Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2847

Search results for: electron beam

2847 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter


Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

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2846 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir


We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

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2845 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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2844 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina


Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

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2843 Electron Beam Effects on Kinetic Alfven Waves in the Cold Homogenous Plasma

Authors: Jaya Shrivastava


The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, growth/damping rate and associated currents in the presence of electron beam in homogenous plasma. Kinetic effects of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. It is found that downward electron beam affects the dispersion relation, growth/damping-rate and associated currents in cold electron limit.

Keywords: magnetospheric physics, plasma waves and instabilities, electron beam, space plasma physics, wave-particle interactions

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2842 A Simple Device for Characterizing High Power Electron Beams for Welding

Authors: Aman Kaur, Colin Ribton, Wamadeva Balachandaran


Electron beam welding due to its inherent advantages is being extensively used for material processing where high precision is required. Especially in aerospace or nuclear industries, there are high quality requirements and the cost of materials and processes is very high which makes it very important to ensure the beam quality is maintained and checked prior to carrying out the welds. Although the processes in these industries are highly controlled, however, even the minor changes in the operating parameters of the electron gun can make large enough variations in the beam quality that can result in poor welding. To measure the beam quality a simple device has been designed that can be used at high powers. The device consists of two slits in x and y axis which collects a small portion of the beam current when the beam is deflected over the slits. The signals received from the device are processed in data acquisition hardware and the dedicated software developed for the device. The device has been used in controlled laboratory environments to analyse the signals and the weld quality relationships by varying the focus current. The results showed matching trends in the weld dimensions and the beam characteristics. Further experimental work is being carried out to determine the ability of the device and signal processing software to detect subtle changes in the beam quality and to relate these to the physical weld quality indicators.

Keywords: electron beam welding, beam quality, high power, weld quality indicators

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2841 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush


This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

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2840 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh


This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

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2839 Neutralizing Antibody Response against Inactivated FMDV Type O/IRN/2010 Vaccine by Electron Beam in BALB/C Mice

Authors: F. Motamedi Sedeh, Sh. Chahardoli, H. Mahravani, N. Harzandi, M. Sotoodeh, S. K. Shafaei


Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most economically important disease of livestock. The aim of the study is inactivation of FMD virus type O/IRN/2010 by electron beam without antigenic changes as electron radio vaccine. The BALB/C mice were divided into three groups, each group containing five mice. Three groups of mice were inoculated with conventional vaccine and electron beam irradiated vaccine FMDV type O/IRN/2010 subcutaneously three weeks interval, the final group as negative control. The sera were separated from the blood samples of mice 14 days after last vaccination and tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV type O/IRN/2010 by serum neutralization test. The Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) was carried out and antibody titration was calculated according to the Kraber protocol. The results of the SNT in three groups of mice showed the titration of neutralizing antibody in the vaccinated mice groups; electron radio vaccine and conventional vaccine were significantly higher than negative control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the radio vaccine is a good candidate to immunize animals against FMDV type O/IRN/2010.

Keywords: FMDV type O/IRN/2010, neutralizing antibody response, electron beam, radio vaccine

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2838 Low Dose In-Line Electron Holography for 3D Atomic Resolution Tomography of Soft Materials

Authors: F. R. Chen, C. Kisielowski, D. Van Dyck


In principle, the latest generation aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) could achieve sub-Å resolution, but there is bottleneck that hinders the final step towards revealing 3D structure. Firstly, in order to achieve a resolution around 1 Å with single atom sensitivity, the electron dose rate needs to be sufficiently large (10⁴-10⁵eÅ⁻² s⁻¹). With such large dose rate, the electron beam can induce surfaces alterations or even bulk modifications, in particular, for electron beam sensitive (soft) materials such as nm size particles, organic materials, proteins or macro-molecules. We will demonstrate methodology of low dose electron holography for observing 3D structure for soft materials such as single Oleic acid molecules at atomic resolution. The main improvement of this new type of electron holography is based on two concepts. Firstly, the total electron dose is distributed over many images obtained at different defocus values from which the electron hologram is then reconstructed. Secondly, in contrast to the current tomographic methods that require projections from several directions, the 3D structural information of the nano-object is then extracted from this one hologram obtained from only one viewing direction.

Keywords: low dose electron microscopy, in-line electron holography, atomic resolution tomography, soft materials

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2837 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta


The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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2836 Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation

Authors: Ashish Kumar, T. Venkatappa Rao, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, S. V. S. Ramana Reddy


The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.

Keywords: blend-composite, e-beam, HDT, PEGM, PLA

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2835 Design for Metal Additive Manufacturing: An Investigation of Key Design Application on Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Wadea Ameen, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Osama Abdulhameed


Electron beam melting (EBM) is one of the modern additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. In EBM, the electron beam melts metal powder into a fully solid part layer by layer. Since EBM is a new technology, most designers are unaware of the capabilities and the limitations of EBM technology. Also, many engineers are facing many challenges to utilize the technology because of a lack of design rules for the technology. The aim of this study is to identify the capabilities and the limitations of EBM technology in fabrication of small features and overhang structures and develop a design rules that need to be considered by designers and engineers. In order to achieve this objective, a series of experiments are conducted. Several features having varying sizes were designed, fabricated, and evaluated to determine their manufacturability limits. In general, the results showed the capabilities and limitations of the EBM technology in fabrication of the small size features and the overhang structures. In the end, the results of these investigation experiments are used to develop design rules. Also, the results showed the importance of developing design rules for AM technologies in increasing the utilization of these technologies.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, design for additive manufacturing, electron beam melting, self-supporting overhang

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2834 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.

Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beam

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2833 Preparation of Biomedical Hydrogels Using Phenolic Compounds and Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: Farnaz Sadeghi, Moslem Tavakol


In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare a physically cross-linked gel by cooling of tannic acid (TA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution that subsequently convert to antibacterial chemically cross-linked hydrogel by using electron beam irradiation. PVA is known for its biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, and TA is known for being a natural compound which can serve as a cross-linking agent and a therapeutic agent. Swelling behavior, gel content, pore size, and mechanical properties of hydrogels which prepared at 14, 28, and 56 (kGy) with different ratios of polymers were investigated. PVA-TA hydrogel showed sustained release of tannic acid as approximately 20% and 50% of loaded TA released from the hydrogel after 4 and 72 h release time. We found that gel content decreased and the moisture retention capability increased by an increase in TA composition. In addition, PVA-TA hydrogels showed a good antibacterial activity against S.aureus. MTT analysis indicated that close to 83% of fibroblast cells remained viable after 48 h exposure to hydrogel extract. Moreover, the cooling of 10% PVA solution containing 0.5 and 0.75% w/v tannic acid to room and refrigerator, respectively, led to formation of physical gel that did not present any flow index after inversion of hydrogel cast. According to the results, the hydrogel prepared by electron beam irradiation of blended PVA-TA solution could be further investigated as a promising candidate for wound healing.

Keywords: poly vinyl alcohol, tannic acid, electron beam irradiation, hydrogel wound dressing

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2832 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan


Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

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2831 Chemical and Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–4V Produced by Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing and Selective Laser Melting for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Bing–Jing Zhao, Chang-Kui Liu, Hong Wang, Min Hu


Electron beam rapid manufacturing (EBRM) or Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing process that uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source and energy in the form of a high-power laser beam or electron beam to create three-dimensional metal parts by fusing fine metallic powders together.Object:The present study was conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties ,the phase transformation,the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM,SLM and forging technique.Method: Ti-6Al-4V alloy standard test pieces were manufactured by EBRM, SLM and forging technique according to AMS4999,GB/T228 and ISO 10993.The mechanical properties were analyzed by universal test machine. The phase transformation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosivity was analyzed by electrochemical method. The biocompatibility was analyzed by co-culturing with mesenchymal stem cell and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP) to evaluate cell adhesion and differentiation, respectively. Results: The mechanical properties, the phase transformation, the corrosivity and the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V by EBRM、SLM were similar to forging and meet the mechanical property requirements of AMS4999 standard. a­phase microstructure for the EBM production contrast to the a’­phase microstructure of the SLM product. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and differentiation were well. Conclusion: The property of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy manufactured by EBRM and SLM technique can meet the medical standard from this study. But some further study should be proceeded in order to applying well in clinical practice.

Keywords: 3D printing, Electron Beam Rapid Manufacturing (EBRM), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Computer Aided Design (CAD)

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2830 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

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2829 Electron Beam Processing of Ethylene-Propylene-Terpolymer-Based Rubber Mixtures

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Craciun, D. Ighigeanu


The goal of the paper is to present the results regarding the influence of the irradiation dose and amount of multifunctional monomer trimethylol-propane trimethacrylate (TMPT) on ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM) mixtures irradiated in electron beam. Blends, molded on an electrically heated laboratory roller mill and compressed in an electrically heated hydraulic press, were irradiated using the ALID 7 of 5.5 MeV linear accelerator in the dose range of 22.6 kGy to 56.5 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature of 25 °C. The share of cross-linking and degradation reactions was evaluated by means of sol-gel analysis, cross-linking density measurements, FTIR studies and Charlesby-Pinner parameter (p0/q0) calculations. The blends containing different concentrations of TMPT (3 phr and 9 phr) and irradiated with doses in the mentioned range have present the increasing of gel content and cross-linking density. Modified and new bands in FTIR spectra have appeared, because of both cross-linking and chain scission reactions.

Keywords: electron beam irradiation, EPDM rubber, crosslinking density, gel fraction

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2828 Microstructures and Mechanical Property of ti6al4v - a Comparison between Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Javad Karimi, Prashanth Konda Gokuldoss


Microstructural inhomogeneity in additively manufactured materials affects the material properties. The present study aims in minimizing such microstructural inhomogeneity in Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from the gas atomized powder. A detailed and systematic study of the effect of remelting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V manufactured by SLM was compared with electron beam melting and spark plasma sintering.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, Ti6Al4V, microstructure

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2827 Induced Chemistry for Dissociative Electron Attachment to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition Precursors Based on Ti, Si and Fe Metal Elements

Authors: Maria Pintea, Nigel Mason


Induced chemistry is one of the newest pathways in the nanotechnology field with applications in the focused electron beam induced processes for deposition of nm scale structures. Si(OPr)₄ and Ti(OEt)₄ are two of the precursors that have not been so extensively researched, though highly sought for semiconductor and medical applications fields, the two compounds make good candidates for FEBIP and are the subject of velocity slice map imaging analysis for deposition purposes, offering information on kinetic energies, fragmentation channels, and angular distributions. The velocity slice map imaging technique is a method used for the characterization of molecular dynamics of the molecule and the fragmentation channels as a result of induced chemistry. To support the gas-phase analysis, Meso-Bio-Nano simulations of irradiation dynamics studies are employed with final results on Fe(CO)₅ deposited on various substrates. The software is capable of running large scale simulations for complex biomolecular, nano- and mesoscopic systems with applications to thermos-mechanical DNA damage, complex materials, gases, nanoparticles for cancer research and deposition applications for nanotechnology, using a large library of classical potentials, many-body force fields, molecular force fields involved in the classical molecular dynamics.

Keywords: focused electron beam induced deposition, FEBID, induced chemistry, molecular dynamics, velocity map slice imaging

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2826 Inverted Geometry Ceramic Insulators in High Voltage Direct Current Electron Guns for Accelerators

Authors: C. Hernandez-Garcia, P. Adderley, D. Bullard, J. Grames, M. A. Mamun, G. Palacios-Serrano, M. Poelker, M. Stutzman, R. Suleiman, Y. Wang, , S. Zhang


High-energy nuclear physics experiments performed at the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility require a beam of spin-polarized ps-long electron bunches. The electron beam is generated when a circularly polarized laser beam illuminates a GaAs semiconductor photocathode biased at hundreds of kV dc inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The photocathode is mounted on highly polished stainless steel electrodes electrically isolated by means of a conical-shape ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber, serving as the cathode electrode support structure. The assembly is known as a dc photogun, which has to simultaneously meet the following criteria: high voltage to manage space charge forces within the electron bunch, ultra-high vacuum conditions to preserve the photocathode quantum efficiency, no field emission to prevent gas load when field emitted electrons impact the vacuum chamber, and finally no voltage breakdown for robust operation. Over the past decade, JLab has tested and implemented the use of inverted geometry ceramic insulators connected to commercial high voltage cables to operate a photogun at 200kV dc with a 10 cm long insulator, and a larger version at 300kV dc with 20 cm long insulator. Plans to develop a third photogun operating at 400kV dc to meet the stringent requirements of the proposed International Linear Collider are underway at JLab, utilizing even larger inverted insulators. This contribution describes approaches that have been successful in solving challenging problems related to breakdown and field emission, such as triple-point junction screening electrodes, mechanical polishing to achieve mirror-like surface finish and high voltage conditioning procedures with Kr gas to extinguish field emission.

Keywords: electron guns, high voltage techniques, insulators, vacuum insulation

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2825 Comparison of Titanium and Aluminum Functions as Spoilers for Dose Uniformity Achievement in Abutting Oblique Electron Fields: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Faranak Felfeliyan, Parvaneh Shokrani, Maryam Atarod


Introduction Using electron beam is widespread in radiotherapy. The main criteria in radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor volume with maximum prescribed dose and minimum dose to vital organs around it. Using abutting fields is common in radiotherapy. The main problem in using abutting fields is dose inhomogeneity in the junction region. Electron beam divergence and lateral scattering may lead to hot and cold spots in the junction region. One solution for this problem is using of a spoiler to broaden the penumbra and uniform dose in the junction region. The goal of this research was to compare titanium and aluminum effects as a spoiler for dose uniformity achievement in the junction region of oblique electron fields with Monte Carlo simulation. Dose uniformity in the junction region depends on density, scattering power, thickness of the spoiler and the angle between two fields. Materials and Methods In this study, Monte Carlo model of Siemens Primus linear accelerator was simulated for a 5 MeV nominal energy electron beam using manufacture provided specifications. BEAMnrc and EGSnrc user code were used to simulate the treatment head in electron mode (simulation of beam model). The resulting phase space file was used as a source for dose calculations for 10×10 cm2 field size at SSD=100 cm in a 30×30×45 cm3 water phantom using DOSXYZnrc user code (dose calculations). An automatic MP3-M water phantom tank, MEPHYSTO mc2 software platform and a Semi-Flex Chamber-31010 with sensitive vol­ume of 0.125 cm3 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used for dose distribution measurements. Moreover, the electron field size was 10×10 cm2 and SSD=100 cm. Validation of devel­oped beam model was done by comparing the measured and calculated depth and lateral dose distributions (verification of electron beam model). Simulation of spoilers (using SLAB compo­nent module) placed at the end of the electron applicator, was done using previously vali­dated phase space file for a 5 MeV nominal energy and 10×10 cm2 field size (simulation of spoiler). An in-house routine was developed in order to calculate the combined isodose curves re­sulting from the two simulated abutting fields (calculation of dose distribution in abutting electron fields). Results Verification of the developed 5.9 MeV elec­tron beam model was done by comparing the calculated and measured dose distributions. The maximum percentage difference between calculated and measured PDD was 1%, except for the build-up region in which the difference was 2%. The difference between calculated and measured profile was 2% at the edges of the field and less than 1% in other regions. The effect of PMMA, aluminum, titanium and chromium in dose uniformity achievement in abutting normal electron fields with equivalent thicknesses to 5mm PMMA was evaluated. Comparing R90 and uniformity index of different materials, aluminum was chosen as the optimum spoiler. Titanium has the maximum surface dose. Thus, aluminum and titanium had been chosen to use for dose uniformity achievement in oblique electron fields. Using the optimum beam spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 110% for 15 degrees, from 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, from 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and from 180% to 100% for 60 degrees oblique abutting fields. Using Titanium spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 120% for 15 degrees, 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and 180% to 110% for 60 degrees. In addition, penumbra width for 15 degrees, without spoiler in the surface was 10 mm and was increased to 15.5 mm with titanium spoiler. For 30 degrees, from 9 mm to 15 mm, for 45 degrees from 4 mm to 6 mm and for 60 degrees, from 5 mm to 8 mm. Conclusion Using spoilers, penumbra width at the surface increased, size and depth of hot spots was decreased and dose homogeneity improved at the junc­tion of abutting electron fields. Dose at the junction region of abutting oblique fields was improved significantly by using spoiler. Maximum dose at the junction region for 15⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰ was decreased about 40%, 60%, 40% and 70% respectively for Titanium and about 50%, 60%, 40% and 80% for Aluminum. Considering significantly decrease in maximum dose using titanium spoiler, unfortunately, dose distribution in the junction region was not decreased less than 110%.

Keywords: abutting fields, electron beam, radiation therapy, spoilers

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2824 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati


In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

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2823 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz


A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2822 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
2821 Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of ZnSe Homoepitaxial Growth and Characterization

Authors: Hamid Khachab, Yamani Abdelkafi, Mouna Barhmi


The epitaxial growth has great important in the fabricate of the new semi-conductors devices and upgrading many factors, such as the quality of crystallization and efficiency with their deferent types and the most effective epitaxial technique is the molecular beam epitaxial. The MBE growth modeling allows to confirm the experiments results out by atomic beam and to analyze the microscopic phenomena. In of our work, we determined the growth processes specially the ZnSe epitaxial technique by Kinetic Monte Carlo method and we also give observations that are made in real time at the growth temperature using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and photoemission current.

Keywords: molecular beam epitaxy, II-VI, morpholy, photoemission, RHEED, simulation, kinetic Monte Carlo, ZnSe

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2820 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2819 A Slip Transmission through Alpha/Beta Boundaries in a Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Rayan B. M. Ameen, Ian P. Jones, Yu Lung Chiu


Single alpha-beta colony micro-pillars have been manufactured from a polycrystalline commercial Ti-6Al-4V sample using Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Each pillar contained two alpha lamellae separated by a thin fillet of beta phase. A nano-indenter was then used to conduct uniaxial micro-compression tests on Ti alloy single crystals, using a diamond flat tip as a compression platen. By controlling the crystal orientation along the micro-pillar using Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) different slip systems have been selectively activated. The advantage of the micro-compression method over conventional mechanical testing techniques is the ability to localize a single crystal volume which is characterizable after deformation. By matching the stress-strain relations resulting from micro-compression experiments to TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) studies of slip transmission mechanisms through the α-β interfaces, some proper constitutive material parameters such as the role of these interfaces in determining yield, strain-hardening behaviour, initial dislocation density and the critical resolved shear stress are suggested.

Keywords: α/β-Ti alloy, focused ion beam, micro-mechanical test, nano-indentation, transmission electron diffraction, plastic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2818 Flexural Behavior for Prefabricated Angle Truss Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete

Authors: Jo Kwang-Won, Lee Ho-Jun, Choi In-Rak, Park Hong-Gun


Prefabricated angle truss composited beam is a kind of concrete encased composite beam. It is prefabricated at factory as Pratt truss with steel members. Double angle is used for top, bottom chords and vertical web member. Moreover, diagonal web member is steel plate. Its sectional shape looks like I-shape. This beam system has two stages. The first is construction stage in which the beam is directly connected to the column for resist construction load. This stage beam consists of Pratt truss and precast concrete. The stability of the beam is verified. The second is service stage. After the connection, cast-in-place concrete is used for composite action. Ultimate flexural capacity is verified and show advantage than RC and steel. In this paper, the beam flexural capacity is verified in both stages. And examined the flexural behavior of the beam.

Keywords: composite beam, prefabrication, angle, precast concrete, pratt truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 205