework as constructivism focuses on the importance of ideas and norms in shaping interests and identities. Constructivism is pertinent to understand the phenomenon of a terrorist organization like the Islamic State (IS), which opportunistically utilizes radical ideas and norms to shape its ‘politics of identity’. This ‘identity’, which is at the helm of preferences and interests of actors, in turn, shapes actions. The paper argues that an effective counter-terrorism policy must recognize the importance of ideas in order to counter the threat arising from acts of radicalism and terrorism. Traditional theories of international relations, with an emphasis on state-centric security problematic, exhibit several limitations and problems in interpreting the phenomena of terrorism. With the changing global order, these theories have failed to adapt to the changing dimensions of terrorism, especially ‘newer’ actors like the Islamic State (IS). The paper observes that IS distinguishes itself from other terrorist organizations in the way that it recruits and spreads its propaganda. Not only are its methods different, but also its tools (like social media) are new. Traditionally, too, force alone has rarely been sufficient to counter terrorism, but it seems especially impossible to completely root out an organization like IS. Time is ripe to change the discourse around terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies. The counter-terrorism measures adopted by states, which primarily focus on mitigating threats to the national security of the state, are preoccupied with statist objectives of the continuance of state institutions and maintenance of order. This limitation prevents these theories from addressing the questions of justice and the ‘human’ aspects of ideas and identity. These counter-terrorism strategies adopt a problem-solving approach that attempts to treat the symptoms without diagnosing the disease. Hence, these restrictive strategies fail to look beyond calculated retaliation against violent actions in order to address the underlying causes of discontent pertaining to ‘why’ actors turn violent in the first place. What traditional theories also overlook is that overt acts of violence may have several causal factors behind them, some of which are rooted in the structural state system. Exploring these root causes through the constructivist framework helps to decipher the process of ‘construction of terror’ and to move beyond the ‘what’ in theorization in order to describe ‘why’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ terrorism occurs. Study of terrorism would much benefit from a constructivist analysis in order to explore non-military options while countering the ideology propagated by the IS.

Keywords: constructivism, counter terrorism, Islamic State, politics of identity

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3811 The Islamic Perspective in International Relations

Authors: Hakam Junus, Natassha Chrysanti


The international relations theory currently is dominated by the western theoretical perspectives. Although the western theories are often used by many scholars as the universal perspective to explain the phenomena that occur in the world, sometimes the existing theories are failed to explain various issues that occur in the non-western world, for example, in the studies concerning on terrorism issues. Using inappropriate theories to explain the international issues such as terrorism will cause a failure in the decision-making process. The lack of understanding regarding Islamic perspective could be one of the factors that make international society unable to eradicate violent terrorism in the name of religion. Thus, this paper is argued that considering Islamic perspective as one of the major studies in international relations is significant to build a bridge between the Islamic world and the western world. It is believed that enhancing the study of Islamic perspective will create better understanding of the Islamic world and will enrich the study of international relations. This paper is conducted through a qualitative approach, in which data is obtained from the literature analysis. Considering Islamic perspective is important because Islam is listed as one of the major religions in the world. It is also due to the geopolitical spread of the Muslim in the world and the likelihood of the Islamic perspective to shape and influence Muslim’s behavior in the international level. The study of Islamic perspective in the international level is neither to contempt nor to oppose the existing western theories; rather it is needed in order to broaden the perspective in the international relations studies. The Islamic perspective is different compared to the non-western school of thought such as realism, and liberalism in some respects. The Islamic perspective cannot be explained through the lens of rationalist approaches. Compares to the post-positivism international relations perspectives, Islamic perspective is probably closer to the constructivist school of thought. However, the Islamic perspective offers some uniqueness that is not limited to the socially constructed ideas as in the constructivist arguments. This paper will be developed according to the discussion of three aspects that make Islamic perspective different with the existing international relations theories. The first aspect is the main actors in the international level. The second aspect is regarding on what appears to be the most important point for the actors in the international relations. The third aspect is regarding the pattern of relationship between the actors in the international level. In addition, this paper will briefly discuss the perspective of Islam in economics compare to the existing theories in the realm of international political economy.

Keywords: international relations, Islam, non-western theories, societies

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3810 A New Measurement for Assessing Constructivist Learning Features in Higher Education: Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Project

Authors: Dorit Alt, Nirit Raichel


Although university teaching is claimed to have a special task to support students in adopting ways of thinking and producing new knowledge anchored in scientific inquiry practices, it is argued that students' habits of learning are still overwhelmingly skewed toward passive acquisition of knowledge from authority sources rather than from collaborative inquiry activities.This form of instruction is criticized for encouraging students to acquire inert knowledge that can be used in instructional settings at best, however cannot be transferred into real-life complex problem settings. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium (including 16 members from 8 countries) is aimed at developing updated instructional practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies and assessment tools, based on the constructivist approach for learning that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. This presentation will be limited to teachers' education only and to the contribution of the project in providing a scale designed to measure the extent to which the constructivist activities are efficiently applied in the learning environment. A mix-method approach was implemented in two phases to construct the scale: The first phase included a qualitative content analysis involving both deductive and inductive category applications of students' observations. The results foregrounded eight categories: knowledge construction, authenticity, multiple perspectives, prior knowledge, in-depth learning, teacher- student interaction, social interaction and cooperative dialogue. The students' descriptions of their classes were formulated as 36 items. The second phase employed structural equation modeling (SEM). The scale was submitted to 597 undergraduate students. The goodness of fit of the data to the structural model yielded sufficient fit results. This research elaborates the body of literature by adding a category of in-depth learning which emerged from the content analysis. Moreover, the theoretical category of social activity has been extended to include two distinctive factors: cooperative dialogue and social interaction. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project are discussed.

Keywords: constructivist learning, higher education, mix-methodology, structural equation modeling

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