Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14774

Search results for: concrete compressive strength effect

14774 Effect of Concrete Waste Quality on the Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete

Authors: Kebaili Bachir

Abstract:

The reuse of concrete waste as a secondary aggregate could be an efficient solution for sustainable development and long-term environmental protection. The variable nature of waste concrete, with various compressive strengths, can have a negative effect on the final compressive strength of recycled concrete. Accordingly, an experimental test programme was developed to evaluate the effect of parent concrete qualities on the performance of recycled concrete. Three grades with different compressive strengths 10MPa, 20MPa, and 30MPa were considered in the study; moreover, an unknown compressive strength was introduced as well. The trial mixes used 40% secondary aggregates (both course and fine) and 60% of natural aggregates. The compressive strength of the test concrete decrease between 15 and 25% compared to normal concrete with no secondary aggregates. This work proves that the strength properties of the parent concrete have a limited effect on the compressive strength of recycled concrete. Low compressive strength parent concrete when crushed generate a high percentage of recycled coarse aggregates with the less attached mortar and give the same compressive strength as an excellent parent concrete. However, the decrease in compressive strength can be mitigated by increasing the cement content 4% by weight of recycled aggregates used.

Keywords: compressive, concrete, quality, recycled, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
14773 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan

Abstract:

The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
14772 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva

Abstract:

The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
14771 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash

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14770 Compressive Strength Development of Normal Concrete and Self-Consolidating Concrete Incorporated with GGBS

Authors: M. Nili, S. Tavasoli, A. R. Yazdandoost

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental investigation on the effect of Isfahan Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength development of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and normal concrete (NC) was performed. For this purpose, Portland cement type I was replaced with GGBS in various Portions. For NC and SCC Mixes, 10*10*10 cubic cm specimens were tested in 7, 28 and 91 days. It must be stated that in this research water to cement ratio was 0.44, cement used in cubic meter was 418 Kg/m³ and Superplasticizer (SP) Type III used in SCC based on Poly-Carboxylic acid. The results of experiments have shown that increasing GGBS Percentages in both types of concrete reduce Compressive strength in early ages.

Keywords: compressive strength, GGBS, normal concrete, self-consolidating concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
14769 The Effect of Air Entraining Agents on Compressive Strength

Authors: Demet Yavuz

Abstract:

Freeze-thaw cycles are one of the greatest threats to concrete durability. Lately, protection against this threat excites scientists’ attention. Air-entraining admixtures have been widely used to produce freeze-thaw resistant at concretes. The use of air-entraining agents (AEAs) enhances not only freeze-thaw endurance but also the properties of fresh concrete such as segregation, bleeding and flow ability. This paper examines the effects of air-entraining on compressive strength of concrete. Air-entraining is used between 0.05% and 0.4% by weight of cement. One control and four fiber reinforced concrete mixes are prepared and three specimens are tested for each mix. It is concluded from the test results that when air entraining is increased the compressive strength of concrete reduces for all mixes with AEAs.

Keywords: concrete, air-entraining, compressive strength, mechanical properties

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14768 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

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14767 Influence of Locally Made Effective Microorganisms on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Nura Isa, Magaji Muhammad Garba, Dauda Dahiru Danwata

Abstract:

A lot of research was carried out to improve the technology of concrete, some of which include the introduction of new admixture in concrete production such as effective microorganisms. Researches carried out in Japan and Malaysia indicated that the Effective Microorganisms improve the strength and durability of concrete. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess the effect of the locally made effective microorganisms on the compressive strength of concrete in Nigeria. The effective microorganisms were produced locally. The locally made effective microorganism was added in 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% to replace the mixing water required. The results of the tests indicated that the concrete specimens with 3% content of locally made EM-A possessed the highest compressive strength, this proved the 3% to be the optimum dosage of locally made EM-A in the concrete.

Keywords: locally made effective microorganisms, compressive strength, admixture, fruits and vegetable wastes

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14766 Effect of Pulverised Burnt Clay Waste Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Emmanuel Onaivi Ajayi, Adewumi John Babafemi

Abstract:

The use of supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement for cement is steadily increasing in the construction industry. Concrete produced with these materials has shown significant improvement in durability compared to conventional concrete. However, blended cement concretes produced using these supplementary materials typically gain compressive strength at later ages beyond the 28-day, and this does not favour its use when early age strength is required. Improving the fineness of the supplementary materials could be a way to improving the strength performance of its blended cement concrete. In this paper, the effect of pulverised burnt clay waste fineness on the compressive strength of concrete has been investigated. Two different fineness of pulverised burnt clay waste classified as coarse and fine portions were obtained by sieving the original pulverised burnt clay waste portion through sieve sizes No. 100 (150 µm) and No. 200 (75 µm), respectively. Pulverised burnt clay waste dosages of 0% (control), 10% and 20% by weight of binder were used in producing the concrete mixtures. It is found that the compressive strength of the concrete depends on the fineness and proportion of pulverised burnt clay waste. The result shows improvement in compressive strength at all curing ages with the fine portion pulverised burnt clay waste having the highest strength and improved early age compressive strength.

Keywords: pulverized burnt clay waste, supplementary cementitious materials, compressive strength, pozzolans, fineness

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
14765 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali

Abstract:

This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
14764 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta

Abstract:

Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

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14763 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fiber content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: Matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; Fiber volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76%, and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fiber content added; Whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fiber content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers

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14762 Influence of Metakaolin and Cements Types on Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Farhad Estakhr, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Faramaz Moodi

Abstract:

The self-consolidating concrete (SCC) performance over ordinary concrete is generally related to the ingredients used. The metakaolin can modify various properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also makes a denser microstructure. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of three types of Portland cement and metakaolin on compressive strength and transport properties of SCC at early ages and up to 90 days. Six concrete mixtures were prepared with three types of different cements and substitution of 15% metakaolin. The results show that the highest value of compressive strength was achieved for Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and without any metakaolin at age of 90 days. Conversely, the lowest level of compressive strength at all ages of conservation was obtained for Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC) and containing 15% metakaolin. As can be seen in the results, compressive strength in SCC containing Portland cement type II with metakaolin is higher compared to that relative to SCC without metakaolin from 28 days of age. On the other hand, the samples containing PSC and PPC with metakaolin had a lower compressive strength than the plain samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that metakaolin has a negative effect on the compressive strength of SCC containing PSC and PPC. In addition, results show that metakaolin has enhanced chloride durability of SCCs and reduced capillary water absorption at 28, 90 days.

Keywords: SCC, metakaolin, cement type, compressive strength, chloride diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
14761 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-Kareim Shoeib

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (40*40*160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11 %, 0.22 %, and 0.33 % by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0 %, 2.0 %, and 3.0 % by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0 %, 0.11 %, and 0.22 % by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0 %, 1.0%, and 2.0 % by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fiber is more effective when used with cement mortar than that of used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fiber. And also by adding nano-fiber the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibres, nano-silica (nS) fibres, compressive strength, flexural strength

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14760 Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Shima Pilehvar, Vinh Duy Cao, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen

Abstract:

Micro encapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) may be utilized to increase the energy efficiency of buildings by the addition of MPCM to concrete structures. However, addition of MPCM to Portland cement concrete is known to reduce the compressive strength of the concrete. Accordingly, it is interesting to also examine the effect of adding MPCM to geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binder is synthesized by mixing aluminosilicate materials in amorphous form with a strong alkali activator, and have a much lower CO2 footprint than Portland cement concrete. In this study, the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with different types and contents of MPCM were investigated at different curing temperatures. The aim was to find the optimum amount of MPCM which still maintain the workability and compressive strength at an acceptable level. The results revealed that both workability and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete decrease after adding MPCM. Also, the percentage of strength reduction can be variable by different types of MPCM.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, geopolymer, micro-encapsulated PCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
14759 Influence of Bio-Based Admixture on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Columns

Authors: K. Raza, S. Gul, M. Ali

Abstract:

Concrete is a fundamental building material, extensively utilized by the construction industry. Problems related to the strength of concrete is an immense issue for the sustainability of concrete structures. Concrete mostly loses its strength due to the cracks produced in it by shrinkage or hydration process. This study aims to enhance the strength and service life of the concrete structures by incorporating bio-based admixture in the concrete. By the injection of bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete, it will self-heal the cracks by producing calcium carbonate. Minimization of cracks will compact the microstructure of the concrete, due to which strength will increase. For this study, Bacillus subtilis will be used as a bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete. Calcium lactate up to 1.5% will be used as the food source for the Bacillus subtilis in concrete. Two formulations containing 0 and 5% of Bacillus subtilis by weight of cement, will be used for the casting of concrete specimens. Direct mixing method will be adopted for the usage of bio-based admixture in concrete. Compressive strength test will be carried out after 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) will be performed for the examination of micro-structure of concrete. Results will be drawn by comparing the test results of 0 and 5% the formulations. It will be recommended to use to bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete for columns because of the satisfactory increase in the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: bio-based admixture, Bacillus subtilis, calcium lactate, compressive strength

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14758 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength

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14757 Effect of Shape and Size of Concrete Specimen and Strength of Concrete Mixture in the Absence and Presence of Fiber

Authors: Sultan Husein Bayqra, Ali Mardani Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Hassane Amidou Ouedraogo

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of shape and size of the concrete specimen on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixtures in the absence and presence of steel fiber was investigated. For this aim, ten different concrete mixtures having w/c ratio of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 with and without fiber were prepared. In the mixtures containing steel fibers having aspect ratio (L/D) of 64 were used by 1% of the total mixture volume. In all concrete mixtures, CEM I 42,5R type Portland cement and crushed Lime-stone aggregates having different aggregate size fractions were used. The combined aggregate was obtained by mixing %40 0-5 mm, %30 5-12 mm and %30 12-22 mm aggregate size fraction. The slump values of concrete mixtures were kept constant as 17 ± 2 cm. To provide the desired slump value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used. In order to investigate the effect of size and shape of concrete specimen on strength properties 10 cm, 15 cm cubic specimens and 10×20 cm, 15×30 cm cylindrical specimens were prepared for each mixture. The specimens were cured under standard conditions until testing days. The 7- and 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of mixtures were determined. The results obtained from the experimental study showed that the strength ratio between the cylinder and the cube specimens increased with the increase of the strength of the concrete. Regardless of the fiber utilization and specimen shape, strength values of concrete mixtures were increased by decreasing specimen size. However, the mentioned behaviour was not observed for the case that the mixtures having high W/C ratio and containing fiber. The compressive strength of cube specimens containing fiber was less affected by the size of the specimen compared to that of cube specimens containing no fibers.

Keywords: compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, fiber reinforced concrete, size effect, shape effect

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14756 Study on Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Fly Ash Concrete after Slump Recovery Using Superplasticizer

Authors: Chaiyakrit Raoupatham, Ram Hari Dhakal, Chalermchai Wanichlamlert

Abstract:

Fresh concrete that is on bound to be rejected due to belated use either from delay construction process or unflavored traffic cause delay on concrete delivering can recover the slump and use once again by introduce second dose of superplasticizer(naphthalene based type F) into system. By adding superplasticizer as solution for recover unusable slump loss concrete may affects other concrete properties. Therefore, this paper was observed setting time and compressive strength of concrete after being re-dose with chemical admixture type F (superplasticizer, naphthalene based) for slump recovery. The concrete used in this study was fly ash concrete with fly ash replacement of 0%, 30% and 50% respectively. Concrete mix designed for test specimen was prepared with paste content (ratio of volume of cement to volume of void in the aggregate) of 1.2 and 1.3, water-to-binder ratio (w/b) range of 0.3 to 0.58, initial dose of superplasticizer (SP) range from 0.5 to 1.6%. The setting time of concrete were tested both before and after re-dosed with different amount of second dose and time of dosing. The research was concluded that addition of second dose of superplasticizer would increase both initial and final setting times accordingly to dosage of addition. As for fly ash concrete, the prolongation effect was higher as the replacement of fly ash is increase. The prolongation effect can reach up to maximum about 4 hours. In case of compressive strength, the re-dosed concrete has strength fluctuation within acceptable range of ±10%.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash concrete, second dose of superplasticizer, setting times

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14755 Experimental Study on Recycled Aggregate Pervious Concrete

Authors: Ji Wenzhan, Zhang Tao, Li Guoyou

Abstract:

Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. At the same time, the world produces a large amount of construction waste each year. Waste concrete is processed and treated, and the recycled aggregate is used to make pervious concrete, which enables the construction waste to be recycled. Pervious concrete has many advantages such as permeability to water, protection of water resources, and so on. This paper tests the recycled aggregate obtained by crushing high-strength waste concrete (TOU) and low-strength waste concrete (PU), and analyzes the effect of porosity, amount of cement, mineral admixture and recycled aggregate on the strength of permeable concrete. The porosity is inversely proportional to the strength, and the amount of cement used is proportional to the strength. The mineral admixture can effectively improve the workability of the mixture. The quality of recycled aggregates had a significant effect on strength. Compared with concrete using "PU" aggregates, the strength of 7d and 28d concrete using "TOU" aggregates increased by 69.0% and 73.3%, respectively. Therefore, the quality of recycled aggregates should be strictly controlled during production, and the mix ratio should be designed according to different use environments and usage requirements. This test prepared a recycled aggregate permeable concrete with a compressive strength of 35.8 MPa, which can be used for light load roads and provides a reference for engineering applications.

Keywords: recycled aggregate, permeable concrete, compressive strength, permeability

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14754 Improvement of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Concrete Using Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad, Mohammed Awwad

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the essential elements that used in different types of construction these days, but it has many problems when interacts with environmental elements such as water, air, temperature, dust, and humidity. Also concrete made with Portland cement has certain characteristics: it is relatively strong in compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. These disadvantages make concrete limited to use in certain conditions. The most common problems appears on concrete are manifested by tearing, cracking, corrosion and spalling, which will lead to do some defect in concrete then in the whole construction, The fundamental objective of this research was to provide information about the hardened properties of concrete achieved by using easily available local raw materials in Jordan to support the practical work with partners in assessing the practicability of the mixes with polypropylene, and to facilitate the introduction of polypropylene fiber concrete (PFC) technology into general construction practice. Investigate the effect of the polypropylene fibers in PCC mixtures and on materials properties such as compressive strength, and tensile strength. Also to investigate the use of polypropylene fibers in plain cubes and cylindrical concrete to improve its compressive and tensile strengths to reduce early cracking and inhibit later crack growth. Increasing the hardness of concrete in this research is the main purpose to measure the deference of compressive strength and tensile strength between plain concrete and concrete mixture with polypropylene fibers different additions and to investigate its effect on reducing the early and later cracking problem. To achieve the goals of research 225 concrete test sample were prepared to measure it’s compressive strength and tensile strength, the concrete test sample were three classes (A,B,C), sub-classified to standard , and polypropylene fibers added by the volume of concrete (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The investigation of polypropylene fibers mixture with concrete shows that the strengths of the cement are increased and the cracking decreased. The results show that for class A the recommended addition were 5% of polypropylene fibers additions for compressive strength and 10 % for tensile strength revels the best compressive strength that reach 26.67 Mpa and tensile strength that reach 2.548 Mpa records. Achieved results show that for classes B and C the recommend additions were 10 % polypropylene fibers revels the best compressive strength records where they reach 21.11 and 33.78 Mpa, records reach for tensile strength 2.707 and 2.65 Mpa respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene, effects, compressive, tensile, strengths, concrete, construction

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14753 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade

Abstract:

Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

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14752 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène

Abstract:

The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

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14751 Pullout Strength of Textile Reinforcement in Concrete by Embedded Length and Concrete Strength

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jungbhin You, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

The deterioration of the reinforced concrete is continuously accelerated due to aging of the reinforced concrete, enlargement of the structure, increase if the self-weight due to the manhattanization and cracking due to external force. Also, due to the abnormal climate phenomenon, cracking of reinforced concrete structures is accelerated. Therefore, research on the Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) which replaced reinforcement with textile is under study. However, in previous studies, adhesion performance to single yarn was examined without parameters, which does not reflect the effect of fiber twisting and concrete strength. In the present paper, the effect of concrete strength and embedded length on 2400tex (gram per 1000 meters) and 640tex textile were investigated. The result confirm that the increasing compressive strength of the concrete did not affect the pullout strength. However, as the embedded length increased, the pullout strength tended to increase gradually, especially at 2400tex with more twists.

Keywords: textile, TRC, pullout, strength, embedded length, concrete

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14750 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

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14749 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
14748 Correlation between Initial Absorption of the Cover Concrete, the Compressive Strength and Carbonation Depth

Authors: Bouzidi Yassine

Abstract:

This experimental work was aimed to characterize the porosity of the concrete cover zone using the capillary absorption test, and establish the links between open porosity characterized by the initial absorption, the compressive strength and carbonation depth. Eight formulations of workability similar made from ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5) and a compound cement (CEM II/B 42.5) four of each type are studied. The results allow us to highlight the effect of the cement type. Indeed, concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5 carbonatent approximately faster than concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5. This effect is attributed in part to the lower content of portlandite Ca(OH)2 of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5, but also the impact of the cement type on the open porosity of the cover concrete. The open porosity of concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5 is lower than that of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5. The carbonation depth is a decreasing function of the compressive strength at 28 days and increases with the initial absorption. Through the results obtained, correlations between the quantity of water absorbed in 1 h, the carbonation depth at 180 days and the compressive strength at 28 days were performed in an acceptable manner.

Keywords: initial absorption, cover concrete, compressive strength, carbonation depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
14747 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan

Abstract:

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
14746 Effects of Rice Husk Ash on the Properties of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (RHA-STSFRHAC)

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe-Ngu Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (STSFRHPC). RHA was obtained by control burning of rice husk in a kiln to a temperature of 650-700oC and when cooled sieved through 75µm sieve and characterized. The effect of RHA were investigated on grade 50 STSFRHPC of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber (STSF) of 1.5% by volume of concrete and partial replacement of cement with RHA at percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. Results of RHA-STSFRHPC indicated a reduction in slump and compressive strength with increase in RHA content, while splitting tensile strength increased with RHA replacement up to 10% and reduction in strength above 10% RHA content. The 28 days compressive strength of RHA-STSFRHPC with up to 10% RHA attained the desired characteristic strength of 50N/mm2 and therefore up to 10% RHA is considered as the optimum replacement dosage in STSFRHPC-RHA.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, rice husk ash, scrap tyre steel fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
14745 Influence of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber on Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe Ngu-Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the use of Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) for the production of fiber reinforced high performance concrete. The Scrap Tyre Steel Fibers (STSF) were obtained from dealers that extracted the fibers by burning the scrap tyres and were characterized. The effect of STSF was investigated on grade 50 concrete of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of STSF of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% by volume of concrete. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths, respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. The results indicate that slump decreased with increase in STSF, while compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased with increase in STSF up to 1.5% and reduction in strength with increase in STSF above 1.5%. 1.5% STSF was considered as the optimum dosage with a 28 days increase in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of 12.3% and 43.8% respectively, of control.

Keywords: compressive strength, high performance concrete, scrap tyre steel fiber, splitting tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 127