Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 547

Search results for: phosphorus deficiency

547 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: faba bean, phosphorus, rhizobia, yield

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546 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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545 Mineral Status of Feeds and Fodder and Its Subsequent Effect on Plasma of Livestock and Its Products in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal, India

Authors: S. K. Pyne, M. Mondal, G. Samanta


A survey was carried out in red lateritic zone of West Bengal to compare the mineral status in plasma of livestock grazing over red lateritic region. Sufficient number of samples of soil, feeds, fodder and blood were collected from four districts of red lateritic zone namely, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia respectively. The samples were analysed for Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe). Concentration of Cu, Mn and Fe in soil were above the minimum critical level, whereas, Zn deficiency is wide spread in red lateritic soil. Paddy straw is deficient in Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the region. Green fodders are also deficient in P, Cu, Zn. The richness of iron (Fe) in soil, feeds, fodder and tree leaves is the characteristics of this region. Phosphorus is deficient in plasma of all categories of livestock with the exception of bullock. Cu is deficient in plasma of calf. Plasma Mn and Fe were higher (p<0.01) in the animals of red lateritic zone. The study reveals that the overall deficiency of phosphorus in different categories of livestock and there is need of dietary supplementation.

Keywords: mineral, red lateritic zone, grazing livestock, plasma

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544 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi


A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

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543 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai


This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

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542 Vitamin D Status in Tunisian Obese Patients

Authors: O. Berriche, R. Ben Othmen, H. Sfar, H. Abdesslam, S. Bou Meftah, S. Bhouri, F. Mahjoub, C. Amrouche, H. Jamoussi


Introduction: Although current evidence emphasizes a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and obesity, no studies have been conducted in Tunisian obese. The objectives of our study were to estimate the vitamin D deficiency in obese, identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, demonstrating a possible association between vitamin D levels and metabolic parameters. Methods: This was a descriptive study of 100 obese 18-65 year-old. Anthropometric measurements were determined. Fasting blood samples were assessed for the following essays : serum calcium, 25 OH vitamin D, inorganic phosphorus, fasting glucose, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. Insulin resistance was evaluated by fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß. Consumption of foods riche in vitamin D, sunscreen use, wearing protective clothes and exposed surface were assessed through applied questionnaires. Results: The deficit of vitamin D (< 30 ng/ml) among obese was 98,8%. Half of them had a rate < 10ng/ml. Environmental factors involved in vitamin D deficiency are : the veil (p = 0,001), wearing protective clothes (p = 0,04) and the exposed surface (p = 0,011) and dietary factors are represented by the daily caloric intake (p = 0,0001). The percent of fat mass was negatively related to vitamin D levels (p = 0,01) but not with BMI (p = 0,11) or waist circumference (p = 0,88). Similarly, lipid and glucose profile had no link with vitamin D. We found no relationship between Insulin resistance and vitamin D levels. Conclusion: At the end of our study, we have identified a very important vitamin D deficiency among obese. Dosage and systematic supplementation should be applied and for that physician awareness is needed.

Keywords: insulinresistance, risk factors, obesity, vitamin D

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541 Carbothermic Reduction of Phosphoric Acid Extracted from Dephosphorization Slags to Produce Yellow Phosphorus

Authors: Ryoko Yoshida, Jyunpei Yoshida, Hua Fang Yu, Yasushi Sasaki, Tetsuya Nagasaka


Phosphorous is an important element for agriculture and industry and is a non-renewable resource. Especially, yellow phosphorus is an essential material in advanced industrial technology, but phosphorus resources were not produced in Japan at all, and all depend on imports. It has been suggested, however, that the remaining accessible reserves of phosphate ore will be depleted within 50 years. Therefore, alternative resources for phosphate ore must be found. In this research, we have developed a process that enables the production of high-purity yellow phosphorus from domestic unused phosphorus resources such as steelmaking slags. The process consists of two parts: (1) the production of crude phosphoric acid from wastes such as steelmaking slag; (2) producing high-purity yellow phosphorus by low-temperature carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The details of the carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid are presented in this paper. Yellow phosphorus is commercially produced by carbothermic reduction of phosphate ore in an electric arc furnace at more than 1673K. In the newly developed system, gaseous P4O10 evaporated from H3PO4 is successfully reduced to yellow phosphorus by using carbon packed bed at less than 1273K. To meet the depletion of phosphate ore, the proposed process in this study to produce yellow phosphorus by carbothermic reduction of H3PO4 that are extracted from dephosphorization slags will be one of the effective and economical solutions.

Keywords: carbothermic reduction, phosphoric acid, dephosphorization slags, yellow phosphorus

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540 Investigation of the Effect of Anaerobic Digestate on Antifungal Activity and in Different Parameters of Maize

Authors: Nazia Zaffar, Alam Khan, Abdul Haq, Malik Badshah


Pakistan is an agricultural country. The increasing population leads to an increase in demand for food. A large number of crops are infected by different microbes, and nutrient deficiency of soil adversely affects the yield of crops. Furthermore, the use of chemical fertilizers like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK) Urea, and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and pesticides have environmental consequences. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative renewable and sustainable biofertilizers. Maize is one of the top growing crops in Pakistan, but it has low yield compared to other countries due to deficiency of organic matter, widespread nutrients deficiency (phosphorus and nitrogen), unbalanced use of fertilizers and various fungal diseases. In order to get rid of all these disadvantages, Digestate emerged as a win-win opportunity for the control of a few plant diseases and a replacement for the chemical fertilizers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Anerobic digestate on Antifungal Activity and in different parameters of Maize. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against selected phytopathogens (Colletotrichum coccodis, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsci, Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium Fujikuroi) were determined by microtiter plate method. The effect of various fertilizers in different growth parameters height, diameter, chlorophyll, leaf area, biomass, and yield were studied in field experiments. The extracts from anaerobic digestate have shown antifungal activity against selected phytopathogens, the highest activity was noted against P. ultimum, the MIC activity was high in case of P. ultimum and B. oryzae. The present study concludes that anaerobic digestate have a positive effect on maize growth and yield as well as an antifungal activity which can be potentially a good biofertilizer.

Keywords: anaerobic digestate, antifungal activity, MIC, phytopathogens

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539 Technologies for Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater: Review

Authors: Thandie Veronicah Sima, Moatlhodi Wiseman Letshwenyo


Discharge of wastewater is one of the major sources of phosphorus entering streams, lakes and other water bodies causing undesired environmental problem such as eutrophication. This condition not only puts the ecosystem at risk but also causes severe economic damages. Stringent laws have been developed globally by different bodies to control the level of phosphorus concentrations into receiving environments. In order to satisfy the constraints, a high degree of tertiary treatment or at least a significant reduction of phosphorus concentration is obligatory. This comprehensive review summarizes phosphorus removal technologies, from the most commonly used conventional technologies such as chemical precipitation through metal addition, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis and enhanced biological phosphorus removal using activated sludge system to passive systems such as constructed wetlands and filtration systems. Trends, perspectives and scientific procedures conducted by different researchers have been presented. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations behind each of the technologies. Enhancement of passive systems using reactive media such as industrial wastes to provide additional uptake through adsorption or precipitation is also discussed in this article.

Keywords: adsorption, chemical precipitation, enhanced biological phosphorus removal, phosphorus removal

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538 Prevalence and Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnant Xhosa Women

Authors: A. Abiodun, G. George, B. Longo-Mbenza, E. Blanco-Blanco


Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnant Xhosa women practising geophagia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant Xhosa women from rural areas of Mthatha, South Africa, according to socio-demographic, geophagia, haematologic and iron metabolism profiles using univariate and multivariate analyses. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin <11 g/dL and iron deficiency was defined by serum ferritin < 12 ug/L. Results: Out of 210 pregnant women (mean age =23±5.3 for geophagic and 25.6±5.3 for non-geophagic), 51.4% (n = 108) had iron deficiency anaemia (50.9% geophagic and 49.1% non-geophagic). After adjusting for confounders, only geophagia (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2; P=0.029) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration categories (< 30.5 g/dL with OR=16.6 95% CI 6.8-40.2; P < 0.0001; 30.5-31.5 g/dL with OR=2.9 95% CI 1.4-6.1; P=0.006; and ≥ 31.5 g/dL with OR=1) were identified as the most important significant and independent determinants of iron deficiency anaemia. Conclusion: The study results point to the potential harm geophagia can cause in pregnant women. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is unacceptably high. Geophagic behaviour, low MCHC presented as particular risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia in this study. Education and counselling about appropriate diet during pregnancy and prevention of geophagic behaviour (and health consequences) are needed among pregnant Xhosa women.

Keywords: geophagia, pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia, Xhosa

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537 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci


This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: broiler, performance, phytase, phosphorus, zinc

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536 Phosphorus Recovery Optimization in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Abdullah Almatouq


Understanding the impact of key operational variables on concurrent energy generation and phosphorus recovery in microbial fuel cell is required to improve the process and reduce the operational cost. In this study, full factorial design (FFD) and central composite designs (CCD) were employed to identify the effect of influent COD concentration and cathode aeration flow rate on energy generation and phosphorus (P) recovery and to optimise MFC power density and P recovery. Results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and cathode aeration flow rate had a significant effect on power density, coulombic efficiency, phosphorus precipitation efficiency and phosphorus precipitation rate at the cathode. P precipitation was negatively affected by the generated current during the batch duration. The generated energy was reduced due to struvite being precipitated on the cathode surface, which might obstruct the mass transfer of ions and oxygen. Response surface mathematical model was used to predict the optimum operating conditions that resulted in a maximum power density and phosphorus precipitation efficiency of 184 mW/m² and 84%, and this corresponds to COD= 1700 mg/L and aeration flow rate=210 mL/min. The findings highlight the importance of the operational conditions of energy generation and phosphorus recovery.

Keywords: energy, microbial fuel cell, phosphorus, struvite

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535 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures

Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate


Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.

Keywords: leaching, lime, phosphorus, soil texture

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534 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions

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533 Phosphorus Uptake of Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Imren Kutlu, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu


Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Triticale has until now been used mostly for animal feed; however, it can be consumed by humans in the form of biscuits, cookies, and unleavened bread. Moreover, one of the reasons for the development of triticale is that it is more efficient in nutrient deficient soil than wheat cultivars. After nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus (P) is the most used fertilizer for crop production because P fixation occurs highly when it is applied the soil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P uptake of winter triticale genotypes under different P fertilizer rates in different growth stages. The experiment was conducted in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Treatments consisted of five triticale lines and one triticale cultivars (Samursortu) with four rates of P fertilization (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹). Phosphorus uptake of triticale genotypes in tillering, heading, as well as grain and straw at harvest stage and yield of grain and straw were determined. The results showed that a P rate of 60 kg/ha and the TCL-25 genotype produced the highest yields of straw and grain at harvest. Phosphorus uptake was the highest in tillering stage, and it decreased towards to harvest time. Phosphorus uptake of all growth stage increased as P rates raised and the application of 120 kg/ha P₂O₅ had the highest P uptake. Phosphorus uptake of genotypes was found differently. The regression analyses indicated that P uptake at tillering stage was the most effective on grain yield. These results will provide useful information to triticale growers about suitable phosphorus fertilization for both forage and food usage.

Keywords: grain yield, growth stage, phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus uptake, triticale

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532 Thrombophilic Risk Factors and Pregnancy Complications

Authors: Hanan Azzam1, Nashwa Abousamra1, Amany Mansour1, Yaser Abd El-dayem2, , Solafa Elsharawy1


Background: Inherited thrombophilias are a heterogenous group of conditions which have been implicated in a variety of pregnancy complications. More recently, deficiency of protein Z (PZ) has been liked to pregnancy complications, including preterm delivery. Aim: We designed this study to evaluate the association of inherited thrombophilias including [Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), Anti thrombin III (ATIII) deficiency and activated protein C (APC) resistance] and protein Z deficiency with a variety of pregnancy complications. Patients and Methods: 60 women with different pregnancy complications, including 20 patients with preeclampsia, 20 patients with intrauterine growth resistance (IUGR), and 20 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), in addition to 30 healthy pregnant women were recruited for the present study. PC and free PS antigen, ATIII activity, modified functional APC-resistance, and PZ levels were determined. Results: There was no significant association between inherited thrombophilias and complicated pregnancies as regards PC deficiency (p=1.0), AT III and PS deficiency (p=0.312), and APC-resistance (P=0.083). PZ was significantly associated with complicated pregnancies (p=0.012). Patients with protein Z levels below 1.5 µg/ml were considered deficient. Accordingly, we demonstrated protein Z deficiency in 30% of complicated pregnancies (RR 6.0, 95% CI 1.29-27.90;p=0.022), 20% of preeclampsia (RR 3.5, 95% CI 0.57 – 21.28; P = 0.174), 40% of IUGR (RR 9.3 95% CI 1.72-50.61; P = 0.010) and 30% of IUFD (RR 6, 95% CI 1.07 – 33.64; P = 0.042). Conclusions: These findings indicate the absence of association of inherited thrombophilias, including PC, PS, AT III deficiency, and APC resistance with pregnancy complications. However, PZ deficiency is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death.

Keywords: protein C, protein S, thrombophelia, pregnancy, protein Z

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531 Deficiency Risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Korbi Fakhri


The management of assets and liability is a vital task for every bank as far as a good direction allows its stability; however, a bad running forewarns its disappearance. Equity of a bank is among the most important rubrics in the liability side because, actually, these funds ensure three notably primordial functions for the survival of the bank. From one hand, equity is useful to bankroll the investments and cover the unexpected losses. From another hand, they attract the fund lessors since they inspire trust. So we are going to tackle some points including whether equity of the Islamic banks are oversized. In spite of the efforts made on the subject, the relationship between the capital and the deficiency probability has not been defined with certainty. In this article, we have elaborated a study over the nature of financial intermediation in Islamic banks by comparison to those of conventional ones. We have found a striking difference between two kinds of intermediation. We tried, from another side, to study the relationship between the capital level and deficiency risk relying on econometric model, and we have obtained a positive and significant relation between the capital and the deficiency risk for the conventional banks. This means that when the capital of these banks increases, the deficiency risk increases as well. In return, since the Islamic banks are constrained to respect the Sharia Committee as well as customers’ demands who may, in certain contracts, choose to invest their capitals in projects they are interested in. These constraints have as effects to reduce the deficiency risk even when the capital increases.

Keywords: Islamic bank, conventional bank, deficiency risk, financial intermediation

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530 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.

Keywords: butene, catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification

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529 Assessment of Dietary Intake of Pregnant Women

Authors: Tuleshova Gulnara, Abduldayeva Aigul


The goal is based on the studying the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children and women of reproductive age to develop evidence-based recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of programs to prevent micronutrient deficiency. Subject: In our study we used a representative, random sample, carried out with the cluster method in the precinct of the principle areas of medical care for children 5 years of old. If the site has at least 60 children under 5 years of old, each second child was sampled, and if more than 60 children - each third child (first child selected by random sampling). The total number of investigated persons was within 80-86 women of reproductive age and children - within 80-92 people. Results: The studies found that the average prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months was 35.2%, with the most susceptible to iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6-23 months (53.3%). The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women was 39.0% among pregnant women - 43.8%. In children, the prevalence of folate deficiency was the highest (27.6%). Among non-pregnant women, frequent prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 37.0%. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was higher among children living in Astana (37.4%) compared with the medium-republican level (23.2%).

Keywords: nutrition, pregnant women, micronutrients, macronutrients

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528 Wasteless Solid-Phase Method for Conversion of Iron Ores Contaminated with Silicon and Phosphorus Compounds

Authors: А. V. Panko, Е. V. Ablets, I. G. Kovzun, М. А. Ilyashov


Based upon generalized analysis of modern know-how in the sphere of processing, concentration and purification of iron-ore raw materials (IORM), in particular, the most widespread ferrioxide-silicate materials (FOSM), containing impurities of phosphorus and other elements compounds, noted special role of nano technological initiatives in improvement of such processes. Considered ideas of role of nano particles in processes of FOSM carbonization with subsequent direct reduction of ferric oxides contained in them to metal phase, as well as in processes of alkali treatment and separation of powered iron from phosphorus compounds. Using the obtained results the wasteless solid-phase processing, concentration and purification of IORM and FOSM from compounds of phosphorus, silicon and other impurities excelling known methods of direct iron reduction from iron ores and metallurgical slimes.

Keywords: iron ores, solid-phase reduction, nanoparticles in reduction and purification of iron from silicon and phosphorus, wasteless method of ores processing

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527 The Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Magnetic Properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: Kang-Hyuk Lee, Wei Yan, Sang-Im Yoo


Recently, Ca₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂O₁₉ (Ca-La M-type) hexaferrites have been reported to possess higher crystalline anisotropy compared with SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (Sr M-type) hexaferrite without reducing its saturation magnetization (Ms), resulting in higher coercivity (Hc). While iron deficiency is known to be helpful for the growth and the formation of NiZn spinel ferrites, the effect of iron deficiency in Ca-La M-type hexaferrites has never been reported yet. In this study, therefore, we tried to investigate the effect of iron deficiency on the magnetic properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ hexaferrites prepared by solid state reaction. As-calcined powder was pressed into pellets and sintered at 1275~1325℃ for 4 h in air. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Powder XRD analyses revealed that Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ (0.75 ≦ y ≦ 2.15) ferrites calcined at 1250-1300℃ for 12 h in air were composed of single phase without the second phases. With increasing the iron deficiency, y, the lattice parameters a, c and unite cell volumes were decreased first up to y=10.25 and then increased again. The highest Ms value of 77.5 emu/g was obtainable from the sample of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ sintered at 1300℃ for 4 h in air. Detailed microstructures and magnetic properties of Ca-La M-type hexagonal ferrites will be presented for a discussion

Keywords: Ca-La M-type hexaferrite, magnetic properties, iron deficiency, hexaferrite

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526 An Observational Study of Vitamin B12 Levels and Peripheral Neuropathy Profile in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Therapy

Authors: Kamesh Gupta, Nitin Jain, Anurag Rohatgi


Objective: To study Vitamin B12 levels and presence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetes mellitus patients on metformin therapy. Method: The observational study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. Patients were selected from the Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi, India. Exhaustive history regarding dietary habits and metformin usage was taken. Lab tests including HbA1c levels and Vit B12 assays were done, on the basis of which patients were classified into subgroups. Peripheral neuropathy was detected by both clinical scoring and electrophysiological studies. Appropriate Statistical analysis for observational studies was done to evaluate the data. Results: The average duration of metformin usage was higher in patients with definite B12 deficiency (9.4y) than patients with normal B12 levels (5.6 y). Patients in the definite B12 deficiency group had much higher incidence of neuropathy (89%) than patients with no deficiency (27%). The incidence of neuropathy was higher in cases with longer metformin usage (100% with 18-22y of use and 83% with 14-17y of use) than shorter periods (29% with 2-5y of use and 75% with 6-9y of use). Conclusion: Thus patients on long-term metformin therapy are at a high risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Definite and possible Vitamin B12 deficiency on metformin had an earlier onset of neuropathy than the subgroup with normal Vitamin B12 levels.

Keywords: diabetic neuroptahy, cobalamine deficiency, metformin, nerve conduction studies

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525 A Possible Connection Between Taste Change and Zinc Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Iskandar Idris


Taste change is a common complication after Bariatric surgery (BS). However, the cause of this is still not clear. Since zinc is important fortaste perception, zinc deficiency, which is common after BS, may play an important role for taste change after BS. In this review, we aimto collate evidence relating to taste change and zinc deficiencyin relation to BS; effects of zinc replacement on taste perception in general and thereafter discuss the possible role of zinc deficiency to induce taste change after BS. A literature search was conducted, using four electronic bibliographical databases—EMBASE, PubMed, AMED and MEDLINE. We identified all available and relevant articles published before 30th February 2021.In total, 33 studies were included. The total number of participants analysed was N= 3264. We showed that taste change is a frequent complication after BS, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGBP comparing to other types of procedures. Patients' taste sensitivity differs among studies, but the most important decline in taste preference was observed for sweet food. Twelve studies investigating zinc deficiency following BS showed a significant decrease in zinc levels at six months after surgery. Supplementation with 45–50 mg of zinc sulphate was effective in improving taste, except in cancer patients, who showed no improvement in taste following zinc supplementation. Zinc deficiency appears to be associated with taste change after BS. Supplementation with much higher levels of zinc, at 45–50 mg, was effective in taste change treatment for many cases of taste disorder. The currently recommended levels of zinc replacements currently prescribed to patients following BS were not effective for avoiding zinc deficiency after BS—and thus not effective for averting taste change. It is therefore suggested that taste change following BS is closely related to zinc deficiency induced by the surgery.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, bariatric surgery, zinc, zinc sulphate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation, and micro-nutrient deficiencies

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524 Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand

Authors: Charirat Kusonwiriyawong, Supha Photichan, Wannarut Chutibutr


Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.

Keywords: available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, modified single extractant, organic matter, soil test kits

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523 Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Iron-Deficient Iranian Teenagers Girls

Authors: Eftekhari M. H., Mozaffari-Khosravi H., Shidfar F.


Background: Many Iranian adolescent girls are iron deficient, but it is unclear whether the iron deficiency is associated with other nutritional risk indicators. Objective: we aimed to investigate the association between iron deficiency and weight status (measured as BMI) among a reprehensive sample of teenage girls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a region of southern I.R.Iran. One hundred eighty-seven iron-deficient participants (aged between 11 to 14) were selected by systematic random sampling among all students in grades 1 to 3 from high schools for girls. We assayed hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, iron and total iron binding capacity and measured weight and height. Body mass index was calculated according to age and gender-specific BMI growth charts for children 2 to 20 years of age. Results: 13% were at risk for being overweight and 8.3% were overweight. The severity of iron deficiency increased as BMI increased from normal to at risk for overweight and overweight. Iron deficiency anemia was most prevalent among overweight adolescents than at risk for overweight and normal weight adolescents (28%, 18%, and 13%, respectively). Conclusions: The results of this study showed an inverse association of BMI with serum ferritin. Overweight adolescents demonstrated an increased prevalence of anemia. Because of the potentially harmful effects of iron deficiency, obese adolescents should be routinely screened and treated as necessary.

Keywords: adolescent, over weight, iron deficiency, Iran

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522 Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Weibo Yang


Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P<0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.

Keywords: amino acids, plant N derived from N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, peanuts, cassava

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521 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: wear, SEM, EDS, friction, lubricants

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520 To Assess the Awareness and Health Seeking Practices Related to Vitamin-A Deficiency Diseases in Urban Slums of Delhi, India

Authors: Dr.Vasundhra Misra, Prof. Praveen Vashist


Purpose: Vitamin A deficiency prevention programmes are at varying stages of development and implementation in all countries. Vitamin A deficiency has been recognized as a public health issue in developing countries like India. Despite achieving a lot of success a load of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiencies is still high. In this regard, a study was conducted to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices about Vitamin A deficiency diseases among the urban slum population of Delhi, India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the 5 slum clusters from the urban population of South Delhi. A specially designed pre-tested questionnaire schedule was administered. The study sample was comprised of 1552 inhabitants. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34 ± 12.1 years. A total of 1003 (64.6%) participants out of 1552, had heard of night blindness. Awareness of night blindness was more in the elderly age group and also found significant (p < 0.001). Only 31 (3.1%) knew that night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A. The awareness of vitamin A prophylaxis programme was significantly higher among elder age (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings highlighted that even though many of the respondents have heard of night blindness but the awareness about causes and treatment was found low in the community. There is a need for efforts directed to enhance community-level counseling and educational programmes.

Keywords: awareness, health-seeking practices, night blindness, vitamin-A deficiency diseases

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519 Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Its Impact on Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women

Authors: Nuzhat Sultana


Iron deficiency (IDA) is the commonest nutritional anemia present in Indian pregnant women. The overall development of a fetus is determined to a great extent by the type of nourishment mother receives right from its conception. To study the risk factors of iron deficiency anemia, two hundred rural pregnant women in the age of 15-35 years in the second trimester of pregnancy from the countryside of Beed district was selected. These samples were divided into groups 'A' (experimental samples) and 'C' (control samples). Experimental samples were received oral supplementation of iron and folic acid for ninety days, but control samples did not receive any supplementation. All the samples were observed anthropometrically, biochemically and clinically before and after supplementation. The study result shows that maximum numbers of i.e. 75% pregnant women had low levels of weight and hemoglobin as compared to standard weight and HB level. However, after supplementation only in experimental group weight and HB level was increased. It was observed that prevalence of risk factors associated with anemia was higher in rural pregnant women. Poverty, illiteracy, faulty food habits, and poor intake of iron during pregnancy are the main causative factors for iron deficiency anemia in rural pregnant women.

Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, risk factors, pregnancy

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518 Adaptive Strategies of Maize in Leaf Traits to N Deficiency

Authors: Panpan Fan, Bo Ming, Niels Anten, Jochem Evers, Yaoyao Li, Shaokun Li, Ruizhi xie


Nitrogen (N) utilization for crop production under N deficiency conditions is subject to a trade-off between maintaining specific leaf N content (SLN), important for radiation-use efficiency (RUE), versus maintaining leaf area (LA) development, important for light capture. This paper aims to explore how maize deals with this trade-off through responses in SLN, LA and their underlying traits during the vegetative and reproductive growth stages. In a ten-year N fertilization trial in Jilin province, Northeast China, three N fertilizer levels have been maintained: N-deficiency (N0), low N supply (N1), and high N supply (N2). We analyzed data from years 8 and 10 of this experiment for two common hybrids. Under N deficiency, maize plants maintained LA and decreased SLN during vegetative stages, while both LA and SLN decreased comparably during reproductive stages. Canopy-average specific leaf area (SLA) decreased sharply during vegetative stages and slightly during reproductive stages, mainly because senesced leaves in the lower canopy had a higher SLA. In the vegetative stage, maize maintained leaf area at low N by maintaining leaf biomass (albeit hence having N content/mass) and slightly increasing SLA. These responses to N deficiency were stronger in maize hybrid XY335 than in ZD958. We conclude the main strategy of maize to cope with low N is to maintain plant growth, mainly by increasing SLA throughout the plant during early growth. N was too limiting for either strategy to be followed during later growth stages.

Keywords: leaf N content per unit leaf area, N deficiency, specific leaf area, maize strateg

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