Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 233

Search results for: confined

233 Hall Coefficient in the Presence of Strong Electromagnetic Waves Caused by Confined Electrons and Phonons in a Rectangular Quantum Wire

Authors: Nguyen Quang Bau, Nguyen Thu Huong, Dang Thi Thanh Thuy


The analytic expression for the Hall Coefficient (HC) caused by the confined electrons in the presence of a strong electromagnetic wave (EMW) including the effect of phonon confinement in rectangular quantum wires (RQWs) is calculated by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons in the case of electron - optical phonon scattering. It is because the expression of the HC for the confined phonon case contains indexes m, m’ which are specific to the phonon confinement. The expression in a RQW is different from that for the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW or in 2D. The results are numerically calculated and discussed for a GaAs/GaAsAl RQW. The numerical results show that HC in a RQW can have both negative and positive values. This is different from the case of the absence of EMW and the case presence of EMW including the effect of phonon unconfinement in a RQW. These results are also compared with those in the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW and confined phonons in a quantum well. The conductivity in the case of confined phonon has more resonance peaks compared with that in case of unconfined phonons in a RQW. This new property is the same in quantum well. All results are compared with the case of unconfined phonons to see differences.

Keywords: Hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation, confined phonons

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232 Experimental Research on Ductility of Regional Confined Concrete Beam

Authors: Qinggui Wu, Xinming Cao, Guyue Guo, Jiajun Ding


In efforts to study the shear ductility of regional confined concrete beam, 5 reinforced concrete beams were tested to examine its shear performance. These beams has the same shear span ratio, concrete strength, different ratios of tension reinforcement and shapes of stirrup. The purpose of the test is studying the effects of stirrup shape and tension reinforcement ratio on failure mode and shear ductility. The test shows that the regional confined part can be used as an independent part and the rest of the beam is good to work together so that the ductility of the beam is more one time higher than that of the normal confined concrete beam. The related laws of the effect of tension reinforcement ratio and stirrup shapes on beam’s shear ductility are founded.

Keywords: ratio of tension reinforcement, stirrup shapes, shear ductility, failure mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
231 Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete by Rectangular Reinforcement

Authors: Mizam Dogan, Hande Gökdemir


In reinforced concrete elements, reinforcement steel bars are placed in concrete both longitudinal and lateral directions. The lateral reinforcement (called as confinement) which is used for confining circular RC elements is in a spiral shape. If the cross section of RC element is rectangular, stirrups should be rectangular too. At very high compressive stresses concrete will reach its limit strain value and therefore concrete outside the lateral reinforcement, which is not confined, will crush and start to spell. At this stage, concrete core of the RC element tries to expand laterally as a reason of high Poisson’s ratio value of concrete. Such a deformation is prevented by the lateral reinforcement which applies lateral passive pressure on concrete. At very high compressive stresses, the strength of reinforced column member rises to four times σ 2. This increase in strength of member is related to the properties of rectangular stirrups. In this paper, effect of stirrup step spacing to column behavior is calculated and presented confined concrete model is proved by numerical solutions.

Keywords: confined concrete, concrete column, stress-strain, stirrup, solid, frame

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230 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau


The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
229 Fast-Modulated Surface-Confined Plasma for Catalytic Nitrogen Fixation and Energy Intensification

Authors: Pradeep Lamichhane, Nima Pourali, E. V. Rebrov, Volker Hessel


Nitrogen fixation is critical for plants for the biosynthesis of protein and nucleic acid. Most of our atmosphere is nitrogen, yet plants cannot directly absorb it from the air, and natural nitrogen fixation is insufficient to meet the demands. This experiment used a fast-modulated surface-confined atmospheric pressure plasma created by a 6 kV (peak-peak) sinusoidal power source with a repetition frequency of 68 kHz to fix nitrogen. Plasmas have been proposed for excitation of nitrogen gas, which quickly oxidised to NOX. With different N2/O2 input ratios, the rate of NOX generation was investigated. The rate of NOX production was shown to be optimal for mixtures of 60–70% O2 with N2. To boost NOX production in plasma, metal oxide catalysts based on TiO2 were coated over the dielectric layer of a reactor. These results demonstrate that nitrogen activation was more advantageous in surface-confined plasma sources because micro-discharges formed on the sharp edges of the electrodes, which is a primary function attributed to NOX synthesis and is further enhanced by metal oxide catalysts. The energy-efficient and sustainable NOX synthesis described in this study will offer a fresh perspective for ongoing research on green nitrogen fixation techniques.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, fast-modulated, surface-confined, sustainable

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228 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux


The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions.

Keywords: confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots

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227 Modified Plastic-Damage Model for FRP-Confined Repaired Concrete Columns

Authors: I. A Tijani, Y. F Wu, C.W. Lim


Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) is capable of modeling the stress-strain behavior of confined concrete. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the model largely depends on its parameters. To date, most research works mainly focus on the identification and modification of the parameters for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete prior to damage. And, it has been established that the FRP-strengthened concrete behaves differently to FRP-repaired concrete. This paper presents a modified plastic damage model within the context of the CDPM in ABAQUS for modelling of a uniformly FRP-confined repaired concrete under monotonic loading. The proposed model includes infliction damage, elastic stiffness, yield criterion and strain hardening rule. The distinct feature of damaged concrete is elastic stiffness reduction; this is included in the model. Meanwhile, the test results were obtained from a physical testing of repaired concrete. The dilation model is expressed as a function of the lateral stiffness of the FRP-jacket. The finite element predictions are shown to be in close agreement with the obtained test results of the repaired concrete. It was observed from the study that with necessary modifications, finite element method is capable of modeling FRP-repaired concrete structures.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, Damage, Repairing, Plasticity, and Finite element method

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226 Numerical Study on Self-Confined Plasmoid Transport Phenomena in an Electrodeless Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

Authors: Xiaodong Wen, Lijuan Liu, Xinfeng Sun


A high power electrodeless plasma thruster is being developed at Lanzhou Institute of Physics. In this thruster, a rotating magnetic field (RMF) driven by two radio-frequency coils which dephased by 90 degrees are applied both for propellant ionization and plasma acceleration. In the ionization stage, a very high azimuthal current can be driven by RMF and then makes plasma forms a field reversed configuration, namely self-confined plasmoid. Profoundly understanding the transport characteristics of the plasmoid in the following acceleration stage is the key to improve the thruster performances. In this paper, a 3D MHD model is established and the influences of the RMF and an applied magnetic field on the self-confined plasmoid acceleration are investigated. The simulation results show that, by applying a RMF with strength and frequency of 250 G and 370 kHz, the plasmoid can be accelerated to an average velocity of 17 km/s at the exit of the thruster.

Keywords: electric space propulsion, field reversed configuration, rotating magnetic field, transport phenomena

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225 Effects of Methods of Confinement during Transportation of Market Pigs on Meat Quality

Authors: Pongchan Na-Lampang


The objective of this study was to compare the results of transport of slaughter pigs to slaughterhouse by 2 methods, i.e. individual confined and group confined on the truck on meat quality. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35 m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for group and individual crate treatment, respectively. It was found that meat quality of pigs transported by 2 different methods as measured in terms of pH level (at 45 min and 48 hr post mortem), color (brightness, redness and yellowness) and water holding capacity was not significantly different.

Keywords: market pig, transportation, meat quality, confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
224 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Door

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a door – specimens CMDuS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door before strengthening) and CMDS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMDuS and CMDS are subjected to the same effects. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMDuS is 13.55 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 6.38 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening of the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 10.89 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of the strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMDS, the natural frequency is reduced to 6.66 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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223 Pattern of External Injuries Sustained during Bomb Blast Attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007

Authors: Arif Anwar Surani, Salman Ali, Asif Surani, Sohaib Zahid, Akbar Shoukat Ali, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan Usmani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani


Objective: Terrorism and suicidal bomb blast attacks are commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan. During the years 2000 to 2007, there were over 60 bomb explosions resulting in more than 1500 casualties. These explosions produce a wide variety of external injuries. We undertook this study to evaluate pattern of external injury produced after bomb blast attacks and to compare injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional, study was conducted to review injuries sustained after bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2000 to October 2007. Emergency medical records and medico legal certificates of patients presented to three major public sector hospitals of Karachi were evaluated using self-design proforma. Results: Data of 481 victims meet inclusion criteria and were incorporated for final analysis. Of these, 63.6% were injured in open spaces and 36.4% were injured in semi-confined blast environments. Lacerations were commonly encountered as external injury (47.7%) followed by penetrating wounds (15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were most commonly affected (38.6% and 19% respectively). Open and semi-confined blast environments produced a specific injury pattern and profile (p=<0.001). Conclusions: Bomb blast attacks in Karachi produce an external injury pattern consistent with other studies, with exception of an increased frequency in penetrating wounds. Semi-confined blast environments were associated with severe injuries. Further studies are required to better classify injuries and their severity based on standardized scoring systems. Effective emergency response systems must be designed to cope with mass causalities following bomb explosions.

Keywords: bomb blast attacks, injury pattern, external injury, open space, semi-confined space, blast environment

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222 Forced Heat Transfer Convection in a Porous Channel with an Oriented Confined Jet

Authors: Azzedine Abdedou, Khedidja Bouhadef


The present study is an analysis of the forced convection heat transfer in porous channel with an oriented jet at the inlet with uniform velocity and temperature distributions. The upper wall is insulated when the bottom one is kept at constant temperature higher than that of the fluid at the entrance. The dynamic field is analysed by the Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model and the thermal field is traduced by the energy one equation model. The numerical solution of the governing equations is obtained by using the finite volume method. The results mainly concern the effect of Reynolds number, jet angle and thermal conductivity ratio on the flow structure and local and average Nusselt numbers evolutions.

Keywords: forced convection, porous media, oriented confined jet, fluid mechanics

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221 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi


The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: fire, road tunnel, simulation, vegetation, wildland

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220 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement

Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi


Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.

Keywords: erosion control, soil confinement, soil erosion, slope stability

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219 Evaluating of Turkish Earthquake Code (2007) for FRP Wrapped Circular Concrete Cylinders

Authors: Guler S., Guzel E., Gulen M.


Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials are commonly used in construction sector to enhance the strength and ductility capacities of structural elements. The equations on confined compressive strength of FRP wrapped concrete cylinders is described in the 7th chapter of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-07) that enter into force in 2007. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of TEC-07 on confined compressive strengths of circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders. To this end, a large number of data on circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders are collected from the literature. It is clearly seen that the predictions of TEC-07 on circular FRP wrapped the FRP wrapped columns is not same accuracy for different ranges of concrete strengths.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), concrete cylinders, Turkish Earthquake Code, earthquake

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218 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim


Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

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217 Numerical Study of the Dynamic Behavior of an Air Conditioning with a Muti Confined Swirling Jet

Authors: Mohamed Roudane


The objective of this study is to know the dynamic behavior of a multi swirling jet used for air conditioning inside a room. To conduct this study, we designed a facility to ensure proper conditions of confinement in which we placed five air blowing devices with adjustable vanes, providing multiple swirling turbulent jets. The jets were issued in the same direction and the same spacing defined between them. This study concerned the numerical simulation of the dynamic mixing of confined swirling multi-jets, and examined the influence of important parameters of a swirl diffuser system on the dynamic performance characteristics. The CFD investigations are carried out by a hybrid mesh to discretize the computational domain. In this work, the simulations have been performed using the finite volume method and FLUENT solver, in which the standard k-ε RNG turbulence model was used for turbulence computations.

Keywords: simulation, dynamic behavior, swirl, turbulent jet

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216 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Window

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behavior of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and re-tested. This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a window – specimens CMWuS (before strengthening) and CMWS (after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMWuS and CMWS are subjected to the same effects. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMWuS is 18.79 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 12.96 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 14.67 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMWS, the natural frequency is reduced to 10.75 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
215 Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets

Authors: Rohit Sharma, Fabio Cozzi


A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Keywords: acoustic probes, 3C-2D particle image velocimetry (PIV), precessing vortex core (PVC), recirculation zone (RZ)

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
214 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser


Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: antiprotons, anions, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

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213 Visual and Chemical Servoing of a Hexapod Robot in a Confined Environment Using Jacobian Estimator

Authors: Guillaume Morin-Duponchelle, Ahmed Nait Chabane, Benoit Zerr, Pierre Schoesetters


Industrial inspection can be achieved through robotic systems, allowing visual and chemical servoing. A popular scheme for visual servo-controlled robotic is the image-based servoing sys-tems. In this paper, an approach of visual and chemical servoing of a hexapod robot using a visual and chemical Jacobian matrix are proposed. The basic idea behind the visual Jacobian matrix is modeling the differential relationship between the camera system and the robotic control system to detect and track accurately points of interest in confined environments. This approach allows the robot to easily detect and navigates to the QR code or seeks a gas source localization using surge cast algorithm. To track the QR code target, a visual servoing based on Jacobian matrix is used. For chemical servoing, three gas sensors are embedded on the hexapod. A Jacobian matrix applied to the gas concentration measurements allows estimating the direction of the main gas source. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is first demonstrated on simulation. Finally, a hexapod prototype is designed and built and the experimental validation of the approach is presented and discussed.

Keywords: chemical servoing, hexapod robot, Jacobian matrix, visual servoing, navigation

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212 Experimental Studies of Spiral-Confined HSCFST Columns under Uni-Axial Compression

Authors: Mianheng Lai, Johnny Ching Ming Ho, Hoat Joen Pam


Concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns are becoming increasingly popular owing to the superior behavior contributed by the composite action. However, this composite action cannot be fully developed because of different dilation properties between steel tube and concrete. During initial compression, there will be de-bonding between the constitutive materials. As a result, the strength, initial stiffness and ductility of CFST columns reduce significantly. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of spirals is proposed to improve the interface bonding. In this paper, a total of 14CFST columns with high-strength as well as ultra-high-strength concrete in-filled were fabricated and tested under uni-axial compression. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed spirals can improve the strength, initial stiffness, ductility and the interface bonding condition of CFST columns by restraining the lateral expansion of steel tube and core concrete. Moreover, the failure modes of confined core concrete change due to the strong confinement provided by spirals.

Keywords: concrete-filled-steel-tube, confinement, failure mode, high-strength concrete, spirals

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211 Vibration Behavior of Nanoparticle Delivery in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang


In the paper, the coupled equation of motion for the dynamic displacement of a fullerene moving in a (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is derived using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, including the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The effects of confined stiffness between the fullerene and nanotube, foundation stiffness, and nonlocal parameter on the dynamic behavior are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta Method. The numerical solution is in agreement with the analytical result for the special case. The numerical results show that increasing the confined stiffness and foundation stiffness decrease the dynamic displacement of SWCNT. However, the dynamic displacement increases with increasing the nonlocal parameter. In addition, result using the Euler beam theory and the Timoshenko beam theory are compared. It can be found that ignoring the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation leads to an underestimation of the displacement.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube, nanoparticle delivery, Nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, Runge-Kutta Method, Van der Waals force

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210 Tribologycal Design by Molecular Dynamics Simulation- The Influence of Porous Surfaces on Wall Slip and Bulk Shear

Authors: Seyedmajid Mehrnia, Maximilan Kuhr, Peter F. Pelz


Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is a proven method to inspect behaviours of lubricant oils in nano-scale gaps. However, most MD simulations on tribology have been performed with atomically smooth walls to determine wall slip and friction properties. This study will investigate the effect of porosity, specifically nano-porous walls, on wall slip properties of hydrocarbon oils confined between two walls in a Couette flow. Different pore geometries will be modelled to investigate the effect on wall slip and bulk shear. In this paper, the Polyalphaolefin (PAO) molecules are confined to a stationary and a moving wall. A hybrid force field consisting of different potential energy functions was employed in this MD simulation. Newton’s law defines how those forces will influence the atoms' movements. The interactions among surface atoms were simulated with an Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential function which can represent the characteristics of metallic arrangements very strongly. We implemented NERD forcefield for intramolecular potential energy function. Also, Lennard-Jones potential was employed for nonbonded intermolecular interaction.

Keywords: slip length, molecular dynamics, critical shear rate, Couette flow

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209 Variation of Airfoil Pressure Profile Due to Confined Air Streams: Application in Gas-Oil Separators

Authors: Amir Hossein Haji, Nabeel Al-Rawahi, Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad


An innovative design has been examined for a gas-oil separator based on pressure reduction over an airfoil surface. The primary motivations are to shorten the release trajectory of the bubbles by minimizing the thickness of the oil layer as well as improving uniform pressure reduction zones. Restricted airflow over an airfoil is investigated for its effect on the pressure drop enhancement and the maximum attainable attack angle prior to the stall condition. Aerodynamic separation is delayed based on numerical simulation of Wortmann FX 63137 Airfoil in a confined domain using FLUENT 6.3.26. The proposed set up results in higher pressure drop compared with the free stream case. With the aim of optimum power consumption we have pursued further restriction to an air jet case over the airfoil. Then, a curved strip model is suggested for the air jet which can be applied as an analysis/design tool for the best performance conditions. Pressure reduction is shown to be inversely proportional to the curvature of the upper airfoil profile. This reduction occurs within the tracking zones where the air jet is effectively attached to the airfoil surface. The zero slope condition is suggested to estimate the onset of these zones after which the minimum curvature should be searched. The corresponding zero slope curvature is applied for estimation of the maximum pressure drop which shows satisfactory agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: airfoil, air jet, curved fluid flow, gas-oil separator

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208 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally


This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

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207 Experimental Study of Infill Walls with Joint Reinforcement Subjected to In-Plane Lateral Load

Authors: J. Martin Leal-Graciano, Juan J. Pérez-Gavilán, A. Reyes-Salazar, J. H. Castorena, J. L. Rivera-Salas


The experimental results about the global behavior of twelve 1:2 scaled reinforced concrete frames subject to in-plane lateral load are presented. The main objective was to generate experimental evidence about the use of steel bars within mortar bed joints as shear reinforcement in infill walls. Similar to the Canadian and New Zealand standards, the Mexican code includes specifications for this type of reinforcement. However, these specifications were obtained through experimental studies of load-bearing walls, mainly confined walls. Little information is found in the existing literature about the effects of joint reinforcement on the seismic behavior of infill masonry walls. Consequently, the Mexican code establishes the same equations to estimate the contribution of joint reinforcement for both confined walls and infill walls. Confined masonry construction and a reinforced concrete frame infilled with masonry walls have similar appearances. However, substantial differences exist between these two construction systems, which are mainly related to the sequence of construction and to how these structures support vertical and lateral loads. To achieve the objective established, ten reinforced concrete frames with masonry infill walls were built and tested in pairs, having both specimens in the pair identical characteristics except that one of them included joint reinforcement. The variables between pairs were the type of units, the size of the columns of the frame, and the aspect ratio of the wall. All cases included tie columns and tie beams on the perimeter of the wall to anchor the joint reinforcement. Also, two bare frames with identical characteristics to the infilled frames were tested. The purpose was to investigate the effects of the infill wall on the behavior of the system to in-plane lateral load. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the prediction of the Mexican code. All the specimens were tested in a cantilever under reversible cyclic lateral load. To simulate gravity load, constant vertical load was applied on the top of the columns. The results indicate that the contribution of the joint reinforcement to lateral strength depends on the size of the columns of the frame. Larger size columns produce a failure mode that is predominantly a sliding mode. Sliding inhibits the production of new inclined cracks, which are necessary to activate (deform) the joint reinforcement. Regarding the effects of joint reinforcement in the performance of confined masonry walls, many facts were confirmed for infill walls. This type of reinforcement increases the lateral strength of the wall, produces a more distributed cracking, and reduces the width of the cracks. Moreover, it reduces the ductility demand of the system at maximum strength. The prediction of the lateral strength provided by the Mexican code is a property in some cases; however, the effect of the size of the columns on the contribution of joint reinforcement needs to be better understood.

Keywords: experimental study, infill wall, infilled frame, masonry wall

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206 Calibration of the Discrete Element Method Using a Large Shear Box

Authors: C. J. Coetzee, E. Horn


One of the main challenges in using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is to specify the correct input parameter values. In general, the models are sensitive to the input parameter values and accurate results can only be achieved if the correct values are specified. For the linear contact model, micro-parameters such as the particle density, stiffness, coefficient of friction, as well as the particle size and shape distributions are required. There is a need for a procedure to accurately calibrate these parameters before any attempt can be made to accurately model a complete bulk materials handling system. Since DEM is often used to model applications in the mining and quarrying industries, a calibration procedure was developed for materials that consist of relatively large (up to 40 mm in size) particles. A coarse crushed aggregate was used as the test material. Using a specially designed large shear box with a diameter of 590 mm, the confined Young’s modulus (bulk stiffness) and internal friction angle of the material were measured by means of the confined compression test and the direct shear test respectively. DEM models of the experimental setup were developed and the input parameter values were varied iteratively until a close correlation between the experimental and numerical results was achieved. The calibration process was validated by modelling the pull-out of an anchor from a bed of material. The model results compared well with experimental measurement.

Keywords: Discrete Element Method (DEM), calibration, shear box, anchor pull-out

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205 RNA Antisense Coat Protein Showing Promising Effects against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease in Pakistani Cotton

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar


Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) is from Gemini virus and is transmitted through whiteflies in cotton. Transgenic cotton containing Antisense Coat Protein (ACP) has been found to show better results against CLCuD in cotton. In current research, Antisense Coat Protein was inserted in cotton plants to observe resistance developed in the cotton plants against CLCuD. T1 generation of plants were observed for its expression in plants. Tests were carried out to observe the expression of Antisense Coat Protein using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and by southern blotting. Whiteflies showing positive Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) were reared and released in bioassay on ACP expressing cotton plants under laboratory as well as confined semi-field conditions. Results confirmed the expression of AC protein in PCR and southern blotting. Further laboratory results showed that cotton plants expressing AC protein showed rare incidence of CLCuD infection as compared to control. In the confined semi-field, similar results were observed in AC protein expressing cotton as compared to control. These results explicitly show that ACP can help to tackle the CLCuD issue in the future and further studies on biochemical processes involved in these plants and effects of ACP induction on non-target organisms should also be studied for eco-system.

Keywords: cotton, white flies, antisense coat protein, CLCV

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204 Aqueous Hydrogen Sulphide in Slit-Shaped Silica Nano-Pores: Confinement Effects on Solubility, Structural and Dynamical Properties

Authors: Sakiru Badmos, David R. Cole, Alberto Striolo


It is known that confinement in nm-size pores affects many structural and transport properties of water and co-existing volatile species. Of particular interest for fluids in sub-surface systems, in catalysis, and in separations are reports that confinement can enhance the solubility of gases in water. Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed for aqueous H₂S confined in slit-shaped silica pores at 313K. The effect of pore width on the H₂S solubility in water was investigated. Other properties of interest include the molecular distribution of the various fluid molecules within the pores, the hydration structure for solvated H₂S molecules, and the dynamical properties of the confined fluids. The simulation results demonstrate that confinement reduces the H₂S solubility in water and that the solubility increases with pore size. Analysis of spatial distribution functions suggests that these results are due to perturbations on the coordination of water molecules around H₂S due to confinement. Confinement is found to dampen the dynamical properties of aqueous H₂S as well. Comparing the results obtained for aqueous H₂S to those reported elsewhere for aqueous CH₄, it can be concluded that H₂S permeates hydrated slit-shaped silica nano-pores faster than CH₄. In addition to contributing to better understanding the behavior of fluids in subsurface formations, these observations could also have important implications for developing new natural gas sweetening technologies.

Keywords: confinement, interfacial properties, molecular dynamic simulation, sub-surface formations

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