Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Wayne L. Bryden

19 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers

Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden

Abstract:

This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, ginger, zeolite

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18 Efficacy of a Zeolite as a Detoxifier in Broiler Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Authors: R. Stevens, W.L. Bryden

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The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of zeolite in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broilers. A total of 540 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into nine treatments, with four replicate pens per treatment and 15 chicks per pen. The treatments included 3 Levels of AFB1 (0,1and 2 mg/kg diet) and 3 levels of zeolite (0, 1.5 and 3 %) in a 3 ×3 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments commenced on d 7 post-hatch. A starter diet was provided from d 1 to 14, a grower diet from d 15 to 28 and a finisher diet from d 29 to d 49. Diets were based on corn and soybeans and formulated to meet the bird's requirements. The evaluated parameters were as follows: Bodyweight, daily gain, feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), relative weights of organs (carcass, liver, heart and abdominal fat) and clinical biochemistry parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Bodyweight, daily gain and FC were significantly (P<0.05) impaired by aflatoxin. Relative weights of the liver and heart were also affected. The addition of zeolite (1.5 and 3 %) to the contaminated diets ameliorated the effects of aflatoxin, especially at the higher level of inclusion. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent (zeolite) can protect against the toxicity of AFB1in young broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, toxicity, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
17 A Probabilistic View of the Spatial Pooler in Hierarchical Temporal Memory

Authors: Mackenzie Leake, Liyu Xia, Kamil Rocki, Wayne Imaino

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In the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) paradigm the effect of overlap between inputs on the activation of columns in the spatial pooler is studied. Numerical results suggest that similar inputs are represented by similar sets of columns and dissimilar inputs are represented by dissimilar sets of columns. It is shown that the spatial pooler produces these results under certain conditions for the connectivity and proximal thresholds. Following the discussion of the initialization of parameters for the thresholds, corresponding qualitative arguments about the learning dynamics of the spatial pooler are discussed.

Keywords: hierarchical temporal memory, HTM, learning algorithms, machine learning, spatial pooler

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16 Red Green Blue Image Encryption Based on Paillier Cryptographic System

Authors: Mamadou I. Wade, Henry C. Ogworonjo, Madiha Gul, Mandoye Ndoye, Mohamed Chouikha, Wayne Patterson

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In this paper, we present a novel application of the Paillier cryptographic system to the encryption of RGB (Red Green Blue) images. In this method, an RGB image is first separated into its constituent channel images, and the Paillier encryption function is applied to each of the channels pixel intensity values. Next, the encrypted image is combined and compressed if necessary before being transmitted through an unsecured communication channel. The transmitted image is subsequently recovered by a decryption process. We performed a series of security and performance analyses to the recovered images in order to verify their robustness to security attack. The results show that the proposed image encryption scheme produces highly secured encrypted images.

Keywords: image encryption, Paillier cryptographic system, RBG image encryption, Paillier

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
15 Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicates a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

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14 A Simple Method for Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation, and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicate a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

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13 Universiti Sains Malaysia

Authors: Eisa A. Alsafran, Francis T. Edum-Fotwe, Wayne E. Lord

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The degree to which a public client actively participates in Public Private Partnership (PPP) schemes, is seen as a determinant of the success of the arrangement, and in particular, efficiency in the delivery of the assets of any infrastructure development. The asset delivery is often an early barometer for judging the overall performance of the PPP. Currently, there are no defined descriptors for the degree of such participation. The lack of defined descriptors makes the association between the degree of participation and efficiency of asset delivery, difficult to establish. This is particularly so if an optimum effect is desired. In addition, such an association is important for the strategic decision to embark on any PPP initiative. This paper presents a conceptual model of different levels of participation that characterise PPP schemes. The modelling was achieved by a systematic review of reported sources that address essential aspects and structures of PPP schemes, published from 2001 to 2015. As a precursor to the modelling, the common areas of Public Client Participation (PCP) were investigated. Equity and risk emerged as two dominant factors in the common areas of PCP, and were therefore adopted to form the foundation of the modelling. The resultant conceptual model defines the different states of combined PCP. The defined states provide a more rational basis for establishing how the degree of PCP affects the efficiency of asset delivery in PPP schemes.

Keywords: asset delivery, infrastructure development, public private partnership, public client participation

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12 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath

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The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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11 Combining in vitro Protein Expression with AlphaLISA Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interaction

Authors: Shayli Varasteh Moradi, Wayne A. Johnston, Dejan Gagoski, Kirill Alexandrov

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The demand for a rapid and more efficient technique to identify protein-protein interaction particularly in the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics development is growing. The method described here is a rapid in vitro protein-protein interaction analysis approach based on AlphaLISA technology combined with Leishmania tarentolae cell-free protein production (LTE) system. Cell-free protein synthesis allows the rapid production of recombinant proteins in a multiplexed format. Among available in vitro expression systems, LTE offers several advantages over other eukaryotic cell-free systems. It is based on a fast growing fermentable organism that is inexpensive in cultivation and lysate production. High integrity of proteins produced in this system and the ability to co-express multiple proteins makes it a desirable method for screening protein interactions. Following the translation of protein pairs in LTE system, the physical interaction between proteins of interests is analysed by AlphaLISA assay. The assay is performed using unpurified in vitro translation reaction and therefore can be readily multiplexed. This approach can be used in various research applications such as epitope mapping, antigen-antibody analysis and protein interaction network mapping. The intra-viral protein interaction network of Zika virus was studied using the developed technique. The viral proteins were co-expressed pair-wise in LTE and all possible interactions among viral proteins were tested using AlphaLISA. The assay resulted to the identification of 54 intra-viral protein-protein interactions from which 19 binary interactions were found to be novel. The presented technique provides a powerful tool for rapid analysis of protein-protein interaction with high sensitivity and throughput.

Keywords: AlphaLISA technology, cell-free protein expression, epitope mapping, Leishmania tarentolae, protein-protein interaction

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10 Enriched Education: The Classroom as a Learning Network through Video Game Narrative Development

Authors: Wayne DeFehr

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This study is rooted in a pedagogical approach that emphasizes student engagement as fundamental to meaningful learning in the classroom. This approach creates a paradigmatic shift, from a teaching practice that reinforces the teacher’s central authority to a practice that disperses that authority among the students in the classroom through networks that they themselves develop. The methodology of this study about creating optimal conditions for learning in the classroom includes providing a conceptual framework within which the students work, as well as providing clearly stated expectations for work standards, content quality, group methodology, and learning outcomes. These learning conditions are nurtured in a variety of ways. First, nearly every class includes a lecture from the professor with key concepts that students need in order to complete their work successfully. Secondly, students build on this scholarly material by forming their own networks, where students face each other and engage with each other in order to collaborate their way to solving a particular problem relating to the course content. Thirdly, students are given short, medium, and long-term goals. Short term goals relate to the week’s topic and involve workshopping particular issues relating to that stage of the course. The medium-term goals involve students submitting term assignments that are evaluated according to a well-defined rubric. And finally, long-term goals are achieved by creating a capstone project, which is celebrated and shared with classmates and interested friends on the final day of the course. The essential conclusions of the study are drawn from courses that focus on video game narrative. Enthusiastic student engagement is created not only with the dynamic energy and expertise of the instructor, but also with the inter-dependence of the students on each other to build knowledge, acquire skills, and achieve successful results.

Keywords: collaboration, education, learning networks, video games

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9 Intraoperative ICG-NIR Fluorescence Angiography Visualization of Intestinal Perfusion in Primary Pull-Through for Hirschsprung Disease

Authors: Mohammad Emran, Colton Wayne, Shannon M Koehler, P. Stephen Almond, Haroon Patel

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Purpose: Assessment of anastomotic perfusion in Hirschsprung disease using Indocyanine Green (ICG)-near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography. Introduction: Anastomotic stricture and leak are well-known complications of Hirschsprung pull-through procedures. Complications are due to tension, infection, and/or poor perfusion. While a surgeon can visually determine and control the amount of tension and contamination, assessment of perfusion is subject to surgeon determination. Intraoperative use of ICG-NIR enhances this decision-making process by illustrating perfusion intensity and adequacy in the pulled-through bowel segment. This technique, proven to reduce anastomotic stricture and leak in adults, has not been studied in children to our knowledge. ICG, an FDA approved, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, intravascular (IV) dye, has been used in adults and children for over 60 years, with few side effects. ICG-NIR was used in this report to demonstrate the adequacy of perfusion during transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung’s disease. Method: 8 patients with Hirschsprung disease were evaluated with ICG-NIR technology. Levels of affected area ranged from sigmoid to total colonic Hirschsprung disease. After leveling, but prior to anastomosis, ICG was administered at 1.25 mg (< 2 mg/kg) and perfusion visualized using an NIR camera, before and during anastomosis. Video and photo imaging was performed and perfusion of the bowel was compared to surrounding tissues. This showed the degree of perfusion and demarcation of perfused and non-perfused bowel. The anastomosis was completed uneventfully and the patients all did well. Results: There were no complications of stricture or leak. 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) had modification of the plan based on ICG-NIR imaging. Conclusion: Technologies that enhance surgeons’ ability to visualize bowel perfusion prior to anastomosis in Hirschsprung’s patients may help reduce post-operative complications. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits.

Keywords: colonic anastomosis, fluorescence angiography, Hirschsprung disease, pediatric surgery, SPY

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8 Strawberry Productivity of Peri-Urban and Urban Locations across Southeast Michigan, USA

Authors: Maria E. Laconi, Kyla D. Scherr, Mary A. Jamieson

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Human populations in urban environments have rapidly grown in recent decades. Consequently, the intensity of land-use and development has also increased in many urban and peri-urban environments. Some cities, such as Detroit, Michigan, USA, have embraced urban agriculture and local food production. Little is known, however, about how the local and landscape scale environmental factors influence crop productivity on urban farms. Our study aims to evaluate factors influencing the productivity of strawberries on community farms and gardens in the Detroit metropolitan area. Strawberries are one of few fruits that can provide an abundant harvest just after the first season of being planted, which is ideal for urban gardeners in developed areas. In the spring of 2016, we planted six different strawberry cultivars (three everbearing and three June bearing varieties) at five farm sites in Wayne and Oakland County (six replicate plants per cultivar per site). We surveyed flower and fruit phenology and production for everbearing varieties weekly (flowers for June bearing varieties were removed to enhance productivity in the coming growing season). Additionally, we conducted one initial 36hr pollinator survey in mid-September during peak fruit production and characterized local and landscape scale land-cover data. Preliminary results and observations from this first year of our study revealed that strawberry production varied significantly by site. Specifically, productivity at our most northern site appeared to suffer from delayed phenology and early frost damage to ripening strawberries. Bee abundance and diversity also differed among farms, though further surveys are needed to adequately inventory the pollinator community. Finally, strawberry cultivars demonstrated significant differences in the number and size of fruits produced. We plan to continue this study in the coming years, increasing the number of sites surveyed and number of pollinator sampling events. Our study aims to inform strategies for enhancing crop productivity on urban and peri-urban farms.

Keywords: insect pollination, strawberry productivity, sustainable agriculture, urban gardening

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7 Airborne CO₂ Lidar Measurements for Atmospheric Carbon and Transport: America (ACT-America) Project and Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons 2017-2018 Field Campaigns

Authors: Joel F. Campbell, Bing Lin, Michael Obland, Susan Kooi, Tai-Fang Fan, Byron Meadows, Edward Browell, Wayne Erxleben, Doug McGregor, Jeremy Dobler, Sandip Pal, Christopher O'Dell, Ken Davis

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The Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center instrument funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO₂ ) mixing ratios in support of the NASA ASCENDS mission. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The ACES design demonstrates advanced technologies critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport – America (ACT-America) is an Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission sponsored by the Earth Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. A major objective is to enhance knowledge of the sources/sinks and transport of atmospheric CO₂ through the application of remote and in situ airborne measurements of CO₂ and other atmospheric properties on spatial and temporal scales. ACT-America consists of five campaigns to measure regional carbon and evaluate transport under various meteorological conditions in three regional areas of the Continental United States. Regional CO₂ distributions of the lower atmosphere were observed from the C-130 aircraft by the Harris Corp. Multi-Frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and the ACES lidar. The airborne lidars provide unique data that complement the more traditional in situ sensors. This presentation shows the applications of CO₂ lidars in support of these science needs.

Keywords: CO₂ measurement, IMCW, CW lidar, laser spectroscopy

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6 An Econometric Analysis of the Flat Tax Revolution

Authors: Wayne Tarrant, Ethan Petersen

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The concept of a flat tax goes back to at least the Biblical tithe. A progressive income tax was first vociferously espoused in a small, but famous, pamphlet in 1848 (although England had an emergency progressive tax for war costs prior to this). Within a few years many countries had adopted the progressive structure. The flat tax was only reinstated in some small countries and British protectorates until Mart Laar was elected Prime Minister of Estonia in 1992. Since Estonia’s adoption of the flat tax in 1993, many other formerly Communist countries have likewise abandoned progressive income taxes. Economists had expectations of what would happen when a flat tax was enacted, but very little work has been done on actually measuring the effect. With a testbed of 21 countries in this region that currently have a flat tax, much comparison is possible. Several countries have retained progressive taxes, giving an opportunity for contrast. There are also the cases of Czech Republic and Slovakia, which have adopted and later abandoned the flat tax. Further, with over 20 years’ worth of economic history in some flat tax countries, we can begin to do some serious longitudinal study. In this paper we consider many economic variables to determine if there are statistically significant differences from before to after the adoption of a flat tax. We consider unemployment rates, tax receipts, GDP growth, Gini coefficients, and market data where the data are available. Comparisons are made through the use of event studies and time series methods. The results are mixed, but we draw statistically significant conclusions about some effects. We also look at the different implementations of the flat tax. In some countries there are equal income and corporate tax rates. In others the income tax has a lower rate, while in others the reverse is true. Each of these sends a clear message to individuals and corporations. The policy makers surely have a desired effect in mind. We group countries with similar policies, try to determine if the intended effect actually occurred, and then report the results. This is a work in progress, and we welcome the suggestion of variables to consider. Further, some of the data from before the fall of the Iron Curtain are suspect. Since there are new ruling regimes in these countries, the methods of computing different statistical measures has changed. Although we first look at the raw data as reported, we also attempt to account for these changes. We show which data seem to be fictional and suggest ways to infer the needed statistics from other data. These results are reported beside those on the reported data. Since there is debate about taxation structure, this paper can help inform policymakers of change the flat tax has caused in other countries. The work shows some strengths and weaknesses of a flat tax structure. Moreover, it provides beginnings of a scientific analysis of the flat tax in practice rather than having discussion based solely upon theory and conjecture.

Keywords: flat tax, financial markets, GDP, unemployment rate, Gini coefficient

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5 Material Chemistry Level Deformation and Failure in Cementitious Materials

Authors: Ram V. Mohan, John Rivas-Murillo, Ahmed Mohamed, Wayne D. Hodo

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Cementitious materials, an excellent example of highly complex, heterogeneous material systems, are cement-based systems that include cement paste, mortar, and concrete that are heavily used in civil infrastructure; though commonly used are one of the most complex in terms of the material morphology and structure than most materials, for example, crystalline metals. Processes and features occurring at the nanometer sized morphological structures affect the performance, deformation/failure behavior at larger length scales. In addition, cementitious materials undergo chemical and morphological changes gaining strength during the transient hydration process. Hydration in cement is a very complex process creating complex microstructures and the associated molecular structures that vary with hydration. A fundamental understanding can be gained through multi-scale level modeling for the behavior and properties of cementitious materials starting from the material chemistry level atomistic scale to further explore their role and the manifested effects at larger length and engineering scales. This predictive modeling enables the understanding, and studying the influence of material chemistry level changes and nanomaterial additives on the expected resultant material characteristics and deformation behavior. Atomistic-molecular dynamic level modeling is required to couple material science to engineering mechanics. Starting at the molecular level a comprehensive description of the material’s chemistry is required to understand the fundamental properties that govern behavior occurring across each relevant length scale. Material chemistry level models and molecular dynamics modeling and simulations are employed in our work to describe the molecular-level chemistry features of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), one of the key hydrated constituents of cement paste, their associated deformation and failure. The molecular level atomic structure for CSH can be represented by Jennite mineral structure. Jennite has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of the CSH gel formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. This paper will focus on our recent work on the shear and compressive deformation and failure behavior of CSH represented by Jennite mineral structure that has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of CSH formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. The deformation and failure behavior under shear and compression loading deformation in traditional hydrated CSH; effect of material chemistry changes on the predicted stress-strain behavior, transition from linear to non-linear behavior and identify the on-set of failure based on material chemistry structures of CSH Jennite and changes in its chemistry structure will be discussed.

Keywords: cementitious materials, deformation, failure, material chemistry modeling

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4 The Role of Oral and Intestinal Microbiota in European Badgers

Authors: Emma J. Dale, Christina D. Buesching, Kevin R. Theis, David W. Macdonald

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This study investigates the oral and intestinal microbiomes of wild-living European badgers (Meles meles) and will relate inter-individual differences to social contact networks, somatic and reproductive fitness, varying susceptibility to bovine tuberculous (bTB) and to the olfactory advertisement. Badgers are an interesting model for this research, as they have great variation in body condition, despite living in complex social networks and having access to the same resources. This variation in somatic fitness, in turn, affects breeding success, particularly in females. We postulate that microbiota have a central role to play in determining the successfulness of an individual. Our preliminary results, characterising the microbiota of individual badgers, indicate unique compositions of microbiota communities within social groups of badgers. This basal information will inform further questions related to the extent microbiota influence fitness. Hitherto, the potential role of microbiota has not been considered in determining host condition, but also other key fitness variables, namely; communication and resistance to disease. Badgers deposit their faeces in communal latrines, which play an important role in olfactory communication. Odour profiles of anal and subcaudal gland secretions are highly individual-specific and encode information about group-membership and fitness-relevant parameters, and their chemical composition is strongly dependent on symbiotic microbiota. As badgers sniff/ lick (using their Vomeronasal organ) and over-mark faecal deposits of conspecifics, these microbial communities can be expected to vary with social contact networks. However, this is particularly important in the context of bTB, where badgers are assumed to transmit bTB to cattle as well as conspecifics. Interestingly, we have found that some individuals are more susceptible to bTB than are others. As acquired immunity and thus potential susceptibility to infectious diseases are known to depend also on symbiotic microbiota in other members of the mustelids, a role of particularly oral microbiota can currently not be ruled out as a potential explanation for inter-individual differences in infection susceptibility of bTB in badgers. Tri annually badgers are caught in the context of a long-term population study that began in 1987. As all badgers receive an individual tattoo upon first capture, age, natal as well as previous and current social group-membership and other life history parameters are known for all animals. Swabs (subcaudal ‘scent gland’, anal, genital, nose, mouth and ear) and fecal samples will be taken from all individuals, stored at -80oC until processing. Microbial samples will be processed and identified at Wayne State University’s Theis (Host-Microbe Interactions) Lab, using High Throughput Sequencing (16S rRNA-encoding gene amplification and sequencing). Acknowledgments: Gas-Chromatography/ Mass-spectrometry (in the context of olfactory communication) analyses will be performed through an established collaboration with Dr. Veronica Tinnesand at Telemark University, Norway.

Keywords: communication, energetics, fitness, free-ranging animals, immunology

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3 Tertiary Training of Future Health Educators and Health Professionals Involved in Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Strategies

Authors: Thea Werkhoven, Wayne Cotton

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Adult and childhood rates of obesity in Australia are health concerns of high national priority, retaining epidemic status in the populations affected. Attempts to prevent further increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in the population aged below eighteen years have had varied success. A multidisciplinary approach has been used, employing strategies in schools, through established health care system usage and public health campaigns. Over the last decade a plateau in prevalence has been reached in the youth population afflicted by obesity and interest has peaked in school based strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. Of interest to this study is the importance of the tertiary training of future health educators or health professionals destined to be involved in obesity prevention and treatment strategies. Health educators and health professionals are considered instrumental to the success of prevention and treatment strategies, required to possess sufficient and accurate knowledge in order to be effective in their positions. A common influence on the success of school based health promoting activities are the weight based attitudes possessed by health educators, known to be negative and biased towards overweight or obese children during training and practice. Whilst the tertiary training of future health professionals includes minimal nutrition education, there is no mandatory training in health education or nutrition for pre-service health educators in Australian tertiary institutions. This study aimed to assess the impact of a pedagogical intervention on pre-service health educators and health professionals enrolled in a health and wellbeing elective. The intervention aimed to increase nutrition knowledge and decrease weight bias and was embedded in the twelve week elective. Participants (n=98) were tertiary students at a major Australian University who were enrolled in health (47%) and non-health related degrees (53%). A quantitative survey using four valid and reliable instruments was conducted to measured nutrition knowledge, antifat attitudes and weight stereotyping attitudes at baseline and post-intervention. Scores on each instrument were compared between time points to check if they had significantly changed and to determine the effect of the intervention on attitudes and knowledge. Antifat attitudes at baseline were considered low and decreased further over the course of the intervention. Scores representing weight bias did decrease but the change was not significant. Fat stereotyping attitudes became stronger over the course of the intervention and this change was significant. Nutrition knowledge significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention. The design of the nutrition knowledge and attitude amelioration content of the intervention was semi-successful in achieving its outcomes. While the level of nutrition knowledge was improved over the course of the intervention, an unintentional increase was observed in weight based prejudice which is known to occur in interventions that employ stigma reduction methodologies. Further research is required into a structured methodology that increases level of nutrition knowledge and ameliorates weight bias at the tertiary level. In this way training provided would help prepare future health educators with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective and bias free in their practice.

Keywords: education, intervention, nutrition, obesity

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2 The Shared Breath Project: Inhabiting Each Other’s Words and Being

Authors: Beverly Redman

Abstract:

With the Theatre Season of 2020-2021 cancelled due to COVID-19 at Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA, faculty directors found themselves scrambling to create theatre production opportunities for their students in the Department of Theatre. Redman, Chair of the Department, found her community to be suffering from anxieties brought on by a confluence of issues: the global-scale Covid-19 Pandemic, the United States’ Black Lives Matter protests erupting in cities all across the country and the coming Presidential election, arguably the most important and most contentious in the country’s history. Redman wanted to give her students the opportunity to speak not only on these issues but also to be able to record who they were at this time in their personal lives, as well as in this broad socio-political context. She also wanted to invite them into an experience of feeling empathy, too, at a time when empathy in this world seems to be sorely lacking. Returning to a mode of Devising Theatre she had used with community groups in the past, in which storytelling and re-enactment of participants’ life events combined with oral history documentation practices, Redman planned The Shared Breath Project. The process involved three months of workshops, in which participants alternated between theatre exercises and oral history collection and documentation activities as a way of generating original material for a theatre production. The goal of the first half of the project was for each participant to produce a solo piece in the form of a monologue after many generations of potential material born out of gammes, improvisations, interviews and the like. Along the way, many film and audio clips recorded the process of each person’s written documentation—documentation prepared by the subject him or herself but also by others in the group assigned to listen, watch and record. Then, in the second half of the project—and only once each participant had taken their own contributions from raw improvisatory self-presentations and through the stages of composition and performative polish, participants then exchanged their pieces. The second half of the project involved taking on each other’s words, mannerisms, gestures, melodic and rhythmic speech patterns and inhabiting them through the rehearsal process as their own, thus the title, The Shared Breath Project. Here, in stage two the acting challenges evolved to be those of capturing the other and becoming the other through accurate mimicry that embraces Denis Diderot’s concept of the Paradox of Acting, in that the actor is both seeming and being simultaneous. This paper shares the carefully documented process of making the live-streamed theatre production that resulted from these workshops, writing processes and rehearsals, and forming, The Shared Breath Project, which ultimately took the students’ Realist, life-based pieces and edited them into a single unified theatre production. The paper also utilizes research on the Paradox of Acting, putting a Post-Structuralist spin on Diderot’s theory. Here, the paper suggests the limitations of inhabiting the other by allowing that the other is always already a thing impenetrable but nevertheless worthy of unceasing empathetic, striving and delving in an epoch in which slow, careful attention to our fellows is in short supply.

Keywords: otherness, paradox of acting, oral history theatre, devised theatre, political theatre, community-based theatre, peoples’ theatre

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1 Barriers and Enablers to Climate and Health Adaptation Planning in Small Urban Areas in the Great Lakes Region

Authors: Elena Cangelosi, Wayne Beyea

Abstract:

This research expands the resilience planning literature by exploring the barriers and enablers to climate and health adaptation planning for small urban, coastal Great Lakes communities. With funding from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Climate Ready City and States Initiative, this research took place during a 3-year pilot intervention project which integrates urban planning and public health. The project used the CDC’s Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework to prevent or reduce the human health impacts from climate change in Marquette County, Michigan. Using a deliberation with the analysis planning process, interviews, focus groups, and community meetings with over 25 stakeholder groups and over 100 participants identified the area’s climate-related health concerns and adaptation interventions to address those concerns. Marquette County, on the shores of Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes, was selected for the project based on their existing adaptive capacity and proactive approach to climate adaptation planning. With Marquette County as the context, this study fills a gap in the adaptation literature, which currently heavily emphasizes large-urban or agriculturally-based rural areas, and largely neglects small urban areas. This research builds on the qualitative case-study, survey, and interview approach established by previous researchers on contextual barriers and enablers for adaptation planning. This research uses a case study approach, including surveys and interviews of public officials, to identify the barriers and enablers for climate and health adaptation planning for small-urban areas within a large, non-agricultural, Great Lakes county. The researchers hypothesize that the barriers and enablers will, in some cases, overlap those found in other contexts, but in many cases, will be unique to a rural setting. The study reveals that funding, staff capacity, and communication across a large, rural geography act as the main barriers, while strong networks and collaboration, interested leaders, and community interest through a strong human-land connection act as the primary enablers. Challenges unique to rural areas are revealed, including weak opportunities for grant funding, large geographical distances, communication challenges with an aging and remote population, and the out-migration of education residents. Enablers that may be unique to rural contexts include strong collaborative relationships across jurisdictions for regional work and strong connections between residents and the land. As the factors that enable and prevent climate change planning are highly contextual, understanding, and appropriately addressing the unique factors at play for small-urban communities is key for effective planning in those areas. By identifying and addressing the barriers and enablers to climate and health adaptation planning for small-urban, coastal areas, this study can help Great Lakes communities appropriately build resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change. In addition, this research expands the breadth of research and understanding of the challenges and opportunities planners confront in the face of climate change.

Keywords: climate adaptation and resilience, climate change adaptation, climate change and urban resilience, governance and urban resilience

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