Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 862

Search results for: River Nile

862 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas


In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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861 Reconstruction Paleogeomorphological Map of the Nile River in Upper Egypt by Using Some Geomorphological and Geoarchaeological Indicators

Authors: Magdy Torab


Ancient Egyptians built their temples purposefully close to the River Nile to use it for transporting construction stones from far away quarries to building sites in river-boats. Most temples, therefore, have river-harbors associated with their geometric designs. The paleoriver channel remapped by using this idea, besides other geomorphological and geoarchaeological indicators/evidence located between Aswan and Luxor cities. In this sense, this paper defines the characteristics of this ancient course and its associated landforms using paleochannel morphology, paleomeandering, and ancient river dynamics during historic and prehistoric times. Both geomorphological and geoarchaeological approaches used to reconstruct the paleomorphology of the river course. It helps to investigate the ancient river morphology by using the following techniques: comparison and interpretation of multi dates satellite images and historical maps between 1943 and 2004. The results illustrated on maps using GIS (ARC GIS V.10 software) and the field data collected from the western bank of The Nile River at Luxor area and Karnak, Edfu, Esna and Kom Ombo temples. Created both current and paleogeomorphological maps depending upon the results of geoarchaeological surveying and soil analysis and dating, for surface and subsurface soil sampling by handle auger, laser diffraction analysis for 7 soil samples collected from some mounds and Malkata channel in the western bank of The Nile River near Luxor. Paleo-current directions were determined by using standard Brunton compass to use it as an indicator is evidence for the direction of flow of The Nile River during deposition of some accumulated mounds on the western part of the floodplain near Luxor city. C-14 dating was used for two samples collected from these mounds as well as geographical information system (GIS) technique for mapping. The geomorphological and geoarchaeological evidence shows that the Nile River course in Luxor area was around 4.5 km wide and contained many islands and sandbars which separated inside the river channel, now appearing as scattered mounds inside the floodplain. Upper Egypt has migrated during the historic times to the east up to five kilometers and become far away from the ancient temples, quarries, and harbors. It has also become as well as become more meandering and narrower than before.

Keywords: Nile River, ancient harbours, Luxor, paleogeomorphology, geoarchaeology

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860 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty


In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

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859 Evaluation of Water Quality of the Surface Water of the Damietta Nile Branch, Damietta Governorate, Egypt

Authors: M. S. M. El-Bady


Water quality and heavy metals pollution of the Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta governorate were investigated in the current work. Fourteen different sampling points were selected along the Damietta Nile branch from Ras EL-Bar (sample 1) to Sheremsah (sample 14). Physical and chemical parameters and the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Al, Hg, Pb and Zn were investigated for water quality assessment of Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta Governorate. Most of the samples show that the water is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. All locations of samples near the sea are unsuitable water but the samples in the south direction away from the sea are suitable or good water for drinking and irrigation.

Keywords: water quality indices, Damietta Governorate, Nile river, pollution

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858 Leaching Properties of Phosphate Rocks in the Nile River

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Phosphate Rocks (PR) are natural sediment rocks. These rocks contain several chemical compositions of heavy metals and radioactive elements. Mining and transportation these rocks beside or through the natural water streams may lead to water contamination. When PR is in contact with water in the field, as a consequence of precipitation events, changes in water table or sinking in water streams, elements such as salts and heavy metals, may be released to the water. In this work, the leaching properties of PR in Nile River water was investigated by experimental lab work. The study focused on evaluating potential environmental impacts of some constituents, including phosphors, cadmium, curium and lead of PR on the water quality of Nile by applying tank leaching tests. In these tests the potential impact of changing conditions, such as phosphate content in PR, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and pH value, was studied on the long-term release of heavy metals and salts. Experimental results showed that cadmium and lead were released in very low concentrations but curium and phosphors were in high concentrations. Results showed also that the release rate from PR for all constituents was low even in long periods.

Keywords: leaching tests, Nile river, phosphate rocks, water quality

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857 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm


The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Blue Nile Basin, climate change, hydrological modeling, watershed

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856 Combined Effect of Global Warming and Water Structures on Rivers’ Water Quality and Aquatic Life: Case Study of Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt

Authors: Sherine A. El Baradei


Global warming and climatic change are very important topics that are being studied and investigated nowadays as they have lots of diverse impacts on mankind, water quality, aquatic life, wildlife,…etc. Also, many water and hydraulics structures like dams and barrages are being built every day to satisfy water consumption needs, irrigation purposes and power generating purposes. Each of global warming and water structures alone has diversity of impacts on water quality and aquatic life in rivers. This research is investigating the dual combined effect of both water structures and global warming on the water quality and aquatic life through mathematical modeling. A case study of the Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt is being studied. This research study is taking into account the effects of both seasons; namely, winter and summer and their effects on air and hence water temperature of the Nile reach under study. To do so, the study is conducted on the last 23 years to investigate the effect of global warming and climatic change on the studied river water. The mathematical model is then combining the dual effect of the Esna barrage and the global warming on the water quality; as well as, on aquatic life of the Nile reach under study. From the results of the mathematical model, it could be concluded that the dual effect of water structures and global warming is very negative on the water quality and the aquatic life in rivers upstream those structures.

Keywords: aquatic life, barrages, climatic change, dissolved oxygen, global warming, river, water quality, water structures

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855 Assessment of Water Pollution in the River Nile (Egypt) by Applying Blood Biomarkers in Two Excellent Model Species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Abd-El –Baset M. Abd El Reheem, Khaled Y. Abouelfadl, Usama M. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Moustafa


This study aimed to explore new sites of biomarker research and to establish the use of blood parameters in wild fish populations. Four hundred and twenty fish samples were collected from six sites along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. The mean values of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the blood of Nile tilapia and African catfish collected from downstream (contaminated) compared to upstream sites. In contrast, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood of both fish species significantly increased from upstream to downstream river Nile. The leukocytes count was significantly decreased in contaminated sites compared to upstream area. Hematological variables in the peripheral blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus exhibited significant (p<0.05) correlation with nearly all the detected chemical and physical parameters along the Nile course. In the present study, lower cellular and nuclear areas and cellular and nuclear shape factor were recorded in the erythrocytes of fish collected from downstream compared to those caught from upstream sites. This was confirmed by higher immature ratios of red cells in the blood of fish sampled from downstream river Nile. Karyorrhetic and enucleated erythrocytes were significantly correlated with physiochemical parameters in water samples collected from the same sites is being higher in the blood of fish collected from downstream sites. To see if there was any correlation between fish altered physiological fitness and environmental stress, we measured serum biochemical variables namely; total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, chlorides, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid activity, creatinine, and serum glucose. The level of all the selected biochemical variables in the blood of O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus were recorded to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in downstream sites. According to the present results, nearly all the detected haematological and blood biochemical variables are suitable indicators of contaminant exposure in O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus. Also the detected erythrocytes malformations in blood collected from Nile tilapia and African catfish were proven to be suitable for bio-monitoring aquatic pollution. The results revealed species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to African catfish.

Keywords: biomarkers, water pollution, blood parameters, river nile, african catfish, nile tilapia

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854 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, Xiaokun Li, Jisheng Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Nile tilapia, TLR-3, cloning, gene expression

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853 Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation and Hydropower Potential: A Case of Upper Blue Nile Basin in Western Ethiopia

Authors: Elias Jemal Abdella


The Blue Nile River is an important shared resource of Ethiopia, Sudan and also, because it is the major contributor of water to the main Nile River, Egypt. Despite the potential benefits of regional cooperation and integrated joint basin management, all three countries continue to pursue unilateral plans for development. Besides, there is great uncertainty about the likely impacts of climate change in water availability for existing as well as proposed irrigation and hydropower projects in the Blue Nile Basin. The main objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the upper Blue Nile basin, western Ethiopia. Three models were combined, a dynamic Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) regional climate model (RCM) that is used to determine climate projections for the Upper Blue Nile basin for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios for the period 2021-2050. The outputs generated from multimodel ensemble of four (4) CORDEX-RCMs (i.e., rainfall and temperature) were used as input to a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model which was setup, calibrated and validated with observed climate and hydrological data. The outputs from the SWAT model (i.e., projections in river flow) were used as input to a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) water resources model which was used to determine the water resources implications of the changes in climate. The WEAP model was set-up to simulate three development scenarios. Current Development scenario was the existing water resource development situation, Medium-term Development scenario was planned water resource development that is expected to be commissioned (i.e. before 2025) and Long-term full Development scenario were all planned water resource development likely to be commissioned (i.e. before 2050). The projected change of mean annual temperature for period (2021 – 2050) in most of the basin are warmer than the baseline (1982 -2005) average in the range of 1 to 1.4oC, implying that an increase in evapotranspiration loss. Subbasins which already distressed from drought may endure to face even greater challenges in the future. Projected mean annual precipitation varies from subbasin to subbasin; in the Eastern, North Eastern and South western highland of the basin a likely increase of mean annual precipitation up to 7% whereas in the western lowland part of the basin mean annual precipitation projected to decrease by 3%. The water use simulation indicates that currently irrigation demand in the basin is 1.29 Bm3y-1 for 122,765 ha of irrigation area. By 2025, with new schemes being developed, irrigation demand is estimated to increase to 2.5 Bm3y-1 for 277,779 ha. By 2050, irrigation demand in the basin is estimated to increase to 3.4 Bm3y-1 for 372,779 ha. The hydropower generation simulation indicates that 98 % of hydroelectricity potential could be produced if all planned dams are constructed.

Keywords: Blue Nile River, climate change, hydropower, SWAT, WEAP

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852 River's Bed Level Changing Pattern Due to Sedimentation, Case Study: Gash River, Kassala, Sudan

Authors: Faisal Ali, Hasssan Saad Mohammed Hilmi, Mustafa Mohamed, Shamseddin Musa


The Gash rivers an ephemeral river, it usually flows from July to September, it has a braided pattern with high sediment content, of 15200 ppm in suspension, and 360 kg/sec as bed load. The Gash river bed has an average slope of 1.3 m/Km. The objectives of this study were: assessing the Gash River bed level patterns; quantifying the annual variations in Gash bed level; and recommending a suitable method to reduce the sediment accumulation on the Gash River bed. The study covered temporally the period 1905-2013 using datasets included the Gash river flows, and the cross sections. The results showed that there is an increasing trend in the river bed of 5 cm3 per year. This is resulted in changing the behavior of the flood routing and consequently the flood hazard is tremendously increased in Kassala city.

Keywords: bed level, cross section, gash river, sedimentation

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851 Time Series Modelling and Prediction of River Runoff: Case Study of Karkheh River, Iran

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi, Abdolrasoul Telvari, Hossein Babazadeh


Rainfall and runoff phenomenon is a chaotic and complex outcome of nature which requires sophisticated modelling and simulation methods for explanation and use. Time Series modelling allows runoff data analysis and can be used as forecasting tool. In the paper attempt is made to model river runoff data and predict the future behavioural pattern of river based on annual past observations of annual river runoff. The river runoff analysis and predict are done using ARIMA model. For evaluating the efficiency of prediction to hydrological events such as rainfall, runoff and etc., we use the statistical formulae applicable. The good agreement between predicted and observation river runoff coefficient of determination (R2) display that the ARIMA (4,1,1) is the suitable model for predicting Karkheh River runoff at Iran.

Keywords: time series modelling, ARIMA model, river runoff, Karkheh River, CLS method

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850 Colonization of Embrionic Gonads of Nile Tilapia by Giant Gourami Testicular Germ Cells

Authors: Irma Andriani, Ita Djuwita, Komar Sumantadinata, Alimuddin


The recent study has been conducted to develop testicular germ cell transplantation as a tool for preservation and propagation of male germ-plasm from endangered fish species, as well as to produce surrogate broodstock of commercially valuable fish. Giant gourami testis had been used as a model for donor and Nile tilapia larvae as recipient. We developed testicular cell xenotransplantation by optimizing the timing of intraperitoneal cell transplantation to recipient larvae aged 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post hatching (dph). Freshly isolated testis of giant gourami weighing 600–800 g were minced in dissociation medium and then incubated for 3 hours in room temperature to collect monodisperce cell suspension. Donor cells labeled with PKH 26 were transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of Nile tilapia larvae using glass micropipettes. Parameters observed were survival rate of Nile tilapia larvae at 24 hours post transplantation (pt) and colonization efficiency of donor cells at 2 and 3 months pt. The incorporated donor cells were observed under fluorescent microscope. The result showed that the lowest survival rate at 24 hours pt was 1 dph larvae (82.74±6.76%) and the highest survival rate were 3 and 5 dph larvae (95.00±5.00% and 95.00±2.50%, respectively). The highest colonization efficiency was on 3 dph larvae (61.1±34.71%) and the lowest colonization efficiency was on 7 dph larvae (19.43±17.33%). In conclusion, 3 dph Nile tilapia larvae was the best recipient for giant gourami testicular germ cells xenotransplantation.

Keywords: xenotransplantation, testicular germ cell, giant gourami, Nile tilapia, colonization efficiency

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849 Economic Activities Associated with Extraction of Riverbed Materials in the Tinau River, Nepal

Authors: Khet Raj Dahal, Dhruva Dhital, Chhatra Mani Sharma


A study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in the selected reach of Tinau River, Nepal. The main objective of the study was to quantify employment and income generation from the extraction of construction materials from the river. A 10 km stretch of the river was selected for the study. Sample survey with a semi-structured questionnaire and field observation were the main tools used during field investigation. Extraction of riverbed materials from the banks, beds and floodplain areas of the river has provided many kinds of job opportunities for the people living in the vicinity of the river. It has also generated an adequate amount of revenues. The collected revenue has been invested for many kinds of social and infrastructures development for years. Though extraction of riverbed materials is beneficial for income and employment generation, it has also negative environmental impacts in and around the river. Furthermore, the study concluded that river bed extraction should be continued with special monitoring and evaluation in the areas where there is still room for extraction.

Keywords: extraction, crusher plants, economic activities, Tinau River

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848 Development of Total Maximum Daily Load Using Water Quality Modelling as an Approach for Watershed Management in Malaysia

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. Wan Ishak, H. Kim, M. A. Azman, M. A. Ramli


River is one of important water sources for many activities including industrial and domestic usage such as daily usage, transportation, power supply and recreational activities. However, increasing activities in a river has grown the sources of pollutant enters the water bodies, and degraded the water quality of the river. It becomes a challenge to develop an effective river management to ensure the water sources of the river are well managed and regulated. In Malaysia, several approaches for river management have been implemented such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) program for coordinating the management of resources in a natural environment based on river basin to ensure their sustainability lead by Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID), Malaysia. Nowadays, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is one of the best approaches for river management in Malaysia. TMDL implementation is regulated and implemented in the United States. A study on the development of TMDL in Malacca River has been carried out by doing water quality monitoring, the development of water quality model by using Environmental Fluid Dynamic Codes (EFDC), and TMDL implementation plan. The implementation of TMDL will help the stakeholders and regulators to control and improve the water quality of the river. It is one of the good approaches for river management in Malaysia.

Keywords: EFDC, river management, TMDL, water quality modelling

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847 Judging Restoration Success of Kamisaigo River Japan

Authors: Rita Lopa, Yukihiro Shimatani


The focus of this research is 880m extension development along the Kamisaigo River. The river is flowing tributary of grade 2 rivers Fukutsu City, Fukuoka Prefecture. This river is a small-scale urban river and the river was formerly a straight concrete sea wall construction. The river runs through National Highway No. 3 from the confluence of Saigo River. The study covers the river basin about 326 ha with a catchment area of 20.63 ha and 4,700 m3 capacity regulating pond. The river is not wide, shallow, and has a straight alignment with active (un-vegetated) river channel sinuosity (ratio of river length to valley length) ranging between 1 and 1.3. However, the alignment of the low-flow river channel does have meandering or sinuous characteristics. Flooding is likely to occur. It has become difficult to live in the environment for organisms of the river. Hydrophilic is very low (children cannot play). There is little connection with the local community. Overall, the Kamisaigo River watershed is heavily urbanized and from a morphological, biological and habitat perspective, Kamisaigo River functions marginally not well. For river improvement and maintenance of the Kamisaigo River, the workshop was conducted in the form of planning for the proposed model is presented by the Watershed Management Laboratory. This workshop showed the relationship between citizens, City Government, and University of mutual trust has been established, that have been made landscape, environment, usage, etc.: retaining wall maintenance, hydrophilic zone, landscape zone, nature walks zone: adjacent medical facilities and adjacent to large commercial facilities. Propose of Nature walks zone with point of the design: provide slope that the wheelchair can access and walking paths to enjoy the scenery, and summary of the Kamisaigo River workshop: creating a multi-model study and creation of natural rivers.

Keywords: river restoration, river improvement, natural rivers, Saigo River

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846 Applications of the Morphological Variability in River Management: A Study of West Rapti River

Authors: Partha Sarathi Mondal, Srabani Sanyal


Different geomorphic agents produce a different landforms pattern. Similarly rivers also have a distinct and diverse landforms pattern. And even, within a river course different and distinct assemblage of landforms i.e. morphological variability are seen. These morphological variability are produced by different river processes. Channel and floodplain morphology helps to interpret river processes. Consequently morphological variability can be used as an important tool for assessing river processes, hydrological connectivity and river health, which will help us to draw inference about river processes and therefore, management of river health. The present study is documented on West Rapti river, a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India, from its source to confluence with Ghaghra river in India. The river shows a significant morphological variability throughout its course. The present study tries to find out factors and processes responsible for the morphological variability of the river and in which way it can be applied in river management practices. For this purpose channel and floodplain morphology of West Rapti river was mapped as accurately as possible and then on the basis of process-form interactions, inferences are drawn to understand factors of morphological variability. The study shows that the valley setting of West Rapti river, in the Himalayan region, is confined and somewhere partly confined whereas, channel of the West Rapti river is single thread in most part of Himalayan region and braided in valley region. In the foothill region valley is unconfined and channel is braided, in middle part channel is meandering and valley is unconfined, whereas, channel is anthropogenically altered in the lower part of the course. Due to this the morphology of West Rapti river is highly diverse. These morphological variability are produced by different geomorphic processes. Therefore, for any river management it is essential to sustain these morphological variability so that the river could not cross the geomorphic threshold and environmental flow of the river along with the biodiversity of riparian region is maintained.

Keywords: channel morphology, environmental flow, floodplain morphology, geomorphic threshold

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845 Establishing Econometric Modeling Equations for Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreaks in the Nile Delta of Egypt under Current Climate Conditions

Authors: Abdelgawad, Salah El-Tahawy


This paper aimed to establish econometrical equation models for the Nile delta region in Egypt, which will represent a basement for future predictions of Lumpy skin disease outbreaks and its pathway in relation to climate change. Data of lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks were collected from the cattle farms located in the provinces representing the Nile delta region during 1 January, 2015 to December, 2015. The obtained results indicated that there was a significant association between the degree of the LSD outbreaks and the investigated climate factors (temperature, wind speed, and humidity) and the outbreaks peaked during the months of June, July, and August and gradually decreased to the lowest rate in January, February, and December. The model obtained depicted that the increment of these climate factors were associated with evidently increment on LSD outbreaks on the Nile Delta of Egypt. The model validation process was done by the root mean square error (RMSE) and means bias (MB) which compared the number of LSD outbreaks expected with the number of observed outbreaks and estimated the confidence level of the model. The value of RMSE was 1.38% and MB was 99.50% confirming that this established model described the current association between the LSD outbreaks and the change on climate factors and also can be used as a base for predicting the of LSD outbreaks depending on the climatic change on the future.

Keywords: LSD, climate factors, Nile delta, modeling

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844 Uranium and Thorium Measurements in the Water along Oum Er-Rabia River (Morocco)

Authors: L. Oufni, M. Amrane


In this work, different river water samples have been collected and analyzed from different locations along Oum Er-Rabia River in Morocco. The uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations were investigated in the studied river and dam water samples using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). Mean activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in water were found to be between 12 – 37 Bq m^-3 and 2-10 Bq m^-3, respectively. The pH measured at all river water samples was slightly alkaline and ranged from 7.5 to 8.75. The electrical conductivity ranged from 2790 to 794 µS cm^-1. It was found that uranium and thorium concentrations were correlated with some chemical parameters in Oum Er-Rabia River water. The uranium concentrations found in river water are insignificant from the radiological point of view. The recommended value for uranium in drinking water based on its toxicity given by the Federal Environment Agency. This corresponds to an activity concentration of 238U of 123.5 mBq L^-1. In none of the samples, the uranium activity exceeds this value.

Keywords: uranium, thorium, conductivity, water, SSNTD

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843 Simulation of Flood Inundation in Kedukan River Using HEC-RAS and GIS

Authors: Reini S. Ilmiaty, Muhammad B. Al Amin, Sarino, Muzamil Jariski


Kedukan River is an artificial river which serves as a Watershed Boang drainage channel in Palembang. The river has upstream and downstream connected to Musi River, that often overflowing and flooding caused by the huge runoff discharge and high tide water level of Musi River. This study aimed to analyze the flood water surface profile on Kedukan River continued with flood inundation simulation to determine flooding prone areas in research area. The analysis starts from the peak runoff discharge calculations using rational method followed by water surface profile analysis using HEC-RAS program controlled by manual calculations using standard stages. The analysis followed by running flood inundation simulation using ArcGIS program that has been integrated with HEC-GeoRAS. Flood inundation simulation on Kedukan River creates inundation characteristic maps with depth, area, and circumference of inundation as the parameters. The inundation maps are very useful in providing an overview of flood prone areas in Kedukan River.

Keywords: flood modelling, HEC-GeoRAS, HEC-RAS, inundation map

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842 Heilong-Amur River: From Disputed Border to Brigde of Cooperation

Authors: Wan Wang, Xing Li


With the international river playing an increasingly important role in international relations, the border river between China and Russia has attracted more attention. During the history of Sino-Russian relations, Heilong-Amur River used to be a disputed border. The Sino-Russian transboundary water cooperation regarding the Heilong-Amur River started in 1950s and has obtained rapid improvement. In the 21st century, this cooperation has made substantial progress, which is worthy of a further study. However, this cooperation is facing with obstacles in aspects of economy, policy, implementation and mutual understandings. Under this circumstance, from the perspective of China, it is of necessity to realize these problems and take appropriate measures to promote the cooperation. The current Sino-Russian relations is conducive to transboundary water resources cooperation regarding the Heilong-Amur River and some measures adopted by China are already ongoing.

Keywords: China, cooperation, Heilong-Amur River, Russia

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841 Anthropogenic Impact on Surface and Groundwaters Quality in the Western Part of the River Nile, Elsaff Village, Giza

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Yehia, Ahmed Tawfuk


The study area is located in the southern part of Giza Governorate at both side of the Nile Valley. A combination of major and trace elements have been used to classify surface- and ground-waters in El Kurimat village, Egypt. The main purpose of the project is to investigate the surface-and ground-waters quality and hydrochemical evaluation. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low groundwater management strategies. The Quaternary aquifer consists of sands and gravels of Pleistocene age intercalated with clay lenses and overlain by silty clay aquitard (Holocene). The semi-pervious silty clay aquitard of the Holocene Nile sediments cover the Quaternary aquifer in most areas. The groundwater flows generally from southwest to northeast. To achieve this target, thirty five and seventy three samples were collected from surface– and ground-waters within summer and winter seasons 2009-2010). Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations, anions, NO2, NO3, PO4 , Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, F, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr and V) were determined in water samples. Grain size analysis was achieved to eight soil samples and measured the organic matter percent in different fractions. The TDS concentration is high in Arab El Ein canal by lithogenic and anthropogenic sources. The average concentrations of TDS in the River Nile are 245 (summer) and 254 ppm (winter). NO3 content ranges from 1.7 to 12 mg/l (summer), while in winter it ranges from 0.4 to 2.4. Most of the toxic metal concentrations are below the drinking and irrigation guidelines except Mn, V, Cr, Al, and Fe, which are higher than the guidelines in some canals and drains. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases toward northeastern and northwestern part of the study area (i.e. toward limestone plateau). It is due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer (saline water), wastewater dump and recharge from wadi El Atfihi wastewater. There is a good match between the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry. Total dissolved solid in groundwater increases toward southwestern part, may be due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer and leakage from agricultural waste water of El Mohut drain. Fe, Mn, Cr, Al, PO4 and NO3 concentrations are high due to anthropogenic sources, therefore they are unsuitable for drinking. The average concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn &Zn are higher in winter than those in summer due to winter drought. The organic matter content in soil are increases in the northeastern and southwestern part, with different fractions, sue to agricultural wastewaters. Reused of contaminated surface- and ground-waters samples by mixing with fresh water (By AquaChem) was estimated to increase the income per capita.

Keywords: surface water, groundwater, major ions, toxic metals

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840 Interaction between River and City Morphology

Authors: Ehsan Abshirini


Rivers as one of the most important topographic factors have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper author intends to find out how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. The pilot study is Angers, a city in western France, in which it is influenced by the Maine River. To this purpose space syntax method integrating with GIS is used to extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, accessibility and choice value. Simulating the state of absence of river in this city and comparing the result to the current state of city according to the effect of river on the morphology of areas located in different banks of river is also part of interest in this paper. The results show that although a river is not comparable to the city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of the city in both global and local properties. In addition, this study endorses that tracking the effect of river-cities and their interaction to rivers in a hybrid of space syntax and GIS may lead researchers to improve their interpretation of physical form of these types of cities.

Keywords: river-cities, Physical form, space syntax properties, GIS, topographic factor

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839 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili


This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.

Keywords: antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele River

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838 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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837 Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Change over the Blue Nile Basin

Authors: Hany Mustafa, Mahmoud Roushdi, Khaled Kheireldin


Rainfall variability is an important feature of semi-arid climates. Climate change is very likely to increase the frequency, magnitude, and variability of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms. The Blue Nile Basin is facing extreme climate change-related events such as floods and droughts and its possible impacts on ecosystem, livelihood, agriculture, livestock, and biodiversity are expected. Rainfall variability is a threat to food production in the Blue Nile Basin countries. This study investigates the long-term variations and trends of seasonal and annual precipitation over the Blue Nile Basin for 102-year period (1901-2002). Six statistical trend analysis of precipitation was performed with nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. On the other hands, four statistical absolute homogeneity tests: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Buishand Range test, Pettitt test and the Von Neumann ratio test were applied to test the homogeneity of the rainfall data, using XLSTAT software, which results of p-valueless than alpha=0.05, were significant. The percentages of significant trends obtained for each parameter in the different seasons are presented. The study recommends adaptation strategies to be streamlined to relevant policies, enhancing local farmers’ adaptive capacity for facing future climate change effects.

Keywords: Blue Nile basin, climate change, Mann-Kendall test, trend analysis

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836 Monitoring the Change of Padma River Bank at Faridpur, Bangladesh Using Remote Sensing Approach

Authors: Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu


Bangladesh is often called as a motherland of rivers. It contains about 700 rivers among all these the Padma River is one of the largest rivers of Bangladesh. The change of river bank and erosion has become a common environmental natural hazard in Bangladesh. The river banks are under intense pressure from natural processes such as erosion and accretion as well as anthropogenic processes such as urban growth and pollution. The Padma River is flowing along ten districts of Bangladesh among all these Faridpur district is most vulnerable to river bank erosion. The severity of the river erosion is so high that each year a thousand of populations become homeless and lose their agricultural lands. Though the Faridpur district is most vulnerable to river bank erosion no specific research has been conducted to identify the changing pattern of river bank along this district. The outcome of the research may serve as guidance to prepare river bank monitoring program and management. This research has utilized integrated techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system to monitor the changes from 1995 to 2015 at Faridpur district. To discriminate the land water interface Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) algorithm is applied and on screen digitization approach is used over MNDWI images of 1995, 2002 and 2015 for river bank line extraction. The extent of changes in the river bank along Faridpur district is estimated through overlaying the digitized maps of all three years. The river bank lines are highlighted to infer the erosion and accretion and the changes are calculated. The result shows that the middle of the river is gaining land through sedimentation and the both side river bank is shifting causing severe erosion that consequently resulting the loss of farmland and homestead. Over the study period from 1995 to 2015 it witnessed huge erosion and accretion that played an active role in the changes of the river bank.

Keywords: river bank, erosion and accretion, change monitoring, remote sensing

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835 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Seasonal Freeze and Thaw in an Idealized River Bank

Authors: Jiajia Pan, Hung Tao Shen


Freeze and thaw occurs seasonally in river banks in northern countries. Little is known on how the riverbank soil temperature responds to air temperature changes and how freeze and thaw develops in a river bank seasonally. This study presents a two-dimensional heat conduction model for numerical investigations of seasonal freeze and thaw processes in an idealized river bank. The model uses the finite difference method and it is convenient for applications. The model is validated with an analytical solution and a field case with soil temperature distributions. It is then applied to the idealized river bank in terms of partially and fully saturated conditions with or without ice cover influence. Simulated results illustrate the response processes of the river bank to seasonal air temperature variations. It promotes the understanding of freeze and thaw processes in river banks and prepares for further investigation of frost and thaw impacts on riverbank stability.

Keywords: freeze and thaw, riverbanks, 2D model, heat conduction

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834 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi


In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

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833 Study on Ecological Water Demand Evaluation of Typical Mountainous Rivers in Zhejiang Province: Taking Kaihua River as an Example

Authors: Kaiping Xu, Aiju You, Lei Hua


In view of the ecological environmental problems and protection needs of mountainous rivers in Zhejiang province, a suitable ecological water demand evaluation system was established based on investigation and monitoring. Taking the Kaihua river as an example, the research on ecological water demand and the current situation evaluation were carried out. The main types of ecological water demand in Majin River are basic ecological flow and lake wetland outside the river, and instream flow and water demands for water quality in Zhongcun river. In the wet season, each ecological water demand is 18.05m3/s and 2.56m3 / s, and in the dry season is 3.00m3/s and 0.61m3/s. Three indexes of flow, duration and occurrence time are used to evaluate the ecological water demand. The degree of ecological water demand in the past three years is low level of satisfaction. Meanwhile, the existing problems are analyzed, and put forward reasonable and operable safeguards and suggestions.

Keywords: Zhejiang province, mountainous river, ecological water demand, Kaihua river, evaluation

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