Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12285

Search results for: bleaching process

12285 Bleaching Liquor Recovery of Batch-Wise and Continuous Method

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Arsalan Khan, Urooj Baig, Tahir Jamil


In this research, it was examined that some residual amount of bleaching chemicals left in the liquor, this amount is more in Batch-wise process as compared to continuous process. These chemicals can be recovered and reused for bleaching by adding more quantity of fresh bleaching chemicals and water, this quantity will be required to balance the recipe for fabric. This liquor is recovered and samples were bleached with different modified recipe of liquor for both processes i.e. Batch-wise and continuous process. Every time good results were achieved with negligible variation in the quality parameter between the fabric bleached with fresh liquor and the fabric bleached with Recovered Liquor. Additionally, samples were dyed, and found that dyeing can be done easily on samples bleached with recover liquor.

Keywords: bleaching process, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, liquor recovery

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12284 Synthesis of Cationic Bleach Activator for Textile Industry

Authors: Pelin Altay, Ahmed El-Shafei, Peter J. Hauser, Nevin Cigdem Gursoy


Exceedingly high temperatures are used (around 95 °C) to perform hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cotton fabrics in textile industry, which results in high energy consumption and also gives rise to significant fiber damage. Activated bleach systems have the potential to produce more efficient bleaching through increased oxidation rates with reducing energy cost, saving time and causing less fiber damage as compared to conventional hot peroxide bleaching. In this study, a cationic bleach activator was synthesized using caprolactam as a leaving group and triethylamine as a cationic group to establish an activated peroxide system for low temperature bleaching. Cationic bleach activator was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. The bleaching performance of the prototype cationic bleach activator was evaluated and optimizing the bleach recipe was performed.

Keywords: bleach activator, cotton bleaching, hydrogen peroxide bleaching, low temperature bleaching

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12283 Rejuvenation of Aged Kraft-Cellulose Insulating Paper Used in Transformers

Authors: Y. Jeon, A. Bissessur, J. Lin, P. Ndungu


Most transformers employ the usage of cellulose paper, which has been chemically modified through the Kraft process that acts as an effective insulator. Cellulose ageing and oil degradation are directly linked to fouling of the transformer and accumulation of large quantities of waste insulating paper. In addition to technical difficulties, this proves costly for power utilities to deal with. Currently there are no cost effective method for the rejuvenation of cellulose paper that has been documented nor proposed, since renewal of used insulating paper is implemented as the best option. This study proposes and contrasts different rejuvenation methods of accelerated aged cellulose insulating paper by chemical and bio-bleaching processes. Of the three bleaching methods investigated, two are, conventional chlorine-based sodium hypochlorite (m/v), and chlorine-free hydrogen peroxide (v/v), whilst the third is a bio-bleaching technique that uses a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2. Through chemical bleaching, varying the strengths of the bleaching reagents at 0.3 %, 0.6 %, 0.9 %, 1.2 %, 1.5 % and 1.8 % over 4 hrs. were analyzed. Bio-bleaching implemented a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2, to bleach the aged Kraft paper over 4 hrs. The determination of the amount of alpha cellulose, degree of polymerization and viscosity carried out on Kraft-cellulose insulating paper before and after bleaching. Overall the investigated techniques of chemical and bio-bleaching were successful and effective in treating degraded and accelerated aged Kraft-cellulose insulating paper, however, to varying extents. Optimum conditions for chemical bleaching were attained at bleaching strengths of 1.2 % (m/v) NaOCl and 1.5 % (v/v) H2O2 yielding alpha cellulose contents of 82.4 % and 80.7 % and degree of polymerizations of 613 and 616 respectively. Bio-bleaching using Acinetobacter strain V2 proved to be the superior technique with alpha cellulose levels of 89.0 % and a degree of polymerization of 620. Chemical bleaching techniques require careful and controlled clean-up treatments as it is chlorine and hydrogen peroxide based while bio-bleaching is an extremely eco-friendly technique.

Keywords: alpha cellulose, bio-bleaching, degree of polymerization, Kraft-cellulose insulating paper, transformer, viscosity

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12282 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie


Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: Spent bleaching earth, reactivation, regeneration, thermal treatment, dye removal, thermodynamic

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12281 Two Step Biodiesel Production from High Free Fatty Acid Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Rajiv Arora


Biodiesel may be economical if produced from inexpensive feedstock which commonly contains high level of free fatty acids (FFA) as an inhibitor in production of methyl ester. In this study, a two-step process for biodiesel production from high FFA spent bleach earth oil in a batch reactor is developed. Oil sample extracted from spent bleaching earth (SBE) was utilized for biodiesel process. In the first step, FFA of the SBE oil was reduced to 1.91% through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification. In the second step, the product prepared from the first esterification process was carried out transesterification with an alkaline catalyst. The influence of four variables on conversion efficiency to methyl ester, i.e., methanol/ SBE oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction time, was studied in the second stage. The optimum process variables in the transesterification were methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, heterogeneous catalyst conc. 5 wt %, reaction temperature 65 °C and reaction time 60 minutes to produce biodiesel. Major fuel properties of SBE biodiesel were measured to comply with ASTM and EN standards. Therefore, an optimized process for production of biodiesel from a low-cost high FFA source was accomplished.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, free fatty acids, residual oil, spent bleaching earth, transesterification

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12280 Optimized Microwave Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Conversion into Lignin free and High Crystalline Cellulose

Authors: Mohd Ishfaq Bhat, Navin Chandra Shahi, Umesh Chandra Lohani


The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of microwave application in synergy with the conventional sodium chlorite delignification of rice straw biomass. For the study, Box-Behnken experimental design involving four independent parameters, each with three levels viz. microwave power (480-800 W), irradiation time (4-12 min), bleaching solution concentration (0.4-3.0%), and bleaching time (1-5h) was used. The response was taken in the form of delignification percentage. The optimization of process parameters was done through response surface methodology. The respective optimum parameters of microwave power, irradiation time, bleaching solution concentration and bleaching time were obtained as 671 W, 8.66 min, 2.67% and 1h. The delignification percentage achieved at optimum condition was 93.51%. The spectral, morphological and the x-ray diffraction characteristics of the rice straw powder after delignification showed a complete absence of lignin peaks, deconstruction of lignocellulose complex and an increase of crystallinity (from 39.8 to 61.6 %).

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, delignification, microwaves, rice straw, characterization

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12279 Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with a Treated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: M. Mana, M. S. Ouali, L. C. de Menorval


A spent bleaching earth from an edible oil refinery has been treated by impregnation with a normal sodium hydroxide solution followed by mild thermal treatment (100°C). The obtained material (TSBE) was washed, dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, BET, and thermal analysis. The clay structure was not apparently affected by the treatment and the impregnated organic matter was quantitatively removed. We have investigated the comparative sorption of safranine and methylene blue on this material, the spent bleaching earth (SBE) and the virgin bleaching earth (VBE). The kinetic results fit the pseudo second order kinetic model and the Weber & Morris, intra-particle diffusion model. The pH had no effect on the sorption efficiency. The sorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model for various sorbent concentrations with good values of determination coefficient. A linear relationship was found between the calculated maximum removal capacity and the solid/solution ratio. A comparison between the results obtained with this material and those of the literature highlighted the low cost and the good removal capacity of the treated spent bleaching earth.

Keywords: basic dyes, isotherms, sorption, spent bleaching earth

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12278 High Pressure Delignification Process for Nanocrystalline Cellulose Production from Agro-Waste Biomass

Authors: Sakinul Islam, Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has been widely used for miscellaneous applications due to its superior properties over other nanomaterials. However, the major problems associated with the production of NCC are long reaction time, low production rate and inefficient process. The mass production of NCC within a short period of time is still a great challenge. The main objective of this study is to produce NCC from rice husk agro waste biomass from a high pressure delignification process (HPDP), followed by bleaching and hydrolysis processes. The HPDP has not been explored for NCC production from rice husk biomass (RHB) until now. In order to produce NCC, powder rice husk (PRH) was placed into a stainless steel reactor at 80 ˚C under 5 bars. Aqueous solution of NaOH (4M) was used for the dissolution of lignin and other amorphous impurities from PRH. After certain experimental times (1h, 3.5h and 6h), bleaching and hydrolysis were carried out on delignified samples. NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used for bleaching and hydrolysis processes, respectively. The NCC suspension from hydrolysis was sonicated and neutralized by buffer solution for various characterisations. Finally NCC suspension was dried and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. The chemical composition of NCC and PRH was estimated by TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry) standard methods to observe the product purity. It was found that, the 6h of the HPDP was more efficient to produce good quality NCC than that at 1h and 3.5h due to low separation of non-cellulosic components from RHB. The analyses indicated the crystallinity of NCC to be 71 %, particle size of 20-50 nm (diameter) and 100-200 nm in length.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, high pressure delignification, bleaching, hydrolysis, agro-waste biomass

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12277 Production of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) from Rice Husk Biomass by Chemical Extraction Process

Authors: Md. Sakinul Islam, Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta


The objective of the study is to produce naocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from rice husk by chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction processes of this production are delignification, bleaching and hydrolysis. In order to produce NCC, raw rice husk (RRH) was grinded and converted to powder form. Powder rice husk was obtained by sieving and the particles in the 75-710 μm size range was used for experimental work. The production of NCC was conducted into the jacketed glass reactor at 80 ˚C temperature under predetermined experimental conditions. In this work NaOH (4M) solution was used for delignification process. After certain experimental time delignified powder RH was collected from the reactor then washed, bleached and finally hydrolyzed in order to degrade cellulose to nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). For bleaching and hydrolysis processes NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used, respectively. The resultant products from hydrolysis was neutralized by buffer solution and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. From the analysis, NCC has been identified successfully and the particle dimension has been confirmed to be in the range of 20-50 nm. From XRD results, the crystallinity of NCC was found to be approximately 45%.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, rice husk, biomass, chemical extraction

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12276 Effect of Tooth Bleaching Agents on Enamel Demineralisation

Authors: Najlaa Yousef Qusti, Steven J. Brookes, Paul A. Brunton


Background: Tooth discoloration can be an aesthetic problem, and tooth whitening using carbamide peroxide bleaching agents are a popular treatment option. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects such as demineralisation of the bleached enamel; however, the cause of this demineralisation is unclear. Introduction: Teeth can become stained or discoloured over time. Tooth whitening is an aesthetic solution for tooth discoloration. Bleaching solutions of 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) have become the standard agent used in dentist-prescribed and home-applied ’vital bleaching techniques’. These materials release hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), the active whitening agent. However, there is controversy in the literature regarding the effect of bleaching agents on enamel integrity and enamel mineral content. The purpose of this study was to establish if carbamide peroxide bleaching agents affect the acid solubility of enamel (i.e., make teeth more prone to demineralisation). Materials and Methods: Twelve human premolar teeth were sectioned longitudinally along the midline and varnished to leave the natural enamel surface exposed. The baseline behavior of each tooth half in relation to its demineralisation in acid was established by sequential exposure to 4 vials containing 1ml of 10mM acetic acid (1 minute/vial). This was followed by exposure to 10% CP for 8 hours. After washing in distilled water, the tooth half was sequentially exposed to 4 further vials containing acid to test if the acid susceptibility of the enamel had been affected. The corresponding tooth half acted as a control and was exposed to distilled water instead of CP. The mineral loss was determined by measuring [Ca²⁺] and [PO₄³⁻] released in each vial using a calcium ion-selective electrode and the phosphomolybdenum blue method, respectively. The effect of bleaching on the tooth surfaces was also examined using SEM. Results: Exposure to carbamide peroxide did not significantly alter the susceptibility of enamel to acid attack, and SEM of the enamel surface revealed a slight alteration in surface appearance. SEM images of the control enamel surface showed a flat enamel surface with some shallow pits, whereas the bleached enamel appeared with an increase in surface porosity and some areas of mild erosion. Conclusions: Exposure to H₂O₂ equivalent to 10% CP does not significantly increase subsequent acid susceptibility of enamel as determined by Ca²⁺ release from the enamel surface. The effects of bleaching on mineral loss were indistinguishable from distilled water in the experimental system used. However, some surface differences were observed by SEM. The phosphomolybdenum blue method for phosphate is compromised by peroxide bleaching agents due to their oxidising properties. However, the Ca²⁺ electrode is unaffected by oxidising agents and can be used to determine the mineral loss in the presence of peroxides.

Keywords: bleaching, carbamide peroxide, demineralisation, teeth whitening

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12275 Development of Ready Reckoner Charts for Easy, Convenient, and Widespread Use of Horrock’s Apparatus by Field Level Health Functionaries in India

Authors: Gumashta Raghvendra, Gumashta Jyotsna


Aim and Objective of Study : The use of Horrock’s Apparatus by health care worker requires onsite mathematical calculations for estimation of ‘volume of water’ and ‘amount of bleaching powder’ necessary as per the serial number of first cup showing blue coloration after adding freshly prepared starch-iodide indicator solution. In view of the difficulties of two simultaneous calculations required to be done, the use of Horrock’s Apparatus is not routinely done by health care workers because it is impractical and inconvenient Material and Methods: Arbitrary use of bleaching powder in wells results in hyper-chlorination or hypo-chlorination of well defying the purpose of adequate chlorination or non-usage of well water due to hyper-chlorination. Keeping this in mind two nomograms have been developed, one to assess the volume of well using depth and diameter of well and the other to know the quantity of bleaching powder to b added using the number of the cup of Horrock’s apparatus which shows the colour indication. Result & Conclusion: Out of thus developed two self-speaking interlinked easy charts, first chart will facilitate bypassing requirement of formulae ‘πr2h’ for water volume (ready reckoner table with depth of water shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘diameter of well’ on ‘Y’ axis) and second chart will facilitate bypassing requirement formulae ‘2ab/455’ (where ‘a’ is for ‘serial number of cup’ and ‘b’ is for ‘water volume’, while ready reckoner table showing ‘water volume’ shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘serial number of cup’ on ‘Y’ axis). The use of these two charts will help health care worker to immediately known, by referring the two charts, about the exact requirement of bleaching powder. Thus, developed ready reckoner charts will be easy and convenient to use for ensuring prevention of water-borne diseases occurring due to hypo-chlorination, especially in rural India and other developing countries.

Keywords: apparatus, bleaching, chlorination, Horrock’s, nomogram

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12274 A Review Investigating the Potential Of Zooxanthellae to Be Genetically Engineered to Combat Coral Bleaching

Authors: Anuschka Curran, Sandra Barnard


Coral reefs are of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but due to the impact of climate change, these infrastructures are dying off primarily through coral bleaching. Coral bleaching can be described as the process by which zooxanthellae (algal endosymbionts) are expelled from the gastrodermal cavity of the respective coral host, causing increased coral whitening. The general consensus is that mass coral bleaching is due to the dysfunction of photosynthetic processes in the zooxanthellae as a result of the combined action of elevated temperature and light-stress. The question then is, do zooxanthellae have the potential to play a key role in the future of coral reef restoration through genetic engineering? The aim of this study is firstly to review the different zooxanthellae taxa and their traits with respect to environmental stress, and secondly, to review the information available on the protective mechanisms present in zooxanthellae cells when experiencing temperature fluctuations, specifically concentrating on heat shock proteins and the antioxidant stress response of zooxanthellae. The eight clades (A-H) previously recognized were redefined into seven genera. Different zooxanthellae taxa exhibit different traits, such as their photosynthetic stress responses to light and temperature. Zooxanthellae have the ability to determine the amount and type of heat shock proteins (hsps) present during a heat response. The zooxanthellae can regulate both the host’s respective hsps as well as their own. Hsps, generally found in genotype C3 zooxanthellae, such as Hsp70 and Hsp90, contribute to the thermal stress response of the respective coral host. Antioxidant activity found both within exposed coral tissue, and the zooxanthellae cells can prevent coral hosts from expelling their endosymbionts. The up-regulation of gene expression, which may mitigate thermal stress induction of any of the physiological aspects discussed, can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future. It presents a viable alternative strategy to preserve reefs amidst climate change. In conclusion, despite their unusual molecular design, genetic engineering poses as a useful tool in understanding and manipulating variables and systems within zooxanthellae and therefore presents a solution that can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, genetic engineering, heat-shock proteins, Symbiodinium

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12273 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

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12272 Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala Seeds

Authors: Rachid Kacem, Sara Talbi, Yasmina Hemissi, Sofia Bouguattoucha


The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the Peganum harmala (P. harmala) seeds extracts. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by applying two methods, the method of ß-carotene bleaching and DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl). Using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, these results revealed that the concentration of polyphenols in EthOH E. (122.28 ± 2.24 µg GAE/mg extract) is the highest. The antiradical activity of the P. harmala seeds extracts on DPPH was found to be dose dependent with polyphenols concentration. The E. EthOH extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC = 252.10 ± 11.18 μg /ml). The test of β-carotene bleaching indicates that the E. EthOH of P. harmala showed the highest percentage of the antioxidant activity (49.88 %).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Peganum harmala, polyphenols, flavonoids

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12271 Antioxidant Activity of Aristolochia longa L. Extracts

Authors: Merouani Nawel, Belhattab Rachid


Aristolochia longa L. (Aristolochiacea) is a native plant of Algeria used in traditional medicine. This study was devoted to the determination of polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents of Aristolochia longa L. after their extraction by using various solvents with different polarities (methanol, acetone and distilled water). These extracts were prepared from stem, leaves, fruits and rhizome. The antioxidant activity was determined using three in vitro assays methods: scavenging effect on DPPH, the reducing power assay and ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition (CBI). The results obtained indicate that the acetone extracts from the aerial parts presented the highest contents of polyphenols. The results of The antioxidant activity showed that all extracts of Aristolochia longa L., prepared using different solvent, have diverse antioxidant capacities. However, the aerial parts methanol extract exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity of DPPH and reducing power (Respectively 55,04ug/ml±1,29 and 0,2 mg/ml±0,019 ). Nevertheless, the aerial parts acetone extract showed the highest antioxidant capacity in the test of ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition with 57%. These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their bioactive substances could be exploited for therapeutic purposes such as antioxidant and antimicrobial.

Keywords: aristolochia longa l., polyphenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins, antioxidant activity

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12270 Eco-Fashion Dyeing of Denim and Knitwear with Particle-Dyes

Authors: Adriana Duarte, Sandra Sampaio, Catia Ferreira, Jaime I. N. R. Gomes


With the fashion of faded worn garments the textile industry has moved from indigo and pigments to dyes that are fixed by cationization, with products that can be toxic, and that can show this effect after washing down the dye with friction and/or treating with enzymes in a subsequent operation. Increasingly they are treated with bleaches, such as hypochlorite and permanganate, both toxic substances. An alternative process is presented in this work for both garment and jet dyeing processes, without the use of pre-cationization and the alternative use of “particle-dyes”. These are hybrid products, made up by an inorganic particle and an organic dye. With standard soluble dyes, it is not possible to avoid diffusion into the inside of the fiber unless using previous cationization. Only in this way can diffusion be avoided keeping the centre of the fibres undyed so as to produce the faded effect by removing the surface dye and showing the white fiber beneath. With “particle-dyes”, previous cationization is avoided. By applying low temperatures, the dye does not diffuse completely into the inside of the fiber, since it is a particle and not a soluble dye, being then able to give the faded effect. Even though bleaching can be used it can also be avoided, by the use of friction and enzymes they can be used just as for other dyes. This fashion brought about new ways of applying reactive dyes by the use of previous cationization of cotton, lowering the salt, and temperatures that reactive dyes usually need for reacting and as a side effect the application of a more environmental process. However, cationization is a process that can be problematic in applying it outside garment dyeing, such as jet dyeing, being difficult to obtain level dyeings. It also should be applied by a pad-fix or Pad-batch process due to the low affinity of the pre-cationization products making it a more expensive process, and the risk of unlevelness in processes such as jet dyeing. Wit particle-dyes, since no pre-cationizartion is necessary, they can be applied in jet dyeing. The excess dye is fixed by a fixing agent, fixing the insoluble dye onto the surface of the fibers. By applying the fixing agent only one to 1-3 rinses in water at room temperature are necessary, saving water and improving the washfastness.

Keywords: denim, garment dyeing, worn look, eco-fashion

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12269 Object-Centric Process Mining Using Process Cubes

Authors: Anahita Farhang Ghahfarokhi, Alessandro Berti, Wil M.P. van der Aalst


Process mining provides ways to analyze business processes. Common process mining techniques consider the process as a whole. However, in real-life business processes, different behaviors exist that make the overall process too complex to interpret. Process comparison is a branch of process mining that isolates different behaviors of the process from each other by using process cubes. Process cubes organize event data using different dimensions. Each cell contains a set of events that can be used as an input to apply process mining techniques. Existing work on process cubes assume single case notions. However, in real processes, several case notions (e.g., order, item, package, etc.) are intertwined. Object-centric process mining is a new branch of process mining addressing multiple case notions in a process. To make a bridge between object-centric process mining and process comparison, we propose a process cube framework, which supports process cube operations such as slice and dice on object-centric event logs. To facilitate the comparison, the framework is integrated with several object-centric process discovery approaches.

Keywords: multidimensional process mining, mMulti-perspective business processes, OLAP, process cubes, process discovery, process mining

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12268 Production Process of Coconut-Shell Product in Amphawa District

Authors: Wannee Sutthachaidee


The study of the production process of coconut-shell product in Amphawa, Samutsongkram Province is objected to study the pattern of the process of coconut-shell product by focusing in the 3 main processes which are inbound logistics process, production process and outbound process. The result of the research: There were 4 main results from the study. Firstly, most of the manufacturer of coconut-shell product is usually owned by a single owner and the quantity of the finished product is quite low and the main labor group is local people. Secondly, the production process can be divided into 4 stages which are pre-production process, production process, packaging process and distribution process. Thirdly, each 3 of the logistics process of coconut shell will find process which may cause the problem to the business but the process which finds the most problem is the production process because the production process needs the skilled labor and the quantity of the labor does not match with the demand from the customers. Lastly, the factors which affect the production process of the coconut shell can be founded in almost every process of the process such as production design, packaging design, sourcing supply and distribution management.

Keywords: production process, coconut-shell product, Amphawa District, inbound logistics process

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12267 Effect of Different Types of Washes on the Fabric Strength of Denim

Authors: Hina Gul Rajpoot, Wazeer Hussain Solangi


Experimental Design (DOE) economically maximizes information; we deliberately change one or more process variables (looms) in order to observe the effect the changes have on one or more response fabric properties. In DOE obtained data can be analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusions. An Experimental Design is lying out of a detailed experimental plan in advance and maximizes the amount of "information" that can be obtained for a given amount of experimental. Fabric of 36 inches having following weaves was used. 3/1 twill, warp cotton (10.5 den), weft Lycra (16 spandex * 70 den) Ends per inch86, Picks per inch 52 and washes process includes Stone wash, Rinse wash, Bleaching and Enzyme wash. Once the samples were ready, they were subjected to tensile and tear strength tests, for these two kinds of samples were considered. One washed fabric samples of warp direction type and other type of the samples was weft direction. Then five samples from each were considered for tensile and teat strength tests separately then takes the mean value. The results found that the lowest strength damaged in the weft direction observed by tensile strength test & Enzyme wash. Maximum breaking load of the enzyme washed fabric sample was 42 kg.

Keywords: twill, indigo dye, tear strength, loom, ball warp, denier or den, seam, waist band, pilling, selvage

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12266 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment

Authors: R. Sharma, S. Kumar, C. Sharma


A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.

Keywords: chlorophenolics, effluent, electrochemical treatment, wastewater

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12265 Mining Diagnostic Investigation Process

Authors: Sohail Imran, Tariq Mahmood


In complex healthcare diagnostic investigation process, medical practitioners have to focus on ways to standardize their processes to perform high quality care and optimize the time and costs. Process mining techniques can be applied to extract process related knowledge from data without considering causal and dynamic dependencies in business domain and processes. The application of process mining is effective in diagnostic investigation. It is very helpful where a treatment gives no dispositive evidence favoring it. In this paper, we applied process mining to discover important process flow of diagnostic investigation for hepatitis patients. This approach has some benefits which can enhance the quality and efficiency of diagnostic investigation processes.

Keywords: process mining, healthcare, diagnostic investigation process, process flow

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12264 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
12263 Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery industry. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its non linearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flow sheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flow sheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
12262 Methods for Business Process Simulation Based on Petri Nets

Authors: K. Shoylekova, K. Grigorova


The Petri nets are the first standard for business process modeling. Most probably, it is one of the core reasons why all new standards created afterwards have to be so reformed as to reach the stage of mapping the new standard onto Petri nets. The paper presents a Business process repository based on a universal database. The repository provides the possibility the data about a given process to be stored in three different ways. Business process repository is developed with regard to the reformation of a given model to a Petri net in order to be easily simulated two different techniques for business process simulation based on Petri nets - Yasper and Woflan are discussed. Their advantages and drawbacks are outlined. The way of simulating business process models, stored in the Business process repository is shown.

Keywords: business process repository, petri nets, simulation, Woflan, Yasper

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
12261 Chemical Modifications of Three Underutilized Vegetable Fibres for Improved Composite Value Addition and Dye Absorption Performance

Authors: Abayomi O. Adetuyi, Jamiu M. Jabar, Samuel O. Afolabi


Vegetable fibres are classes of fibres of low density, biodegradable and non-abrasive that are largely abundant fibre materials with specific properties and mostly found/ obtained in plants on earth surface. They are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant from which they are gotten from namely: fruit, Blast and Leaf fibre. Ever since four/five millennium B.C, attention has been focussing on the commonest and highly utilized cotton fibre obtained from the fruit of cotton plants (Gossypium spp), for the production of cotton fabric used in every home today. The present study, therefore, focused on the ability of three underutilized vegetable (fruit) fibres namely: coir fiber (Eleas coniferus), palm kernel fiber and empty fruit bunch fiber (Elias guinensis) through chemical modifications for better composite value addition performance to polyurethane form and dye adsorption. These fibres were sourced from their parents’ plants, identified and cleansed with 2% hot detergent solution 1:100, rinsed in distilled water and oven-dried to constant weight, before been chemically modified through alkali bleaching, mercerization and acetylation. The alkali bleaching involves treating 0.5g of each fiber material with 100 mL of 2% H2O2 in 25 % NaOH solution with refluxing for 2 h. While that of mercerization and acetylation involves the use of 5% sodium hydroxide NaOH solution for 2 h and 10% acetic acid- acetic anhydride 1:1 (v/v) (CH3COOH) / (CH3CO)2O solution with conc. H2SO4 as catalyst for 1 h, respectively on the fibres. All were subsequently washed thoroughly with distilled water and oven dried at 105 0C for 1 h. These modified fibres were incorporated as composite into polyurethane form and used in dye adsorption study of indigo. The first two treatments led to fiber weight reduction, while the acidified acetic anhydride treatment gave the fibers weight increment. All the treated fibers were found to be of less hydrophilic nature, better mechanical properties, higher thermal stabilities as well as better adsorption surfaces/capacities than the untreated ones. These were confirmed by gravimetric analysis, Instron Universal Testing Machine, Thermogravimetric Analyser and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The fiber morphology of the modified fibers showed smoother surfaces than unmodified fibres.The empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre are better than the palm kernel fibres as reinforcers for composites or as adsorbents for waste-water treatment. Acetylation and alkaline bleaching treatment improve the potentials of the fibres more than mercerization treatment. Conclusively, vegetable fibres, especially empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre, which are cheap, abundant and underutilized, can replace the very costly powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment and as reinforcer in foam.

Keywords: chemical modification, industrial application, value addition, vegetable fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
12260 Process Capability Analysis by Using Statistical Process Control of Rice Polished Cylinder Turning Practice

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, T.Boonkang


Quality control helps industries in improvements of its product quality and productivity. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the tools to control the quality of products that turning practice in bringing a department of industrial engineering process under control. In this research, the process control of a turning manufactured at workshops machines. The varying measurements have been recorded for a number of samples of a rice polished cylinder obtained from a number of trials with the turning practice. SPC technique has been adopted by the process is finally brought under control and process capability is improved.

Keywords: rice polished cylinder, statistical process control, control charts, process capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
12259 Business Process Orientation: Case of Croatia

Authors: Ljubica Milanović Glavan


Because of the increasing business pressures, companies must be adaptable and flexible in order to withstand them. Inadequate business processes and low level of business process orientation, that in its core accentuates business processes as opposed to business functions and focuses on process performance and customer satisfaction, hider the ability to adapt to changing environment. It has been shown in previous studies that the companies which have reached higher business process maturity level consistently outperform those that have not reached them. The aim of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of business process orientation concept and business process maturity model. Besides that the paper presents the state of business process orientation in Croatia that has been captured with a study conducted in 2013. Based on the results some practical implications and guidelines for managers are given.

Keywords: business process orientation, business process maturity, Croatia, maturity score

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
12258 A Goal-Oriented Social Business Process Management Framework

Authors: Mohammad Ehson Rangiha, Bill Karakostas


Social Business Process Management (SBPM) promises to overcome limitations of traditional BPM by allowing flexible process design and enactment through the involvement of users from a social community. This paper proposes a meta-model and architecture for socially driven business process management systems. It discusses the main facets of the architecture such as goal-based role assignment that combines social recommendations with user profile, and process recommendation, through a real example of a charity organization.

Keywords: business process management, goal-based modelling, process recommendation social collaboration, social BPM

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
12257 Signature Verification System for a Banking Business Process Management

Authors: A. Rahaf, S. Liyakathunsia


In today’s world, unprecedented operational pressure is faced by banks that test the efficiency, effectiveness, and agility of their business processes. In a typical banking process, a person’s authorization is usually based on his signature on most all of the transactions. Signature verification is considered as one of the highly significant information needed for any bank document processing. Banks usually use Signature Verification to authenticate the identity of individuals. In this paper, a business process model has been proposed in order to increase the quality of the verification process and to reduce time and needed resources. In order to understand the current process, a survey has been conducted and distributed among bank employees. After analyzing the survey, a process model has been created using Bizagi modeler which helps in simulating the process after assigning time and cost of it. The outcomes show that the automation of signature verification process is highly recommended for a banking business process.

Keywords: business process management, process modeling, quality, Signature Verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
12256 Transitivity Analysis in Reading Passage of English Text Book for Senior High School

Authors: Elitaria Bestri Agustina Siregar, Boni Fasius Siregar


The paper concerned with the transitivity in the reading passage of English textbook for Senior High School. The six types of process were occurred in the passages with percentage as follows: Material Process is 166 (42%), Relational Process is 155 (39%), Mental Process is 39 (10%), Verbal Process is 21 (5%), Existential Process is 13 (3), and Behavioral Process is 5 (1%). The material processes were found to be the most frequently used process type in the samples in our corpus (41,60 %). This indicates that the twenty reading passages are centrally concerned with action and events. Related to developmental psychology theory, this book fits the needs of students of this age.

Keywords: transitivity, types of processes, reading passages, developmental psycholoy

Procedia PDF Downloads 240