Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4069

Search results for: sustainable transportation

4069 Investigation of Suitable Linkage System for Transportation Sustainability: The Instance of Bursa in Turkey

Authors: Elvan Ender, Ozge Celik

Abstract:

Transportation systems play a vital role in access and egress in our lives. Concerns about environmental quality, social equity, economic vitality, and the threat of climate change have converged to produce a growing interest in the concept of sustainability, sustainable development, and sustainable transportation. Cities should respect nature, consider the urban ecological environment as an asset, integrate environmental issues into urban planning and administration, and accelerate the transition to sustainable development. This paper reviews current pedestrian and bike transportation in Bursa and proves the effects of unbalanced distribution to neighbourhoods of this presence. In this way creating proposal map for walking and bicycling to constitute a preliminary base for the physical urban planning of Bursa, has been aimed.

Keywords: Bursa, proposal map, sustainability, transportation

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4068 A Meta-Analysis towards an Integrated Framework for Sustainable Urban Transportation within the Concept of Sustainable Cities

Authors: Hande Aladağ, Gökçe Aydın

Abstract:

The world’s population is increasing continuously and rapidly. Moreover, there are other problems such as the decline of natural energy resources, global warming, and environmental pollution. These facts have made sustainability an important and primary topic from future planning perspective. From this perspective, constituting sustainable cities and communities can be considered as one of the key issues in terms of sustainable development goals. The concept of sustainable cities can be evaluated under three headings such as green/sustainable buildings, self – contained cities and sustainable transportation. This study only concentrates on how to form and support a sustainable urban transportation system to contribute to the sustainable urbanization. Urban transportation system inevitably requires many engineering projects with various sizes. Engineering projects generally have four phases, in the following order: Planning, design, construction, operation. The order is valid but there are feedbacks from every phase to every phase in its upstream. In this regard, engineering projects are iterative processes. Sustainability is an integrated and comprehensive concept thus it should be among the primary concerns in every phase of transportation projects. In the study, a meta-analysis will be performed on the related studies in the literature. It is targeted and planned that, as a result of the findings of this meta-analysis, a framework for the list of principles and actions for sustainable transport will be formed. The meta-analysis will be performed to point out and clarify sustainability approaches in every phase of the related engineering projects, with also paying attention to the iterative nature of the process and relative contribution of the action for the outcomes of the sustainable transportation system. However, the analysis will not be limited to the engineering projects, non-engineering solutions will also be included in the meta-analysis. The most important contribution of this study is a determination of the outcomes of a sustainable urban transportation system in terms of energy efficiency, resource preservation and related social, environmental and economic factors. The study is also important because it will give light to the engineering and management approaches to achieve these outcomes.

Keywords: meta-analysis, sustainability, sustainable cities, sustainable urban transportation, urban transportation

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4067 An Index to Measure Transportation Sustainable Performance in Construction Projects

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

The continuous increase in the world population, resource shortage and the warning of climate change cause various environmental and social issues to the world. Thus, sustainability concept is much needed nowadays. Organizations are progressively falling under strong worldwide pressure to integrate sustainability practices into their project decision-making development. Construction projects in the industry are amongst the most significant, since it is one of the biggest divisions and of main significance for the national economy and hence has a massive effect on the environment and society. So, it is important to discover approaches to incorporate sustainability into the management of those projects. This study presents a combined sustainability index of projects with sustainable transportation which has been formed as per a comprehensive literature review and survey study. Transportation systems enable the movement of goods and services worldwide, and it is leading to economic growth and creating jobs while creating negative impacts on the environment and society. This research is study to quantify the sustainability indicators, through 1) identifying the importance of sustainable transportation indicators that are based on the sustainable practices used for the construction projects and 2) measure the effectiveness of practices through these indicators on the three sustainable pillars. A total 26 sustainability indicators have been selected and grouped under each related sustainability pillars. A survey was used to collect the opinion about the sustainability indicators by a scoring system. A combined sustainability index considering three sustainable pillars can be helpful in evaluating the transportation sustainable practices of a project and making decisions regarding project selection. In addition to focus on the issue of financial resource allocation in a project selection, the decision-maker could take into account the sustainability as an important key in addition to the project’s return and risk. The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of transportation sustainability which allow companies to assess multiple projects selection. This is useful to decision makers to rank and focus more on future sustainable projects.

Keywords: sustainable transportation, transportation performances, sustainable indicators, sustainable construction practice, sustainability

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4066 Human Centred Design Approach for Public Transportation

Authors: Jo Kuys, Kirsten Day

Abstract:

Improving urban transportation systems requires an emphasis on users’ end-to-end journey experience, from the moment the user steps out of their home to when they arrive at their destination. In considering such end-to-end experiences, human centred design (HCD) must be integrated from the very beginning to generate viable outcomes for the public. An HCD approach will encourage innovative outcomes while acknowledging all factors that need to be understood along the journey. We provide evidence to show that when designing for public transportation, it is not just about the physical manifestation of a particular outcome; moreover, it’s about the context and human behaviours that need to be considered throughout the design process. Humans and their behavioural factors are vitally important to successful implementation of sustainable public transport systems. Through an in-depth literature review of HCD approaches for urban transportation systems, we provide a base to exploit the benefits and highlight the importance of including HCD in public transportation projects for greater patronage, resulting in more sustainable cities. An HCD approach is critical to all public transportation projects to understand different levels of transportation design, from the setting of transport policy to implementation to infrastructure, vehicle, and interface design.

Keywords: human centred design, public transportation, urban planning, user experience

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4065 Planning Strategy for Sustainable Transportation in Heritage Areas

Authors: Hassam Hassan Elborombaly

Abstract:

The pollution generated from transportation modes, congestion and traffic heritage has led to the deterioration of historic buildings and the urban heritage in historic cities. Accordingly, this paper attempts to diagnose the transport and traffic problems in historic cities. In general and in Heritage Cities, and to investigate methods for conserving the urban heritage from negative effects of traffic congestion and of the traditional red modes of transportation. It also attempts to explore possible areas for intervention to mitigate transportation and traffic problems in the light of the principles of the sustainable transportation framework. It aims to draw conclusion and propose recommendation that would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation plans in historic Cairo and consequently achieve sustainable transportation. Problems In historic cities public paths compose an irregular network enclosing large residential plots (defined as super blocks quarters or hettas). The blocks represent the basic morphology units in historic Cities. Each super block incorporates several uses (i.e. residential, non-residential, service uses and others). Local paths reach the interior of the super blocks in an organized inter core, which deals mainly with residential functions mixed with handicraft activities and is composed of several local path units; (b) the other core, which is bound by the public paths and contains a combination of residential, commercial and social activities. Objectives: 1- To provide amenity convenience and comfort for visitors and people who live and work in the area. Pedestrianizing, accessibility and safety are to be reinforced while respecting the organic urban pattern. 2- To enhance street life, vitality and activity, in order to attract people and increase economic prosperity. Research Contents • Relation between residential areas and transportation in the inner core • Analytical studies for historic areas in heritage cities • Sustainable transportation planning in heritage cities • Dynamic and flexible methodology for achieving sustainable transportation network for the Heritage Cities • Result and Recommendation

Keywords: irregular network, public paths, sustainable transportation, urban heritage

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4064 Smart Transportation: Bringing Back Sunshine City Harare

Authors: R. Shayamapiki

Abstract:

This study explores the applicability of applying new urbanism principles in cities of developing countries as a panacea towards building sustainable cities through implementing smart transportation. Smart transportation approach to planning has been growing remarkably around the globe in the past decade. In conquest to curb traffic congestion and reducing automobile dependency in the inner-city Harare, Smart Transportation has been a strong drive towards building sustainable cities. Conceptually, Smart Transportation constitutes of principles which include walking, cycling and mass transit. The Smart Transportation approach has been a success story in the cities of developing world but its application in the cities of developing countries has been doubtful. Cities of developing countries being multifaceted with several urban sustainability challenges, the study consolidates that there are no robust policy, legislative and institutional frameworks to govern the application of Smart Transportation in urban planning hence no clear roadway towards its success story. Questions regarding this investigation proliferate to; how capable are cities of developing countries to transform Smart Transportation principles to a success story? What victory can Smart Transportation bring to sustainable urban development? What are constraints of embracing the principles and how can they be manipulated? Methodologically the case study of urban syntax in Harare Central Business District and arterial roads of the city, legislation and institutional settings underpins various research outcomes. The study finds out the hindrances of policy, legislative and institutional incapacities cooked with economic constraints, lack of political will and technically inflexible zoning regulations. The study also elucidates that there is need to adopt a localized approach to Smart Transportation. The paper then calls for strengthening of institutional and legal reform in conquest to embrace the concept, policy and legislative support, feasible financial mechanism, coordination of responsible stakeholders, planning standards and regulatory frameworks reform to celebrate the success story of Smart Transportation in the developing world.

Keywords: inner-city Harare, new urbanism, smart transportation, sustainable cities

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4063 Development of a Forecast-Supported Approach for the Continuous Pre-Planning of Mandatory Transportation Capacity for the Design of Sustainable Transport Chains: A Literature Review

Authors: Georg Brunnthaller, Sandra Stein, Wilfried Sihn

Abstract:

Transportation service providers are facing increasing volatility concerning future transport demand. Short-term planning horizons and planning uncertainties lead to reduced capacity utilization and increasing empty mileage. To overcome these challenges, a model is proposed to continuously pre-plan future transportation capacity in order to redesign and adjust the intermodal fleet accordingly. It is expected that the model will enable logistics service providers to organize more economically and ecologically sustainable transport chains in a more flexible way. To further describe these planning aspects, this paper gives an overview on transportation planning problems in a structured way. The focus is on strategic and tactical planning levels, comprising relevant fleet-sizing, service-network-design and choice-of-carriers-problems. Models and their developed solution techniques are presented, and the literature review is concluded with an outlook to our future research directions.

Keywords: freight transportation planning, multimodal, fleet-sizing, service network design, choice of transportation mode, review

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4062 Optimizing Road Transportation Network Considering the Durability Factors

Authors: Yapegue Bayogo, Ahmadou Halassi Dicko, Brahima Songore

Abstract:

In developing countries, the road transportation system occupies an important place because of its flexibility and the low prices of infrastructure and rolling stock. While road transport is necessary for economic development, the movement of people and their goods, it is urgent to use transportation systems that minimize carbon emissions in order to ensure sustainable development. One of the main objectives of OEDC and the Word Bank is to ensure sustainable economic’ development. This paper aims to develop a road transport network taking into account environmental impacts. The methodology adopted consists of formulating a model optimizing the flow of goods and then collecting information relating to the transport of products. Our model was tested with data on product transport in CMDT areas in the Republic of Mali. The results of our study indicate that emissions from the transport sector can be significantly reduced by minimizing the traffic volume. According to our study, optimizing the transportation network, we benefit from a significant amount of tons of CO₂.

Keywords: road transport, transport sustainability, pollution, flexibility, optimized network

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4061 Tactical Urbanism and Sustainability: Tactical Experiences in the Promotion of Active Transportation

Authors: Aline Fernandes Barata, Adriana Sansão Fontes

Abstract:

The overvaluation of the use of automobile has detrimentally affected the importance of pedestrians within the city and consequently its public spaces. As a way of treating contemporary urban paradigms, Tactical Urbanism aims to recover and activate spaces through fast and easily-applied actions that demonstrate the possibility of large-scale and long-term changes in cities. Tactical interventions have represented an important practice of redefining public spaces and urban mobility. The concept of Active Transportation coheres with the idea of sustainable urban mobility, characterizing the means of transportation through human propulsion, such as walking and cycling. This paper aims to debate the potential of Tactical Urbanism in promoting Active Transportation by revealing opportunities of transformation in the urban space of contemporary cities through initiatives that promote the protection and valorization of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in cities, and that subvert the importance of motorized vehicles. In this paper, we present the character of these actions in two different ways: when they are used as tests for permanent interventions and when they have pre-defined start and end periods. Using recent initiatives to illustrate, we aim to discuss the role of small-scale actions in promoting and incentivizing a more active, healthy, sustainable and responsive urban way of life, presenting how some of them have developed through public policies. For that, we will present some examples of tactical actions that illustrate the encouragement of Active Transportation and trials to balance the urban opportunities for pedestrians and cyclists. These include temporary closure of streets, the creation of new alternatives and more comfortable areas for walking and cycling, and the subversion of uses in public spaces where the usage of cars are predominant.

Keywords: tactical urbanism, active transportation, sustainable mobility, non-motorized means

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4060 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh

Abstract:

A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem

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4059 A Study of Traditional Mode in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Juanita, B. Kombaitan, Iwan Pratoyo Kusumantoro

Abstract:

The traditional mode is a non-motorized vehicle powered by human or animal power. The objective of the study was to define the strategy of using traditional modes by the framework of sustainable urban transport in support of urban tourism activities. The study of the traditional mode does not include a modified mode using the engine power as motor tricycles are often called ‘bentor ‘in Indonesia. The use of non-motorized traditional mode in Indonesia has begun to shift, and its use began to be eliminated by the change of propulsion using the machine. In an effort to push back the use of traditional mode one of them with tourism activities. Strategies for the use of traditional modes within the framework of sustainable urban transport are seen from three dimensions: social, economic and environmental. The social dimension related to accessibility and livability, an economic dimension related to traditional modes can promote products and tourist attractions, while the environmental dimension related to the needs of the users/groups with respect to safety, comfort. The traditional mode is rarely noticed by the policy makers, and public opinion in its use needs attention. The involvement of policy-making between stakeholders and the community is needed in the development of sustainable traditional mode strategies in support of urban tourism activities.

Keywords: traditional mode, sustainable, urban, transportation

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4058 Sustainability and Promotion of Inland Waterway Transportation Projects in Colombia: Case of the Magdalena River

Authors: David Julian Bernal Melgarejo

Abstract:

Inland Waterway Transportation (IWT) is playing an important role in national transport systems, water transportation is considered to be safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport, considering all the benefits of IWT the Colombian government is planning to restore the Magdalena’s River navigability, embrace waterway transportation in Colombia could strength competitiveness while reduce most of the transport externalities. However, the current situation of the Magdalena deplorable, the most important river of Colombia has been abandoned for decades and the solution is beyond of a single administrative entity. This paper analyzes the outcomes of the Navigation And Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe (NAIADES) program as a prospective to develop a sustainable program in Colombia. In order to guarantee the long-term future, and the adaptability of the program a research based on individual interviews with stakeholders and policy experts were carried out, findings support the idea of lack of integration within governmental institution, develop marketing strategies and human resources.

Keywords: inland waterway transportation, logistics, sustainability, multimodal transport systems, water transportation

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4057 Sustainable Urban Mobility: Rethinking the Bus Stop Infrastructures of Dhaka South

Authors: Hasnun Wara Khondker, M. Tarek Morad

Abstract:

Bangladesh is one of the most populous countries of the world in terms of density. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh currently has a population of approximately 15-16 million of which around 9 million people are accommodated in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) within around 109 square kilometer area. Despite having various urban issues, country is at its pick of economic progress and Dhaka is the core of this economic growth. To ensure the proper economic development and citizens wellbeing, city needs an ingenious, congestion-free public transportation network. Bus stop/bus bay is an essential infrastructure for ensuring efficient public transportation flow within the city along with enhancing accessibility, user comfort, and safety through public amenities. At present, there is no established Mass Rapid Transit or Bus Rapid Transit network within the city and therefore these private owned buses are the only major mode of mass transportation of Dhaka city. DSCC has undertaken a project to re-design several bus stops and bus bays according to the universal standard for better urban mobility and user satisfaction. This paper will analyze the design approach of the bus stop/bay infrastructure within Dhaka South, putting the research lens on sustainable urban mobility with case studies of similar kind of urban context. The paper will also study the design process with setting several parameters, i.e., accessibility, passenger safety, comfort, sustainability, etc. Moreover, this research will recommend a guideline for designing a bus stop based on the analysis of the design methods.

Keywords: bus stop, Dhaka, public transportation, sustainable urban mobility, universal accessibility, user safety

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4056 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue

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4055 Profile of Cortisol in Bali's Crossbreed Cows for 120 Hours Shipping Using Traditional Vessel

Authors: Hindar Panguji, Nichlah Rifqiyah, Irkham Widiono, Pudji Astuti

Abstract:

Many transportations of livestock in Indonesia is still managed traditionally. Transportation involves several things that may cause stress, from a certain treatment or other factors, either externally or internally, that act as stressors. This study aimed to determine the profile of cortisol and IL-6 in female Bali breeding cattle transported for 120 hours using 100 GT traditional vessels with two floors and a capacity of 300-400 heads. Before transportation, all of the animals have got the vaccination. Blood samples from thirty cows were taken before transportation, during loading, during docking, and after transportation. ELISA method was used to analyze the concentration of cortisol and IL6. The averages of cortisol concentration before transportation, during loading, docking, and after transportation were 78.21±27.96 ng/mL, 90.78±30.91 ng/mL, 69.90±53.92 ng/mL and 69.34±32.03 ng/mL respectively. The average concentration of IL-6 before, during, docking and after transportation were 259.86±70.16 pg/mL, 315.41±64.21 pg/mL, 410.13±247.43 pg/mL dan 424.81±98.86 pg/mL. It was concluded there were no differences in cortisol concentrations and level of IL6 of each cow at different stages of transportation (p > 0.05) It would be possible that vaccination could reduce the fluctuation of cortisol.

Keywords: shipping, Bali's breed cows, vessel, cortisol, IL6

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4054 Maritime Transportation and Environmental Pollution: Emerging Trends and Challenges

Authors: Emil Mathew

Abstract:

Liberalisation policies adopted by a large number of countries, implementation of technological innovations with development in communication networks and continuous reduction in transport costs contributed towards the growth of international transportation of goods over the last 50 to 60 years. The present paper examines the environmental externalities of maritime transportation, that is, externalities associated with the movement of cargoes, as distinct from those emanate from production and consumption of goods. Though shipping is less polluting compared to other modes of transportation, considering the huge volume of goods transported and future growth prospects, it is important to examine environmental externalities of maritime transportation. It focuses on varied types of environmental externalities of maritime transportation and suggests that appropriate policies may be adopted by international agencies to address this issue without adversely affecting the course of international trade and also its possibility to get diverted to alternate modes of transportation.

Keywords: externalities of globalisation, maritime environment, maritime externality, transportation externality

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4053 Solving the Transportation Problem for Warehouses and Dealers in Bangalore City

Authors: S. Aditya, K. T. Nideesh, N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

Being a subclass of linear programing problem, the Transportation Problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. In this paper, we are representing the transportation problem for various warehouses along with various dealers situated in Bangalore city to reduce the transportation cost incurred by them as of now. The problem is solved by obtaining the Initial Basic feasible Solution through various methods and further proceeding to obtain optimal cost.

Keywords: NW method, optimum utilization, transportation problem, Vogel’s approximation method

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4052 Sustainable Manufacturing Framework for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Rajan Deglurkar

Abstract:

The research carried out in this piece of work is on 'Framework of Sustainable Manufacturing for Small and Medium Enterprises'. It consists of elucidation of concepts about sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product development with critical review performed on seven techniques of sustainable manufacturing. The work also covers the survey about critical review of awareness in the market with respect to the manufacturers and the consumers. The factors and challenges for sustainable manufacturing implementation are reviewed and simple framework is constructed for the small and medium enterprise for successful implementation of sustainable manufacturing and sustainable product.

Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable manufacturing, resource efficiency, framework for sustainable manufacturing

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4051 Assessment of Negative Impacts Affecting Public Transportation Modes and Infrastructure in Burgersfort Town towards Building Urban Sustainability

Authors: Ntloana Hlabishi Peter

Abstract:

The availability of public transportation modes and qualitative infrastructure is a burning issue that affects urban sustainability. Public transportation is indispensable in providing adequate transportation means to people at an affordable price, and it promotes public transport reliance. Burgersfort town has a critical condition on the urban public transportation infrastructure which affects the bus and taxi public transport modes and the existing infrastructure. The municipality is regarded as one of the mining towns in Limpopo Province considering the availability of mining activities and proposal on establishment of a Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The study aim is to assess the efficacy of current public transportation infrastructure and to propose relevant recommendations that will unlock the possibility of future supportable public transportation systems. The Key Informant Interview (KII) was used to acquire data on the views from commuters and stakeholders involved. There KII incorporated three relevant questions in relation to services rendered in public transportation. Relevant literature relating to public transportation modes and infrastructure revealed the imperatives of public transportation infrastructure, and relevant legislation was reviewed concerning public transport infrastructure. The finding revealed poor conditions on the public transportation ranks and also inadequate parking space for public transportation modes. The study reveals that 100% of people interviewed were not satisfied with the condition of public transportation infrastructure and 100% are not satisfied with the services offered by public transportation sectors. The findings revealed that the municipality is the main player who can upgrade the existing conditions of public transportation. The study recommended that an intermodal transportation facility must be established to resolve the emerging challenges.

Keywords: public transportation, modes, infrastructure, urban sustainability

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4050 A Study of Cloud Computing Solution for Transportation Big Data Processing

Authors: Ilgin Gökaşar, Saman Ghaffarian

Abstract:

The need for fast processed big data of transportation ridership (eg., smartcard data) and traffic operation (e.g., traffic detectors data) which requires a lot of computational power is incontrovertible in Intelligent Transportation Systems. Nowadays cloud computing is one of the important subjects and popular information technology solution for data processing. It enables users to process enormous measure of data without having their own particular computing power. Thus, it can also be a good selection for transportation big data processing as well. This paper intends to examine how the cloud computing can enhance transportation big data process with contrasting its advantages and disadvantages, and discussing cloud computing features.

Keywords: big data, cloud computing, Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS, traffic data processing

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4049 Planning and Design Criteria to Make Urban Transport More Sustainable: The Case of Baku

Authors: Gülnar Bayramoğlu Barman

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, technological developments and increased population have caused environmental damages. To protect the nature and architectural environment, firstly, green architecture, ecological architecture and then sustainability occurred. This term has been proposed not to be a new term but a response to environmental disturbances caused by human activities and it is re-conceptualization of architecture. Sustainable architecture or sustainability is lot more extensive than ecological and green architecture. It contains the imbalance between environmental problems that is natural environment and consumption that occurred all around the world. An important part of sustainability debate focused on urban planning and design for more sustainable forms and patterns. In particular, it is discussed that planning and design of urban areas have a major effect on transport and therefore can help reduce car usage, emissions, global warming and climate change. There are many planning and design approaches and movement that introduce certain criteria and strategies to prevent car dependency and encourage people to use public transportation and walking. However, when review the literature, it is seen that planning movements, such as New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development originated and were implemented mostly in West European and North American Cities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether all those criteria, principles and strategies are also relevant planning approaches for more non-western cities like Baku, which has a very different planning background and therefore possibly different urban form and transport issues. In order to answer the above mentioned question, planning and design approaches in the literature and these recent planning movements were studied and a check list was formed which indicate planning and design approaches that can help attain a more sustainable transport outcome. The checklist was then applied to the case of Baku.

Keywords: sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable transportation, transport, urban design

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4048 Highlighting of the Factors and Policies affecting CO2 Emissions level in Malaysian Transportation Sector

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand requirement has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyse the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, transportation sector, fuel consumption, energy policy, Malaysia

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4047 Digitalized Cargo Coordination to Eliminate Emissions in the Shipping Ecosystem: A System Dynamical Approach

Authors: Henry Schwartz, Bogdan Iancu, Magnus Gustafsson, Johan Lilius

Abstract:

The shipping sector generates significant amounts of carbon emissions on annual basis. The excess amount of carbon dioxide is harmful for both the environment and the society, and partly for that reason, there is acute interest to decrease the volume of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in shipping. The usage of the existing cargo carrying capacity can be maximized, and the share of time used in actual transportation operations could be increased if the whole transportation and logistics chain was optimized with the aid of information sharing done through a centralized marketplace and an information-sharing platform. The outcome of this change would be decreased carbon dioxide emission volumes produced per each metric ton of cargo transported by a vessel. Cargo coordination is a platform under development that matches the need for waterborne transportation services with the ships that operate at a given moment in time. In this research, the transition towards adopting cargo coordination is modelled with system dynamics. The model encompasses the complex supply-demand relationships of ship operators and cargo owners. The built scenarios predict the pace at which different stakeholders start using the digitalized platform and by doing so reduce the amount of annual CO2 emissions generated. To improve the reliability of the results, various sensitivity analyses considering the pace of transition as well as the overall impact on the environment (carbon dioxide emissions per amount of cargo transported) are conducted. The results of the study can be used to support investors and politicians in decision making towards more environmentally sustainable solutions. In addition, the model provides concepts and ideas for a wider discussion considering the paths towards carbon neutral transportation.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, sustainable transportation, system dynamics

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4046 Walkability and Urban Centers: The Valuation of Public Open Spaces from a Sustainable Alternative

Authors: Ursula D'Almeida, Danielly Aliprandi

Abstract:

A car-based development is observed in our cities, what leads to social and environmental impacts, such as air pollution, excessive noises and the substitution of public open spaces for roads and parking lots. Concerning the efforts to promote a sustainable development, a key issue is the reduction of fossil fuels consumption. An alternative to the pollutant gases emission, especially from urban transportation, is the incentive for active transport. The promoting of non-motorized travels and locomotion ways that only depend on human propulsion meets the sustainable mobility notion. Walking is one of the healthiest, cleanest, most natural and economical means to move around. Also, it integrates part of public transportation travels. Since walking demands physical effort, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. In urban space, not always we come across pedestrian friendly road structures. Based on the theory of walkability, the present paper aims to discuss the walking conditions in city centers by analyzing the distribution of urban services and uses, and this also regarding sidewalks quality. The case study presented is the urban center in the medium-sized Brazilian city Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro State. The study also brings contributions to the recovering of underused public open spaces, especially by encouraging their use and appropriation through valuing non-motorized travels conditions.

Keywords: active transport, historical center, sustainable mobility, walking

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4045 Urban Transport Demand Management Multi-Criteria Decision Using AHP and SERVQUAL Models: Case Study of Nigerian Cities

Authors: Suleiman Hassan Otuoze, Dexter Vernon Lloyd Hunt, Ian Jefferson

Abstract:

Urbanization has continued to widen the gap between demand and resources available to provide resilient and sustainable transport services in many fast-growing developing countries' cities. Transport demand management is a decision-based optimization concept for both benchmarking and ensuring efficient use of transport resources. This study assesses the service quality of infrastructure and mobility services in the Nigerian cities of Kano and Lagos through five dimensions of quality (i.e., Tangibility, Reliability, Responsibility, Safety Assurance and Empathy). The methodology adopts a hybrid AHP-SERVQUAL model applied on questionnaire surveys to gauge the quality of satisfaction and the views of experts in the field. The AHP results prioritize tangibility, which defines the state of transportation infrastructure and services in terms of satisfaction qualities and intervention decision weights in the two cities. The results recorded ‘unsatisfactory’ indices of quality of performance and satisfaction rating values of 48% and 49% for Kano and Lagos, respectively. The satisfaction indices are identified as indicators of low performances of transportation demand management (TDM) measures and the necessity to re-order priorities and take proactive steps towards infrastructure. The findings pilot a framework for comparative assessment of recognizable standards in transport services, best ethics of management and a necessity of quality infrastructure to guarantee both resilient and sustainable urban mobility.

Keywords: transportation demand management, multi-criteria decision support, transport infrastructure, service quality, sustainable transport

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4044 Unfolding the Social Clash between Online and Non-Online Transportation Providers in Bandung

Authors: Latifah Putti Tiananda, Sasti Khoirunnisa, Taniadiana Yapwito, Jessica Noviena

Abstract:

Innovations are often met with two responses, acceptance or rejection. In the past few years, Indonesia is experiencing a revolution of transportation service, which utilizes online platform for its operation. Such improvement is welcomed by consumers and challenged by conventional or ‘non-online’ transportation providers simultaneously. Conflicts arise as the existence of this online transportation mode results in declining income of non-online transportation workers. Physical confrontations and demonstrations demand policing from central authority. However, the obscurity of legal measures from the government persists the social instability. Bandung, a city in West Java with the highest rate of online transportation usage, has recently issued a recommendation withholding the operation of online transportation services to maintain peace and order. Thus, this paper seeks to elaborate the social unrest between the two contesting transportation actors in Bandung and explore community-based approaches to solve this problem. Using qualitative research method, this paper will also feature in-depth interviews with directly involved sources from Bandung.

Keywords: Bandung, market competition, online transportation services, social unrest

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4043 Transportation Language Register as One of Language Community

Authors: Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

Abstract:

Language register refers to a variety of a language used for particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Language register also means as a concept of adapting one’s use of language to conform to standards or tradition in a given professional or social situation. This descriptive study tends to discuss about the form of language register in transportation aspect, factors, also the function of use it. Mostly, language register in transportation aspect uses short sentences in form of informal register. The factor caused language register used are speaker, word choice, background of language. The functions of language register in transportations aspect are to make communication between crew easily, also to keep safety when they were in bad condition. Transportation language register developed naturally as one of variety of language used.

Keywords: language register, language variety, communication, transportation

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4042 Developing a Sustainable Transit Planning Index Using Analytical Hierarchy Process Method for ZEB Implementation in Canada

Authors: Mona Ghafouri-Azar, Sara Diamond, Jeremy Bowes, Grace Yuan, Aimee Burnett, Michelle Wyndham-West, Sara Wagner, Anand Pariyarath

Abstract:

Transportation is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. In Canada, it is responsible for 23% of total CO2emissions from fuel combustion, and emissions from the transportation sector are the second largest source of emissions after the oil and gas sector. Currently, most Canadian public transportation systems rely on buses that operateon fossil fuels.Canada is currently investing billions of dollars to replacediesel buses with electric busesas this isperceived to have a significant impact on climate mitigation. This paper focuses on the possible impacts of zero emission buses (ZEB) on sustainable development, considering three dimensions of sustainability; environmental quality, economic growth, and social development.A sustainable transportation system is one that is safe, affordable, accessible, efficient, and resilient and that contributes minimal emissions of carbon and other pollutants.To enable implementation of these goals, relevant indicators were selected and defined that measure progress towards a sustainable transportation system. These were drawn from Canadian and international examples. Studies compare different European cities in terms of development, sustainability, and infrastructures, by using transport performance indicators. A Normalized Transport Sustainability index measures and compares policies in different urban areas and allows fine-tuning of policies. Analysts use a number ofmethods for sustainable analysis, like cost-benefit analysis (CBA) toassess economic benefit, life-cycle assessment (LCA) to assess social, economic, and environment factors and goals, and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis which can comparediffering stakeholder preferences.A multi criteria decision making approach is an appropriate methodology to plan and evaluate sustainable transit development and to provide insights and meaningful information for decision makers and transit agencies. It is essential to develop a system thataggregates specific discrete indices to assess the sustainability of transportation systems.Theseprioritize indicators appropriate for the differentCanadian transit system agencies and theirpreferences and requirements. This studywill develop an integrating index that alliesexistingdiscrete indexes to supporta reliable comparison between the current transportation system (diesel buses) and the new ZEB system emerging in Canada. As a first step, theindexes for each category are selected, and the index matrix constructed. Second, the selected indicators arenormalized to remove anyinconsistency between them. Next, the normalized matrix isweighted based on the relative importance of each index to the main domains of sustainability using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. This is accomplished through expert judgement around the relative importance of different attributes with respect to the goals through apairwise comparison matrix. The considerationof multiple environmental, economic, and social factors (including equity and health) is integrated intoa sustainable transit planning index (STPI) which supportsrealistic ZEB implementation in Canada and beyond and is useful to different stakeholders, agencies, and ministries.

Keywords: zero emission buses, sustainability, sustainable transit, transportation, analytical hierarchy process, environment, economy, social

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4041 Disaster Resilience Analysis of Atlanta Interstate Highway System within the Perimeter

Authors: Mengmeng Liu, J. David Frost

Abstract:

Interstate highway system within the Atlanta Perimeter plays an important role in residents’ daily life. The serious influence of Atlanta I-85 Collapses implies that transportation system in the region lacks a cohesive and comprehensive transportation plan. Therefore, disaster resilience analysis of the transportation system is necessary. Resilience is the system’s capability to persist or to maintain transportation services when exposed to changes or shocks. This paper analyzed the resilience of the whole transportation system within the Perimeter and see how removing interstates within the Perimeter will affect the resilience of the transportation system. The data used in the paper are Atlanta transportation networks and LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics data. First, we calculate the traffic flow on each road section based on LEHD data assuming each trip travel along the shortest travel time paths. Second, we calculate the measure of resilience, which is flow-based connectivity and centrality of the transportation network, and see how they will change if we remove each section of interstates from the current transportation system. Finally, we get the resilience function curve of the interstates and identify the most resilient interstates section. The resilience analysis results show that the framework of calculation resilience is effective and can provide some useful information for the transportation planning and sustainability analysis of the transportation infrastructures.

Keywords: connectivity, interstate highway system, network analysis, resilience analysis

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4040 The Masterplan for the Urban Regeneration of the Heritage District of Msheireb Downtown Doha, State of Qatar

Authors: Raffaello Furlan

Abstract:

In the 21st century, the sustainable urban development of GCC-cities is challenged by inhabitants’ over-dependency on private-use vehicles. In turn, this habit has generated problems of urban inefficiency, contributing to traffic congestion, pollution, urban sprawling, fragmentation of the urban fabric, and various environmental and social challenges. In the context of Doha, the capital city of the State of Qatar, the over-dependency on private-use vehicles is justified by the lack of alternative public modes of transportation that support the need to connect fragmented urban districts and provide an effective solution to urban sprawl. Therefore, the current construction of the Qatar Metro Rail is offering the potential for investigating and defining a strategy for the sustainable urban development and/or urban regeneration of transit villages (TODs) in Qatar. Namely, the aim of this research study is (i) to investigate the development of transit villages (TODs) in the cultural-heritage district of Msheireb, Downtown Doha, (ii) to explore how the introduction of the new public transport system of Doha Metro can be effectively utilized as means of urban regeneration of the cultural core of the city, (iii) to propose a masterplan for TOD suitable for the district, suiting and responding to regional cultural and societal values. The findings reveal that the strategies for the sustainable urban regeneration of Msheireb are based on (i) the integration of land-use and multimodal transportation systems, (ii) the implementation of the public realm, and (iii) conservation of culture and urban identity.

Keywords: sustainable urbanism, smart growth, TODs, cultural district, Msheireb Downtown Doha

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