Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Julian Fesel

30 A Rhetorical Approach to Julian the Emperor: A Consolation upon the Departure of the Excellent Sallust

Authors: Georgios Alexandropoulos

Abstract:

This study examines the rhetorical practice of "The consolation to himself upon the departure of the excellent Sallust" written by Flavius Claudius Julian the emperor. Its purpose is to describe the way that Julian uses the language as to have favorable effects on public through certain communicative and rhetorical functions.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Byzantine rhetoric

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29 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser

Abstract:

Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: Anions, antiprotons, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

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28 Evaluating the Logistic Performance Capability of Regeneration Processes

Authors: Jonas Mayer, Peter Nyhuis, Julian Becker, Thorben Kuprat

Abstract:

For years now, it has been recognized that logistic performance capability contributes enormously to a production enterprise’s competitiveness and as such is a critical control lever. In doing so, the orientation on customer wishes (e.g. delivery dates) represents a key parameter not only in the value-adding production but also in product regeneration. Since production and regeneration processes have different characteristics, production planning and control measures cannot be directly transferred to regeneration processes. As part of a special research project, the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics Hannover is focused on increasing the logistic performance capability of regeneration processes for complex capital goods. The aim is to ensure logistic targets are met by implementing a model specifically designed to align the capacities and load in regeneration processes.

Keywords: capacity planning, logistic performance, complex capital goods, regeneration process

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27 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

Thailand facing the transportation issue because of the rapid economic development. The big issue is the traffic jam, especially in Bangkok. However, recently years Bangkok has operated urban mass transit system for solved transportation problem. The Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) skytrain is being operated by the BTS Company Limited under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The passenger satisfaction is a major cause for concern due to the commercial nature. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the passenger satisfaction at the mass transit node by questionnaires survey. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes. The result shows several important factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and the passenger’s opinion.

Keywords: Urban Transportation, Accessibility, user satisfaction, Bangkok mass transit

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26 The Impact of Road Development on the Emergence of the Commercial Area

Authors: Ida Bagus Ilham Malik, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

The road construction will affect the development of the region along the new road. With this principle, the government developed Antasari Street in order to become one of the main economic corridors for the city of Bandar Lampung. Since its construction in 1997, Antasari Street developed into one of the main economic corridors that greatly affect the economic condition of the city, in addition to other economic corridors such as Pagar Alam Street and Teuku Umar Street. The data shows that the construction of roads affects economic development in the corridor that with the advent of commercial buildings in large quantities. Among them are shops, office, restaurants, and a car showroom. This study proves that the road construction could accelerate the economic progress of the road corridor, especially in the construction and development of urban roads.

Keywords: road development, commercial area, Antasari street, Bandar Lampung

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25 The Expression of the Social Experience in Film Narration: Cinematic ‘Free Indirect Discourse’ in the Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Krolikiewicz

Authors: Robert Birkholc

Abstract:

One of the basic issues related to the creation of characters in media, such as literature and film, is the representation of the characters' thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. This paper is devoted to the social perspective (or the focalization) expressed in film narration. The aim of the paper is to show how social point of view of the hero –conditioned by his origin and the environment from which he comes– can be created by using non-verbal, purely audiovisual means of expression. The issue will be considered on the example of the little-known polish movie The Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Królikiewicz, based on the novel by Julian Kawalec. The thesis of the paper is that the polish director uses a narrative figure, which is somewhat analogous to literary form of free indirect discourse. In literature, free indirect discourse is formally ‘spoken’ by the external narrator, but the narration is clearly filtered through the language and thoughts of the character. According to some scholars (such as Roy Pascal), the narrator in this form of speech does not cite the character's words, but uses his way of thinking and imitates his perspective – sometimes with a deep irony. Free indirect discourse is frequently used in Julian Kawalec’s novel. Through the linguistic stylization, the author tries to convey the socially determined perspective of a peasant who migrates to the big city after the Second World War. Grzegorz Królikiewicz expresses the same social experience by pure cinematic form in the adaptation of the book. Both Kawalec and Królikiewicz show the consequences of so-called ‘social advancement’ in Poland after 1945, when the communist party took over political power. On the example of the fate of the main character, Michał Toporny, the director presents the experience of peasants who left their villages and had to adapt to new, urban space. However, the paper is not focused on the historical topic itself, but on the audiovisual form of the movie. Although Królikiewicz doesn’t use frequently POV shots, the narration of The Dancing Hawk is filtered through the sensations of the main character, who feels uprooted and alienated in the new social space. The director captures the hero's feelings through very complex audiovisual procedures – high or low points of view (representing the ‘social position’), grotesque soundtrack, expressionist scenery, and associative editing. In this way, he manages to create the world from the perspective of a socially maladjusted and internally split subject. The Dancing Hawk is a successful attempt to adapt the subjective narration of the book to the ‘language’ of the cinema. Mieke Bal’s notion of focalization helps to describe ‘free indirect discourse’ as a transmedial figure of representing of the characters’ perceptions. However, the polysemiotic medium of the film also significantly transforms this figure of representation. The paper shows both the similarities and differences between literary and cinematic ‘free indirect discourse.’

Keywords: Film and Literature, free indirect discourse, social experience, subjective narration

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24 Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 Heusler Alloys

Authors: Mst Nazmunnahar, Juan del Val, Alena Vimmrova, Blanca Hernando, Julian González

Abstract:

We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 ribbon Heusler alloys. Experimental results were obtained by differential scanning calorymetry, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. The Ni-Mn-Sn system undergoes a martensitic structural transformation in a wide temperature range. For example, for Ni50Mn39Sn11 the start and finish temperatures of the martensitic and austenite phase transformation for ribbon alloy were Ms = 336K , Mf = 328K, As = 335K and Af = 343K whereas no structural transformation is observed for Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloys. Magnetic measurements show the typical ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature 207K at low applied field of 50 Oe. The complex behavior exhibited by these Heusler alloys should be ascribed to the strong coupling between magnetism and structure, being their magnetic behavior determined by the distance between Mn atoms.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Structural Transformation, as-cast ribbon, Heusler alloys

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23 Sustainability and Promotion of Inland Waterway Transportation Projects in Colombia: Case of the Magdalena River

Authors: David Julian Bernal Melgarejo

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Inland Waterway Transportation (IWT) is playing an important role in national transport systems, water transportation is considered to be safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport, considering all the benefits of IWT the Colombian government is planning to restore the Magdalena’s River navigability, embrace waterway transportation in Colombia could strength competitiveness while reduce most of the transport externalities. However, the current situation of the Magdalena deplorable, the most important river of Colombia has been abandoned for decades and the solution is beyond of a single administrative entity. This paper analyzes the outcomes of the Navigation And Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe (NAIADES) program as a prospective to develop a sustainable program in Colombia. In order to guarantee the long-term future, and the adaptability of the program a research based on individual interviews with stakeholders and policy experts were carried out, findings support the idea of lack of integration within governmental institution, develop marketing strategies and human resources.

Keywords: Logistics, Sustainability, Water Transportation, inland waterway transportation, multimodal transport systems

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22 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro

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The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: Adolescent, Qualitative Research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

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21 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

Abstract:

The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: tribe, settlement farm school Aetas, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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20 Aerodynamic Analysis of the Airfoil of a VAWT by Using 2D CFD Modelling

Authors: Luis F. Garcia, Julian E. Jaramillo, Jorge L. Chacón

Abstract:

Colombia is a country where the benefits of wind power industry are barely used because of the geography in some areas does not allow the implementation of onshore horizontal axis wind turbines. Furthermore, exist rural areas without access to the electrical grid. Therefore, there is currently a deficit of energy supply in some towns. This research took place in one of those areas (i.e. Chicamocha Canyon-Santander) where the answer to the energy supply problems could be the use of vertical axis wind turbines, which can be used for turbulent flows. Hence, one task of this research is the analysis of the wind resources in the Chicamocha Canyon in order to implement the wind energy. The wind turbines must be designed in such a way that the blades take good advantage of the wind resources in the area of interest. Consequently, in the current research the analysis of two different airfoils (i.e. NACA0018 and DU 06-W-200) through a 2D CFD simulation is carried out by means of a free-software (OpenFOAM). Predicted results using the “Spalart-Allmaras” turbulence model are similar to the wind tunnel data published in the literature. Moreover, global parameters such as dimensionless lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Finally, this research encourages VAWT studies under wind turbulent flows in order to achieve the best use of natural resources in Colombia.

Keywords: CFD, Wind turbine, Airfoil, Turbulence Modelling, Chicamocha

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19 Study on Conservation and Regeneration of the Industrial Buildings

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

The conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today’s urban development in the world. There are growing numbers of industrial building in which promoting heritage conservation maybe a helpful tool for a sustainable city in social, urban restructuring, environmental and economic component. This paper identifies the key attributes of conservation and regeneration industrial building from the literature, were discussed by reviewing its development at home and abroad. The authors have investigated 93 industrial buildings, which were used as industrial building before and reused into buildings with another function afterward. The data to be discussed below were mainly collected from various publications but also from available internet sources. This study focuses on green transformation, historical culture heritage, transformation techniques, and urban regeneration based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site. Moreover, we focus on social, urban environment and sustainable development. The implications of the study provide suggestions for future improvements in the conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building, and inspire new ways of use, so the building becomes flexible and can consequently be adaptable to changes in order to survive time. Therefore, the building does not take into account only its future impact in the environment and society. Instead, it focuses on its entire life cycle.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Regeneration, Heritage Conservation, industrial building, green transformation

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18 Vehicle Risk Evaluation in Low Speed Accidents: Consequences for Relevant Test Scenarios

Authors: Philip Feig, Klaus Gschwendtner, Julian Schatz, Frank Diermeyer

Abstract:

Projects of accident research analysis are mostly focused on accidents involving personal damage. Property damage only has a high frequency of occurrence combined with high economic impact. This paper describes main influencing parameters for the extent of damage and presents a repair cost model. For a prospective evaluation method of the monetary effect of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), it is necessary to be aware of and quantify all influencing parameters. Furthermore, this method allows the evaluation of vehicle concepts in combination with an ADAS at an early point in time of the product development process. In combination with a property damage database and the introduced repair cost model relevant test scenarios for specific vehicle configurations and their individual property damage risk may be determined. Currently, equipment rates of ADAS are low and a purchase incentive for customers would be beneficial. The next ADAS generation will prevent property damage to a large extent or at least reduce damage severity. Both effects may be a purchasing incentive for the customer and furthermore contribute to increased traffic safety.

Keywords: Accident research, Effectiveness, accident scenarios, ADAS, property damage analysis

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17 Survey of Methods for Solutions of Spatial Covariance Structures and Their Limitations

Authors: Joseph Thomas Eghwerido, Julian I. Mbegbu

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In modelling environment processes, we apply multidisciplinary knowledge to explain, explore and predict the Earth's response to natural human-induced environmental changes. Thus, the analysis of spatial-time ecological and environmental studies, the spatial parameters of interest are always heterogeneous. This often negates the assumption of stationarity. Hence, the dispersion of the transportation of atmospheric pollutants, landscape or topographic effect, weather patterns depends on a good estimate of spatial covariance. The generalized linear mixed model, although linear in the expected value parameters, its likelihood varies nonlinearly as a function of the covariance parameters. As a consequence, computing estimates for a linear mixed model requires the iterative solution of a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. In other to predict the variables at unsampled locations, we need to know the estimate of the present sampled variables. The geostatistical methods for solving this spatial problem assume covariance stationarity (locally defined covariance) and uniform in space; which is not apparently valid because spatial processes often exhibit nonstationary covariance. Hence, they have globally defined covariance. We shall consider different existing methods of solutions of spatial covariance of a space-time processes at unsampled locations. This stationary covariance changes with locations for multiple time set with some asymptotic properties.

Keywords: kernel, parametric, kriging, nonstationary

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16 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis

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This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Flow, moisture content, earth dams

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15 Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources

Authors: Arianne V. Julian, Michael R. Umagat, Renato G. Reyes

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Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.

Keywords: calcium fortification, mushroom production, natural sources, Pleurotus ostreatus

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14 Necro-Power, Paramilitarism, and Sovereignty: An Interpretation of Colombian Paramilitarism as Symptom of the Formation Process of the (Neo)Liberal Democratic State

Authors: Julian David Rios Acuna

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This paper seeks to argue that the phenomenon of ‘paramilitarism’ in Colombia exhibits the role of violence as constitutive of the political process of state formation in the country. In order to do this, it takes as its point of departure a landmark moment in the long history of private armies known as the ‘paramilitary’ in Colombia. In 2001, paramilitary commanders, politicians, and members of the military and other branches of state power singed what is known as the ‘Pact of Ralito.’ In this pact, the paramilitary appropriated constitutional and legal language. The paper argues that this appropriation shows that the paramilitary and the state express the same claim to sovereign power and therefore have the same foundation. More precisely, paramilitary power shows itself to base its power on the same foundation as the legal order, namely, extreme forms of violence where death is generative of power. In this sense, the paper shows how, by sharing its foundation, Colombian paramilitarism exhibits that state power in Colombia can be characterized as necro-power as Achille Mbembe understands it. The paper argues that paramilitarism shows state power as necro-power by constituting itself as a symptom understood, following Zizek, as that which both shows and overthrows its own foundation. In this way, paramilitarism shows the foundation of the state, thereby reconfiguring this very state. This reconfiguration, explicitly based on necro-power, the paper concludes, transforms the state into a form more appropriate to the political demands of neo-liberalism. By exhibiting its foundation in necro-power through paramilitarism, the Colombian State turns from a liberal into a (neo)liberal democracy.

Keywords: State Power, necropolitics, necro-power, paramilitarism in Colombia, state formation, sovereign power

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13 Modeling Battery Degradation for Electric Buses: Assessment of Lifespan Reduction from In-Depot Charging

Authors: Curran Crawford, Anaissia Franca, Julian Fernandez, Ned Djilali

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A methodology to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of battery electric buses, including degradation effects, for a given driving cycle is presented to support long-term techno-economic analysis integrating electric buses and charging infrastructure. The degradation mechanisms, characterized by both capacity and power fade with time, have been modeled using an electrochemical model for Li-ion batteries. Iterative changes in the negative electrode film resistance and decrease in available lithium as a function of utilization is simulated for every cycle. The cycles are formulated to follow typical transit bus driving patterns. The power and capacity decay resulting from the degradation model are introduced as inputs to a longitudinal chassis dynamic analysis that calculates the power consumption of the bus for a given driving cycle to find the state-of-charge of the battery as a function of time. The method is applied to an in-depot charging scenario, for which the bus is charged exclusively at the depot, overnight and to its full capacity. This scenario is run both with and without including degradation effects over time to illustrate the significant impact of degradation mechanisms on bus performance when doing feasibility studies for a fleet of electric buses. The impact of battery degradation on battery lifetime is also assessed. The modeling tool can be further used to optimize component sizing and charging locations for electric bus deployment projects.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Lithium-Ion Battery, battery electric bus, E-bus, in-depot charging, battery degradation, capacity fade, power fade, SEI, electrochemical models

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12 Managing Data from One Hundred Thousand Internet of Things Devices Globally for Mining Insights

Authors: Julian Wise

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Newcrest Mining is one of the world’s top five gold and rare earth mining organizations by production, reserves and market capitalization in the world. This paper elaborates on the data acquisition processes employed by Newcrest in collaboration with Fortune 500 listed organization, Insight Enterprises, to standardize machine learning solutions which process data from over a hundred thousand distributed Internet of Things (IoT) devices located at mine sites globally. Through the utilization of software architecture cloud technologies and edge computing, the technological developments enable for standardized processes of machine learning applications to influence the strategic optimization of mineral processing. Target objectives of the machine learning optimizations include time savings on mineral processing, production efficiencies, risk identification, and increased production throughput. The data acquired and utilized for predictive modelling is processed through edge computing by resources collectively stored within a data lake. Being involved in the digital transformation has necessitated the standardization software architecture to manage the machine learning models submitted by vendors, to ensure effective automation and continuous improvements to the mineral process models. Operating at scale, the system processes hundreds of gigabytes of data per day from distributed mine sites across the globe, for the purposes of increased improved worker safety, and production efficiency through big data applications.

Keywords: Big Data, mineral technology, machine learning operations, data lake

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11 Farmers' Perspective on Soil Health in the Indian Punjab: A Quantitative Analysis of Major Soil Parameters

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh, Julian Park, Dinesh Kumar Benbi

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Although soil health, which is recognized as one of the key determinants of sustainable agricultural development, can be measured by a range of physical, chemical and biological parameters, the widely used parameters include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil health is largely affected by the occurrence of natural events or human activities and can be improved by various land management practices. A database of 120 soil samples collected from farmers’ fields spread across three major agro-climatic zones of Punjab suggested that the average pH, EC, OC, P and K was 8.2 (SD = 0.75, Min = 5.5, Max = 9.1), 0.27 dS/m (SD = 0.17, Min = 0.072 dS/m, Max = 1.22 dS/m), 0.49% (SD = 0.20, Min = 0.06%, Max = 1.2%), 19 mg/kg soil (SD = 22.07, Min = 3 mg/kg soil, Max = 207 mg/kg soil) and 171 mg/kg soil (SD = 47.57, Min = 54 mg/kg soil, Max = 288 mg/kg soil), respectively. Region-wise, pH, EC and K were the highest in south-western district of Ferozpur whereas farmers in north-eastern district of Gurdaspur had the best soils in terms of OC and P. The soils in the central district of Barnala had lower OC, P and K than the respective overall averages while its soils were normal but skewed towards alkalinity. Besides agro-climatic conditions, the size of landholding and farmer education showed a significant association with Soil Fertility Index (SFI), a composite index calculated using the aforementioned parameters’ normalized weightage. All the four stakeholder groups cited the current cropping patterns, burning of rice crop residue, and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers for change in soil health. However, the current state of soil health in Punjab is unclear, which needs further investigation based on temporal data collected from the same field to see the short and long-term impacts of various crop combinations and varied cropping intensity levels on soil health.

Keywords: Sustainability, Soil health, punjab agriculture, soil fertility index

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10 Comparison of Cervical Length Using Transvaginal Ultrasonography and Bishop Score to Predict Succesful Induction

Authors: Lubena Achmad, Herman Kristanto, Julian Dewantiningrum

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Background: The Bishop score is a standard method used to predict the success of induction. This examination tends to be subjective with high inter and intraobserver variability, so it was presumed to have a low predictive value in terms of the outcome of labor induction. Cervical length measurement using transvaginal ultrasound is considered to be more objective to assess the cervical length. Meanwhile, this examination is not a complicated procedure and less invasive than vaginal touché. Objective: To compare transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score in predicting successful induction. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty women with singleton pregnancies undergoing induction of labor at 37 – 42 weeks and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Cervical assessment by both transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score were conducted prior induction. The success of labor induction was defined as an ability to achieve active phase ≤ 12 hours after induction. To figure out the best cut-off point of cervical length and Bishop score, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors best-predicted induction success. Results: This study showed significant differences in terms of age, premature rupture of the membrane, the Bishop score, cervical length and funneling as significant predictors of successful induction. Using ROC curves found that the best cut-off point for prediction of successful induction was 25.45 mm for cervical length and 3 for Bishop score. Logistic regression was performed and showed only premature rupture of membranes and cervical length ≤ 25.45 that significantly predicted the success of labor induction. By excluding premature rupture of the membrane as the indication of induction, cervical length less than 25.3 mm was a better predictor of successful induction. Conclusion: Compared to Bishop score, cervical length using transvaginal ultrasound was a better predictor of successful induction.

Keywords: induction, Bishop Score, cervical length, successful induction, transvaginal sonography

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9 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wood Pellet Breakage during Pneumatic Transport

Authors: Julian Jaegers, Siegmar Wirtz, Viktor Scherer

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Wood pellets belong to the most established trade formats of wood-based fuels. Especially, because of the transportability and the storage properties, but also due to low moisture content, high energy density, and the homogeneous particle size and shape, wood pellets are well suited for power generation in power plants and for the use in automated domestic firing systems. Before they are thermally converted, wood pellets pass various transport and storage procedures. There they undergo different mechanical impacts, which leads to pellet breakage and abrasion and to an increase in fines. The fines lead to operational problems during storage, charging, and discharging of pellets, they can increase the risk of dust explosions and can lead to pollutant emissions during combustion. In the current work, the dependence of the formation of fines caused by breakage during pneumatic transport is analyzed experimentally and numerically. The focus lies on the influence of conveying velocity, pellet loading, pipe diameter, and the shape of pipe components like bends or couplings. A test rig has been built, which allows the experimental evaluation of the pneumatic transport varying the above-mentioned parameters. Two high-speed cameras are installed for the quantitative optical access to the particle-particle and particle-wall contacts. The particle size distribution of the bulk before and after a transport process is measured as well as the amount of fines produced. The experiments will be compared with results of corresponding DEM/CFD simulations to provide information on contact frequencies and forces. The contribution proposed will present experimental results and report on the status of the DEM/CFD simulations. The final goal of the project is to provide a better insight into pellet breakage during pneumatic transport and to develop guidelines ensuring a more gentle transport.

Keywords: DEM/CFD-simulation of pneumatic conveying, mechanical impact on wood pellets during transportation, pellet breakage, pneumatic transport of wood pellets

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8 Music Educators for Peace: Synchronizing Music and Pedagogical Experiences to Re-Build Social Fabric in Colombia's Post-Conflict

Authors: Julian Dario Castro Cifuentes

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In Colombia, the armed conflict has lasted for more than sixty years bringing poverty, internal displacement of people, deaths from both government and insurgent forces and other violence-related problems that has damaged its social fabric. In 2016, the peace process between the Colombian government and the FARC rebels brought the possibility of ending this war and a new set of challenges to Colombian society in order to achieve pacific coexistence and reconciliation. In this scenario, there have been different efforts from diverse social actors in order to build peace and reconciliation mainly within the victims of the armed conflict. In the case of music, there have been multiple programs for social transformation through music and pedagogical experiences. Nevertheless, the need to strengthen this initiative by giving ‘peace building oriented’ pedagogical tools to the musicians that lead this experiences and understanding which aspects make this practices ‘musically meaningful’, has been recognized. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to discuss the convergences and divergences of music, and educational experiences applied to peacebuilding in the context of Colombia’s post-conflict. In this research, the hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm is applied in a case study of a peace building music education experience in the department of Nariño, Colombia articulated with the program ‘Manos a la Paz’. Two particular experiences, one on musical practice and another on music education are taken as a unit of analysis to understand its essence and structure in order to find ways to articulate efforts in peace building actions from music. This study shows how the existent gap between music experience and its subjacent pedagogical knowledge, can be reduced through deconstruction of the music and pedagogical experience. The ‘Manos a la Paz’ program showed how a peace building approach to music education can make major contributions to Pacific Coexistence and Reconciliation in Colombia’s Post-Conflict.

Keywords: Music Education, Music Pedagogy, Peace Building, music for peace, social fabric

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7 Characterization of Lahar Sands for Reclamation Projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines

Authors: Julian Sandoval, Philipp Schober

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Lahar sand (lahars) is a material that originates from volcanic debris flows. During and after a volcano eruption, the lahars can move at speeds up to 22 meters per hour or more, so they can easily cover extensive areas and destroy any structure in their path. Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991) brought lahars to its vicinities, and its use has been a matter of research ever since. Lahars are often disposed of for land reclamation projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines. After reclamation, some deep loss deposits may still present and they are prone to liquefaction. To mitigate the risk of liquefaction of such deposits, Vibro compaction has been proposed and used as a ground improvement technique. Cone penetration testing (CPT) campaigns are usually initiated to monitor the effectiveness of the ground improvement works by vibro compaction. The CPT cone resistance is used to analyses the in-situ relative density of the reclaimed sand before and after compaction. Available correlations between the CPT cone resistance and the relative density are only valid for non-crushable sands. Due to the partially crushable nature of lahars, the CPT data requires to be adjusted to allow for a correct interpretation of the CPT data. The objective of this paper is to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of the lahar sands used for an ongoing project in the Port of Manila, which comprises reclamation activities using lahars from the east of Mount Pinatubo, it investigates their effect in the proposed correction factor. Additionally, numerous CPTs were carried out in a test trial and during the execution of the project. Based on this data, the influence of the grid spacing, compaction steps and the holding time on the compaction results are analyzed. Moreover, the so-called “aging effect” of the lahars is studied by comparing the results of the CPT testing campaign at different times after the vibro compaction activities. A considerable increase in the tip resistance of the CPT was observed over time.

Keywords: Chemical Composition, CPT, vibro compaction, lahar sands, correction factor

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6 Ionic Liquids as Substrates for Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis

Authors: Julian Mehler, Marcus Fischer, Martin Hartmann, Peter S. Schulz

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During the last two decades, the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has gained ever increasing attention. Based on their pore size and shape as well as host-guest interactions, they are of interest for numerous fields related to porous materials, like catalysis and gas separation. Usually, MOF-synthesis takes place in an organic solvent between room temperature and approximately 220 °C, with mixtures of polyfunctional organic linker molecules and metal precursors as substrates. Reaction temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent, i.e. solvothermal reactions, are run in autoclaves or sealed glass vessels under autogenous pressures. A relatively new approach for the synthesis of MOFs is the so-called ionothermal synthesis route. It applies an ionic liquid as a solvent, which can serve as a structure-directing template and/or a charge-compensating agent in the final coordination polymer structure. Furthermore, this method often allows for less harsh reaction conditions than the solvothermal route. Here a variation of the ionothermal approach is reported, where the ionic liquid also serves as an organic linker source. By using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium terephthalates ([EMIM][Hbdc] and [EMIM]₂[bdc]), the one-step synthesis of MIL-53(Al)/Boehemite composites with interesting features is possible. The resulting material is already formed at moderate temperatures (90-130 °C) and is stabilized in the usually unfavored ht-phase. Additionally, in contrast to already published procedures for MIL-53(Al) synthesis, no further activation at high temperatures is mandatory. A full characterization of this novel composite material is provided, including XRD, SS-NMR, El-Al., SEM as well as sorption measurements and its interesting features are compared to MIL-53(Al) samples produced by the classical solvothermal route. Furthermore, the syntheses of the applied ionic liquids and salts is discussed. The influence of the degree of ionicity of the linker source [EMIM]x[H(2-x)bdc] on the crystal structure and the achievable synthesis temperature are investigated and give insight into the role of the IL during synthesis. Aside from the synthesis of MIL-53 from EMIM terephthalates, the use of the phosphonium cation in this approach is discussed as well. Additionally, the employment of ILs in the preparation of other MOFs is presented briefly. This includes the ZIF-4 framework from the respective imidazolate ILs and chiral camphorate based frameworks from their imidazolium precursors.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, MOFs, Material synthesis, ionothermal synthesis, MIL-53

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5 Digital Transformation of Lean Production: Systematic Approach for the Determination of Digitally Pervasive Value Chains

Authors: Peter Burggräf, Hanno Voet, Matthias Dannapfel, Patrick-Benjamin Bök, Jérôme Uelpenich, Julian Hoppe

Abstract:

The increasing digitalization of value chains can help companies to handle rising complexity in their processes and thereby reduce the steadily increasing planning and control effort in order to raise performance limits. Due to technological advances, companies face the challenge of smart value chains for the purpose of improvements in productivity, handling the increasing time and cost pressure and the need of individualized production. Therefore, companies need to ensure quick and flexible decisions to create self-optimizing processes and, consequently, to make their production more efficient. Lean production, as the most commonly used paradigm for complexity reduction, reaches its limits when it comes to variant flexible production and constantly changing market and environmental conditions. To lift performance limits, which are inbuilt in current value chains, new methods and tools must be applied. Digitalization provides the potential to derive these new methods and tools. However, companies lack the experience to harmonize different digital technologies. There is no practicable framework, which instructs the transformation of current value chains into digital pervasive value chains. Current research shows that a connection between lean production and digitalization exists. This link is based on factors such as people, technology and organization. In this paper, the introduced method for the determination of digitally pervasive value chains takes the factors people, technology and organization into account and extends existing approaches by a new dimension. It is the first systematic approach for the digital transformation of lean production and consists of four steps: The first step of ‘target definition’ describes the target situation and defines the depth of the analysis with regards to the inspection area and the level of detail. The second step of ‘analysis of the value chain’ verifies the lean-ability of processes and lies in a special focus on the integration capacity of digital technologies in order to raise the limits of lean production. Furthermore, the ‘digital evaluation process’ ensures the usefulness of digital adaptions regarding their practicability and their integrability into the existing production system. Finally, the method defines actions to be performed based on the evaluation process and in accordance with the target situation. As a result, the validation and optimization of the proposed method in a German company from the electronics industry shows that the digital transformation of current value chains based on lean production achieves a raise of their inbuilt performance limits.

Keywords: Value Chain, Lean Production, Digital transformation, Digitalization, Industrie 4.0

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4 Influence of Glass Plates Different Boundary Conditions on Human Impact Resistance

Authors: Alberto Sanchidrián, José A. Parra, Jesús Alonso, Julián Pecharromán, Antonia Pacios, Consuelo Huerta

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Glass is a commonly used material in building; there is not a unique design solution as plates with a different number of layers and interlayers may be used. In most façades, a security glazing have to be used according to its performance in the impact pendulum. The European Standard EN 12600 establishes an impact test procedure for classification under the point of view of the human security, of flat plates with different thickness, using a pendulum of two tires and 50 kg mass that impacts against the plate from different heights. However, this test does not replicate the actual dimensions and border conditions used in building configurations and so the real stress distribution is not determined with this test. The influence of different boundary conditions, as the ones employed in construction sites, is not well taking into account when testing the behaviour of safety glazing and there is not a detailed procedure and criteria to determinate the glass resistance against human impact. To reproduce the actual boundary conditions on site, when needed, the pendulum test is arranged to be used "in situ", with no account for load control, stiffness, and without a standard procedure. Fracture stress of small and large glass plates fit a Weibull distribution with quite a big dispersion so conservative values are adopted for admissible fracture stress under static loads. In fact, test performed for human impact gives a fracture strength two or three times higher, and many times without a total fracture of the glass plate. Newest standards, as for example DIN 18008-4, states for an admissible fracture stress 2.5 times higher than the ones used for static and wing loads. Now two working areas are open: a) to define a standard for the ‘in situ’ test; b) to prepare a laboratory procedure that allows testing with more real stress distribution. To work on both research lines a laboratory that allows to test medium size specimens with different border conditions, has been developed. A special steel frame allows reproducing the stiffness of the glass support substructure, including a rigid condition used as reference. The dynamic behaviour of the glass plate and its support substructure have been characterized with finite elements models updated with modal tests results. In addition, a new portable impact machine is being used to get enough force and direction control during the impact test. Impact based on 100 J is used. To avoid problems with broken glass plates, the test have been done using an aluminium plate of 1000 mm x 700 mm size and 10 mm thickness supported on four sides; three different substructure stiffness conditions are used. A detailed control of the dynamic stiffness and the behaviour of the plate is done with modal tests. Repeatability of the test and reproducibility of results prove that procedure to control both, stiffness of the plate and the impact level, is necessary.

Keywords: glass plates, human impact test, modal test, plate boundary conditions

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3 Neural Network Based Control Algorithm for Inhabitable Spaces Applying Emotional Domotics

Authors: Sergio A. Navarro Tuch, Martin Rogelio Bustamante Bello, Leopoldo Julian Lechuga Lopez

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In recent years, Mexico’s population has seen a rise of different physiological and mental negative states. Two main consequences of this problematic are deficient work performance and high levels of stress generating and important impact on a person’s physical, mental and emotional health. Several approaches, such as the use of audiovisual stimulus to induce emotions and modify a person’s emotional state, can be applied in an effort to decreases these negative effects. With the use of different non-invasive physiological sensors such as EEG, luminosity and face recognition we gather information of the subject’s current emotional state. In a controlled environment, a subject is shown a series of selected images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in order to induce a specific set of emotions and obtain information from the sensors. The raw data obtained is statistically analyzed in order to filter only the specific groups of information that relate to a subject’s emotions and current values of the physical variables in the controlled environment such as, luminosity, RGB light color, temperature, oxygen level and noise. Finally, a neural network based control algorithm is given the data obtained in order to feedback the system and automate the modification of the environment variables and audiovisual content shown in an effort that these changes can positively alter the subject’s emotional state. During the research, it was found that the light color was directly related to the type of impact generated by the audiovisual content on the subject’s emotional state. Red illumination increased the impact of violent images and green illumination along with relaxing images decreased the subject’s levels of anxiety. Specific differences between men and women were found as to which type of images generated a greater impact in either gender. The population sample was mainly constituted by college students whose data analysis showed a decreased sensibility to violence towards humans. Despite the early stage of the control algorithm, the results obtained from the population sample give us a better insight into the possibilities of emotional domotics and the applications that can be created towards the improvement of performance in people’s lives. The objective of this research is to create a positive impact with the application of technology to everyday activities; nonetheless, an ethical problem arises since this can also be applied to control a person’s emotions and shift their decision making.

Keywords: Data Analysis, Neural Network, performance improvement, emotional domotics

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2 Control of Belts for Classification of Geometric Figures by Artificial Vision

Authors: Juan Sebastian Huertas Piedrahita, Jaime Arturo Lopez Duque, Eduardo Luis Perez Londoño, Julián S. Rodríguez

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The process of generating computer vision is called artificial vision. The artificial vision is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows the obtaining, processing, and analysis of any type of information especially the ones obtained through digital images. Actually the artificial vision is used in manufacturing areas for quality control and production, as these processes can be realized through counting algorithms, positioning, and recognition of objects that can be measured by a single camera (or more). On the other hand, the companies use assembly lines formed by conveyor systems with actuators on them for moving pieces from one location to another in their production. These devices must be previously programmed for their good performance and must have a programmed logic routine. Nowadays the production is the main target of every industry, quality, and the fast elaboration of the different stages and processes in the chain of production of any product or service being offered. The principal base of this project is to program a computer that recognizes geometric figures (circle, square, and triangle) through a camera, each one with a different color and link it with a group of conveyor systems to organize the mentioned figures in cubicles, which differ from one another also by having different colors. This project bases on artificial vision, therefore the methodology needed to develop this project must be strict, this one is detailed below: 1. Methodology: 1.1 The software used in this project is QT Creator which is linked with Open CV libraries. Together, these tools perform to realize the respective program to identify colors and forms directly from the camera to the computer. 1.2 Imagery acquisition: To start using the libraries of Open CV is necessary to acquire images, which can be captured by a computer’s web camera or a different specialized camera. 1.3 The recognition of RGB colors is realized by code, crossing the matrices of the captured images and comparing pixels, identifying the primary colors which are red, green, and blue. 1.4 To detect forms it is necessary to realize the segmentation of the images, so the first step is converting the image from RGB to grayscale, to work with the dark tones of the image, then the image is binarized which means having the figure of the image in a white tone with a black background. Finally, we find the contours of the figure in the image to detect the quantity of edges to identify which figure it is. 1.5 After the color and figure have been identified, the program links with the conveyor systems, which through the actuators will classify the figures in their respective cubicles. Conclusions: The Open CV library is a useful tool for projects in which an interface between a computer and the environment is required since the camera obtains external characteristics and realizes any process. With the program for this project any type of assembly line can be optimized because images from the environment can be obtained and the process would be more accurate.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Images, RGB, artificial vision, binarized, grayscale

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1 Cultural Cognition and Voting: Understanding Values and Perceived Risks in the Colombian Population

Authors: Andrea N. Alarcon, Julian D. Castro, Gloria C. Rojas, Paola A. Vaca, Santiago Ortiz, Gustavo Martinez, Pablo D. Lemoine

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Recently, electoral results across many countries have shown to be inconsistent with rational decision theory, which states that individuals make decisions based on maximizing benefits and reducing risks. An alternative explanation has emerged: Fear and rage-driven vote have been proved to be highly effective for political persuasion and mobilization. This phenomenon has been evident in the 2016 elections in the United States, 2006 elections in Mexico, 1998 elections in Venezuela, and 2004 elections in Bolivia. In Colombia, it has occurred recently in the 2016 plebiscite for peace and 2018 presidential elections. The aim of this study is to explain this phenomenon using cultural cognition theory, referring to the psychological predisposition individuals have to believe that its own and its peer´s behavior is correct and, therefore, beneficial to the entire society. Cultural cognition refers to the tendency of individuals to fit perceived risks, and factual beliefs into group shared values; the Cultural Cognition Worldview Scales (CCWS) measures cultural perceptions through two different dimensions: Individualism-communitarianism and hierarchy-egalitarianism. The former refers to attitudes towards social dominance based on conspicuous and static characteristics (sex, ethnicity or social class), while the latter refers to attitudes towards a social ordering in which it is expected from individuals to guarantee their own wellbeing without society´s or government´s intervention. A probabilistic national sample was obtained from different polls from the consulting and public opinion company Centro Nacional de Consultoría. Sociodemographic data was obtained along with CCWS scores, a subjective measure of left-right ideological placement and vote intention for 2019 Mayor´s elections were also included in the questionnaires. Finally, the question “In your opinion, what is the greatest risk Colombia is facing right now?” was included to identify perceived risk in the population. Preliminary results show that Colombians are highly distributed among hierarchical communitarians and egalitarian individualists (30.9% and 31.7%, respectively), and to a less extent among hierarchical individualists and egalitarian communitarians (19% and 18.4%, respectively). Males tended to be more hierarchical (p < .000) and communitarian (p=.009) than females. ANOVA´s revealed statistically significant differences between groups (quadrants) for the level of schooling, left-right ideological orientation, and stratum (p < .000 for all), and proportion differences revealed statistically significant differences for groups of age (p < .001). Differences and distributions for vote intention and perceived risks are still being processed and results are yet to be analyzed. Results show that Colombians are differentially distributed among quadrants in regard to sociodemographic data and left-right ideological orientation. These preliminary results indicate that this study may shed some light on why Colombians vote the way they do, and future qualitative data will show the fears emerging from the identified values in the CCWS and the relation this has with vote intention.

Keywords: Individualism, Communitarianism, Hierarchy, Cultural Cognition, egalitarianism, perceived risks

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