Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Urooj Baig

31 Bleaching Liquor Recovery of Batch-Wise and Continuous Method

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Arsalan Khan, Urooj Baig, Tahir Jamil

Abstract:

In this research, it was examined that some residual amount of bleaching chemicals left in the liquor, this amount is more in Batch-wise process as compared to continuous process. These chemicals can be recovered and reused for bleaching by adding more quantity of fresh bleaching chemicals and water, this quantity will be required to balance the recipe for fabric. This liquor is recovered and samples were bleached with different modified recipe of liquor for both processes i.e. Batch-wise and continuous process. Every time good results were achieved with negligible variation in the quality parameter between the fabric bleached with fresh liquor and the fabric bleached with Recovered Liquor. Additionally, samples were dyed, and found that dyeing can be done easily on samples bleached with recover liquor.

Keywords: bleaching process, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, liquor recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
30 Employee Whistleblower Protection: An Analysis of Malaysian Law and Islamic Law

Authors: Ashgar Ali Ali Mohamed, Farheen Baig Sardar Baig

Abstract:

In Malaysia, the Whistle-blower Protection Act 2010 provides protection to a person in an organization who exposes misconduct, alleged dishonest or illegal activity that violates the existing laws, among others. For example, alleged fraud, health and safety violations, and corruption, to name but a few. Undeniable, most whistle-blowers are internal to an organisation who report misconduct of a fellow employee or superior within their company and they frequently face reprisal at the hands of the organisation which they have accused. In fact, many people do not consider blowing the whistle because of fear of retaliation and losing their relationships at workplace. Although whistle-blowers are protected under law from employer retaliation, there have been many cases where punishment for whistleblowing has occurred, such as suspension, demotion, termination, or harsh mistreatment by other employees. Hence, this paper will analyse the adequacy of the legal protection available to employees who whistle-blow on their employers with reference to the Whistle-blower Protection Act 2010. Reference will also be made to the approach taken in other selected jurisdiction with a view of highlighting the adequacy of the Malaysian legislation on this subject besides strengthen employee whistle-blower protection. Further, reference is also made to the Islamic approach on this subject with particular reference to the concept of amr-bil-Ma’roof (ordering for acknowledged virtues) and nahi anil munkar (forbidding from sin). Allah (SWT) says: “And there should be a group amongst you who invite towards good, order for acknowledged virtues, forbid from sin and these it is that are the successful ones” (Al Imran(Chp 3), verse 104).

Keywords: whistleblower protection, employee whistleblower, detrimental and reprisal, Malaysian law

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
29 Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology

Authors: Mahrukh Baig

Abstract:

This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Second Language Acquisition (SLA), teaching english as second/foreign language, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, application of psychology to language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
28 Comparison Analysis of Multi-Channel Echo Cancellation Using Adaptive Filters

Authors: Sahar Mobeen, Anam Rafique, Irum Baig

Abstract:

Acoustic echo cancellation in multichannel is a system identification application. In real time environment, signal changes very rapidly which required adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS), Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) and average (AFA) having high convergence rate and stable. LMS and NLMS are widely used adaptive algorithm due to less computational complexity and AFA used of its high convergence rate. This research is based on comparison of acoustic echo (generated in a room) cancellation thorough LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA and newly proposed average normalized leaky least mean square (ANLLMS) adaptive filters.

Keywords: LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA, ANLLMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
27 Effects of EMS on Foot Drop Associated with Grade III Wound: A Case Report

Authors: Mirza Obaid Baig, MaimoonaYaqub

Abstract:

A 51 year old lady; known case of diabetes mellitus, post wound debridement i.e. 4 open wounds of grade III presented to us with foot drop, with prominent sensory deficit over right lower leg/foot i.e. 0 on Nottingham scale for impaired sensation, marked pedal edema and 5/10 – 6/10 pain on VAS during day and night respectively, Wounds were poorly granulated and foul smelling. Physiotherapy sessions were planned including twice a day electrical muscle stimulation sessions, strategies to decrease edema and improve muscle action which resulted in noticeable improvement in motor and sensory ability, pain levels, edema and psychological status of patient. Thus, this study gives evidence of the effect of Electrical muscle stimulation in grade III open wounds associated with motor/sensory weakness post-surgery.

Keywords: EMS, foot drop, grade III wound, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
26 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
25 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Curcuma purpurascens BI. Rhizomes in Rats

Authors: Elham Rouhollahi, Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Salma Baig, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Zahurin Mohamed

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess cutaneous wound healing potential of hexane extract of Curcuma purpurascens rhizomes (HECP). Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Negative, 2. Low dose, 3. High dose and 4. Treatment, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions with a diameter of 2 cm were made on the back of each rat. Rats were topically treated two times a day for 15 days. Group 1-4 were treated with sterile distilled water, 5% and 10% of extract and intrasite gel, respectively. Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin staining techniques are employed for histological analysis revealed strong wound healing potential closer to that of conventional drug intrasite gel. HECP significantly decreased wound area and an increase in hydroxyproline, cellular proliferation, the number of blood vessels and the level of collagen synthesis was observed. Thus, it could be concluded that HECP possesses strong wound healing potential.

Keywords: Curcuma purpurascens, wound healing, histopathology, hematoxylin staining

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
24 Influence of Wall Stiffness and Embedment Depth on Excavations Supported by Cantilever Walls

Authors: Muhammad Naseem Baig, Abdul Qudoos Khan, Jamal Ali

Abstract:

Ground deformations in deep excavations are affected by wall stiffness and pile embedment ratio. This paper presents the findings of a parametric study of 64ft deep excavation in mixed stiff soil conditions supported by a cantilever pile wall. A series of finite element analyses have been carried out in Plaxis 2D by varying pile embedment ratio and wall stiffness. It has been observed that maximum wall deflections decrease by increasing the embedment ratio up to 1.50; however, any further increase in pile length does not improve the performance of wall. Similarly, increasing wall stiffness reduces the wall deformations and affects the deflection patterns of wall. The finite element analysis results are compared with field data of 25 case studies of cantilever walls. Analysis results fall within the range of normalized wall deflections of 25 case studies. It has been concluded that deep excavations can be supported by cantilever walls provided the system stiffness is increased significantly.

Keywords: excavations, support systems, wall stiffness, cantilever walls

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
23 Cost Comparison between R.C.C. Structures and Composite Columns Structures

Authors: Assad Rashid, Umair Ahmed, Zafar Baig

Abstract:

A new trend in construction is widely influenced by the use of Steel-Concrete Composite Columns. The rapid growth in Steel-Concrete Composite construction has widely decreased the conventional R.C.C structures. Steel Concrete composite construction has obtained extensive receiving around the globe. It is considering the fact that R.C.C structures construction is most suitable and economical for low-rise construction, so it is used in farming systems in most of the buildings. However, increased dead load, span restriction, less stiffness and risky formwork make R.C.C construction uneconomical and not suitable when it comes to intermediate to high-rise buildings. A Base + Ground +11 storey commercial building was designed on ETABS 2017 and made a comparison between conventional R.C.C and encased composite column structure. After performing Equivalent Static non-linear analysis, it has been found that construction cost is 13.01% more than R.C.C structure but encased composite column building has 7.7% more floor area. This study will help in understanding the behavior of conventional R.C.C structure and Encased Composite column structure.

Keywords: composite columns structure, equivalent static non-linear analysis, comparison between R.C.C and encased composite column structures, cost-effective structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
22 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

Abstract:

Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
21 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad

Abstract:

The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
20 A Comparison Study of Different Methods Used in the Detection of Giardia lamblia on Fecal Specimen of Children

Authors: Muhammad Farooq Baig

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for O&P examination, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and two conventional staining methods. Design: Hundred and fifty children fecal specimens were collected and examined by each method. The O&P and the DFA were used as the reference method. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Patients or Other Participants: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Main Outcome Measures: The amount of agreement and disagreement between methods.1) Presence of giardiasis in our population. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45(30%) positive 105 (70%) negative on DFA, 41 (27.4%) positive 109 (72.6%) negative on iodine and 34 (22.6%) positive 116(77.4%) on saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparision to iodine were 92.2%, 92.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparisoin to saline method were 91.2%, 87.9% respectively. The sensitivity of iodine method and saline method in compariosn to DFA were 82.2%, 68.8% respectively. There is mark diffrence in sensitivity of DFA to conventional method. Conclusion: The study supported findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method have the greater sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O&P method.

Keywords: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), ova and parasite (O&P), Giardia lamblia, children, medical science

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
19 Blockchain-Resilient Framework for Cloud-Based Network Devices within the Architecture of Self-Driving Cars

Authors: Mirza Mujtaba Baig

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is evolving rapidly, and one of the areas in which this field has influenced is automation. The automobile, healthcare, education, and robotic industries deploy AI technologies constantly, and the automation of tasks is beneficial to allow time for knowledge-based tasks and also introduce convenience to everyday human endeavors. The paper reviews the challenges faced with the current implementations of autonomous self-driving cars by exploring the machine learning, robotics, and artificial intelligence techniques employed for the development of this innovation. The controversy surrounding the development and deployment of autonomous machines, e.g., vehicles, begs the need for the exploration of the configuration of the programming modules. This paper seeks to add to the body of knowledge of research assisting researchers in decreasing the inconsistencies in current programming modules. Blockchain is a technology of which applications are mostly found within the domains of financial, pharmaceutical, manufacturing, and artificial intelligence. The registering of events in a secured manner as well as applying external algorithms required for the data analytics are especially helpful for integrating, adapting, maintaining, and extending to new domains, especially predictive analytics applications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, automation, big data, self-driving cars, machine learning, neural networking algorithm, blockchain, business intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
18 Novel Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Macrophage Phenotypic Polarization

Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Anjali Roy, Dongfang Liu, Deepak Bhatnagar, Ravinder Ravinder, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Macrophages polarize to proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 states with distinct physiological functions. This transition within the M1 to M2 phenotypes decides the nature, duration, and severity of an inflammatory response. However, inspite of a substantial understanding of the fate of these phenotypes, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have investigated the role of Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) mediated regulation of Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in macrophages as a critical effector of macrophage phenotypic change. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins. We determined that NOS1-derived nitric oxide (NO) facilitate Fos and jun interaction which induces IL12 & IL23 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 inhibits Fos and jun interaction but increases ATF2 and Fos dimerization. Switching of Fos and jun dimer to ATF2 and jun dimerization switches phenotype from IL–12high IL-23high IL-10low to IL–12low IL-23lowIL-10high phenotype, respectively. Together, these findings highlight a key role of the TLR4-NOS1-AP1 signaling axis in regulating macrophage polarization.

Keywords: inflammation, macrophage, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, activator protein 1 (AP-1), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1)

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
17 Simultaneous Targeting of MYD88 and Nur77 as an Effective Approach for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

Authors: Uzma Saqib, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) has long been considered a central player in the inflammatory pathway. Recent studies clearly suggest that it is an important therapeutic target in inflammation. On the other hand, a recent study on the interaction between the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) and p38α, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammatory response, suggests this binary complex as a therapeutic target. In this study, we have designed inhibitors that can inhibit both MYD88 and Nur77 at the same time. Since both MYD88 and Nur77 are an integral part of the pathways involving lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation, we tried to target both proteins with the same library in order to retrieve compounds having dual inhibitory properties. To perform this, we developed a homodimeric model of MYD88 and, along with the crystal structure of Nur77, screened a virtual library of compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database containing ~61,000 compounds. We analyzed the resulting hits for their efficacy for dual binding and probed them for developing a common pharmacophore model that could be used as a prototype to screen compound libraries as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal dual-target inhibitors. Thus, our study explores the identification of novel leads having dual inhibiting effects due to binding to both MYD88 and Nur77 targets.

Keywords: drug design, Nur77, MYD88, inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
16 Identification and Control the Yaw Motion Dynamics of Open Frame Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Mirza Mohibulla Baig, Imil Hamda Imran, Tri Bagus Susilo, Sami El Ferik

Abstract:

The paper deals with system identification and control a nonlinear model of semi-autonomous underwater vehicle (UUV). The input-output data is first generated using the experimental values of the model parameters and then this data is used to compute the estimated parameter values. In this study, we use the semi-autonomous UUV LAURS model, which is developed by the Sensors and Actuators Laboratory in University of Sao Paolo. We applied three methods to identify the parameters: integral method, which is a classical least square method, recursive least square, and weighted recursive least square. In this paper, we also apply three different inputs (step input, sine wave input and random input) to each identification method. After the identification stage, we investigate the control performance of yaw motion of nonlinear semi-autonomous Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) using feedback linearization-based controller. In addition, we compare the performance of the control with an integral and a non-integral part along with state feedback. Finally, disturbance rejection and resilience of the controller is tested. The results demonstrate the ability of the system to recover from such fault.

Keywords: system identification, underwater vehicle, integral method, recursive least square, weighted recursive least square, feedback linearization, integral error

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
15 Redefining "Dedhee" in Terms of Knowledge Gathering and Conserving Hazara Literature

Authors: Urooj Shafique, Salman Jamil

Abstract:

In the context of an urban human life, city requires to meeting some standards which, at a glance are called the standards of a quality life. Measuring the quality of life according to particular social, economic and cultural conditions of a country and also the emphasis of a country twenty years visions on this issue has special importance. Cultural gathering spaces improve social and economic vitality on one side and on the other side provide favorable conditions for citizen leisure. But unfortunately these cultural gathering spaces in our society are losing their meaning and importance with time. Like coffee houses and libraries. Dedhee was the most prominent place among the cultural gathering spaces in Hazara division. People used to visit them in order to get something out of these spaces. At present they lie in our cities as places of no interest. Libraries are converted into storage houses where books lie untouched for years and years. The aim of my project is to create unique space that engage community members in the learning and creation process, where people can share their knowledge with others as well as enjoy their personal space. The spaces are flexible enough to accommodate people of different moods and interests, with the purpose of helping communities to become aware of their own cultures and to be socially engaged. The site for this specific project has been selected near Cantonment Park Abbottabad, Pakistan. The city of Abbottabad is famous for its writers, poets and storytellers. The site is selected next to the Cantonment Park, at a central location in the whole city so that it can attract users from almost every point of the city. The project provides a cultural gathering space for the people of the city where they can sit and discuss their ideas within a creative and expressive environment, which can represent the cultures of a community.

Keywords: cultural gathering space, Dedhee, Hazara literature, intellectuals’ hub

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
14 Optical Emission Studies of Laser Produced Lead Plasma: Measurements of Transition Probabilities of the 6P7S → 6P2 Transitions Array

Authors: Javed Iqbal, R. Ahmed, M. A. Baig

Abstract:

We present new data on the optical emission spectra of the laser produced lead plasma using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm (pulse energy 400 mJ, pulse width 5 ns, 10 Hz repetition rate) in conjunction with a set of miniature spectrometers covering the spectral range from 200 nm to 720 nm. Well resolved structure due to the 6p7s → 6p2 transition array of neutral lead and a few multiplets of singly ionized lead have been observed. The electron temperatures have been calculated in the range (9000 - 10800) ± 500 K using four methods; two line ratio, Boltzmann plot, Saha-Boltzmann plot and Morrata method whereas, the electron number densities have been determined in the range (2.0 – 8.0) ± 0.6 ×1016 cm-3 using the Stark broadened line profiles of neutral lead lines, singly ionized lead lines and hydrogen Hα-line. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a number of neutral and singly ionized lead lines have been extracted by the Lorentzian fit to the experimentally observed line profiles. Furthermore, branching fractions have been deduced for eleven lines of the 6p7s → 6p2 transition array in lead whereas the absolute values of the transition probabilities have been calculated by combining the experimental branching fractions with the life times of the excited levels The new results are compared with the existing data showing a good agreement.

Keywords: LIBS, plasma parameters, transition probabilities, branching fractions, stark width

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
13 Impure Water, a Future Disaster: A Case Study of Lahore Ground Water Quality with GIS Techniques

Authors: Rana Waqar Aslam, Urooj Saeed, Hammad Mehmood, Hameed Ullah, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to assess the water quality in and around Lahore Metropolitan area on the basis of three different land uses, i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. For this, 29 sample sites have been selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Samples were collected at the source (WASA tube wells). The criteria for selecting sample sites are to have a maximum concentration of population in the selected land uses. The results showed that in the residential land use the proportion of nitrate and turbidity is at their highest level in the areas of Allama Iqbal Town and Samanabad Town. Commercial land use of Gulberg and Data Gunj Bakhsh Town have highest level of proportion of chlorides, calcium, TDS, pH, Mg, total hardness, arsenic and alkalinity. Whereas in industrial type of land use in Ravi and Wahga Town have the proportion of arsenic, Mg, nitrate, pH, and turbidity are at their highest level. The high rate of concentration of these parameters in these areas is basically due to the old and fractured pipelines that allow bacterial as well as physiochemical contaminants to contaminate the portable water at the sources. Furthermore, it is seen in most areas that waste water from domestic, industrial, as well as municipal sources may get easy discharge into open spaces and water bodies, like, cannels, rivers, lakes that seeps and become a part of ground water. In addition, huge dumps located in Lahore are becoming the cause of ground water contamination as when the rain falls, the water gets seep into the ground and impures the ground water quality. On the basis of the derived results with the help of Geo-spatial technology ACRGIS 9.3 Interpolation (IDW), it is recommended that water filtration plants must be installed with specific parameter control. A separate team for proper inspection has to be made for water quality check at the source. Old water pipelines must be replaced with the new pipelines, and safe water depth must be ensured at the source end.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, pH, nitrate, disaster, IDW

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
12 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Elham Rouhollahi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Thymus serpyllum L., hexane extract, GC-MS profile, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, HepG2 cell line

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
11 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar

Abstract:

Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: rice, morphological traits, association, germplasm, genetic diversity, water levels, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
10 Rapid Flood Damage Assessment of Population and Crops Using Remotely Sensed Data

Authors: Urooj Saeed, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Iqra Khalid, Sahar Mirza, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

Pakistan, a flood-prone country, has experienced worst floods in the recent past which have caused extensive damage to the urban and rural areas by loss of lives, damage to infrastructure and agricultural fields. Poor flood management system in the country has projected the risks of damages as the increasing frequency and magnitude of floods are felt as a consequence of climate change; affecting national economy directly or indirectly. To combat the needs of flood emergency, this paper focuses on remotely sensed data based approach for rapid mapping and monitoring of flood extent and its damages so that fast dissemination of information can be done, from local to national level. In this research study, spatial extent of the flooding caused by heavy rains of 2014 has been mapped by using space borne data to assess the crop damages and affected population in sixteen districts of Punjab. For this purpose, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to daily mark the flood extent by using Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). The highest flood value data was integrated with the LandScan 2014, 1km x 1km grid based population, to calculate the affected population in flood hazard zone. It was estimated that the floods covered an area of 16,870 square kilometers, with 3.0 million population affected. Moreover, to assess the flood damages, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) aided with spectral signatures was applied on Landsat image to attain the thematic layers of healthy (0.54 million acre) and damaged crops (0.43 million acre). The study yields that the population of Jhang district (28% of 2.5 million population) was affected the most. Whereas, in terms of crops, Jhang and Muzzafargarh are the ‘highest damaged’ ranked district of floods 2014 in Punjab. This study was completed within 24 hours of the peak flood time, and proves to be an effective methodology for rapid assessment of damages due to flood hazard

Keywords: flood hazard, space borne data, object based image analysis, rapid damage assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
9 Wax Patterns for Integrally Cast Rotors/Stators of Aeroengine Gas Turbines

Authors: Pradyumna R., Sridhar S., A. Satyanarayana, Alok S. Chauhan, Baig M. A. H.

Abstract:

Modern turbine engines for aerospace applications need precision investment cast components such as integrally cast rotors and stators, for their hot end turbine stages. Traditionally, these turbines are used as starter engines. In recent times, such engines are also used for strategic missile applications. The rotor/stator castings consist of a central hub (shrouded in some designs) over which a number of aerofoil shaped blades are located. Since these components cannot be machined, investment casting is the only available route for manufacture and hence stringent dimensional aerospace quality has to be in-built in the casting process itself. In the process of investment casting, pattern generation by injection of wax into dedicated dies/moulds is the first critical step. Traditional approach deals in producing individual blades with hub/shroud features through wax injection and assembly of a set of such injected patterns onto a dedicated and precisely manufactured fixture to wax-weld and generate an integral wax pattern, a process known as the ‘segmental approach’. It is possible to design a single-injection die with retractable metallic inserts in the case of untwisted blades of stator patterns without the shroud. Such an approach is also possible for twisted blades of rotors with highly complex design of inter-blade inserts and retraction mechanisms. DMRL has for long established methods and procedures for the above to successfully supply precision castings for various defence related projects. In recent times, urea based soluble insert approach has also been successfully applied to overcome the need to design and manufacture a precision assembly fixture, leading to substantial reduction in component development times. Present paper deals in length various approaches tried and established at DMRL to generate precision wax patterns for aerospace quality turbine rotors and stators. In addition to this, the importance of simulation in solving issues related to wax injection is also touched upon.

Keywords: die/mold and fixtures, integral rotor/stator, investment casting, wax patterns, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
8 Factors Associated with Seroconversion of Oral Polio Vaccine among the Children under 5 Year in District Mirpurkhas, Pakistan 2015

Authors: Muhammad Asif Syed, Mirza Amir Baig

Abstract:

Background: Pakistan is one of the two remaining polio-endemic countries, posing a significant public health challenge for global polio eradication due to failure to interrupt polio transmission. Country specific seroprevalence studies help in the evaluation of immunization program performance, the susceptibility of population against polio virus and identification of existing level of immunity with factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The objective of the study was to find out factors associated with seroconversion of the OPV among children 6-59 months in Pakistan. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional serosurvey was undertaken in May-June 2015 at District Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. Total 180 children aged 6–59 months were selected by using systematic random sampling from Muhammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas. Demographic, vaccination history and risk factors information were collected from the parents/guardian. Blood sample was collected and tested for the detection of poliovirus IgG antibodies by using ELISA Kit. The IgG titer <10 IU/ml, 50 to <150 IU/ml and >150 IU/ml was defined as negative, weak positive and positive immunity respectively. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the difference in seroprevalence in univariate analysis. Results: A total of 180 subjects were enrolled mean age was 23 months (7 -59 months). Off these 160 (89%) children were well and 18 (10%) partially protected against polio virus. Two (1.1%) children had no protection against polio virus as they had <10 IU/ml poliovirus IgG antibodies titer. Both negative cases belong from the female gender, age group 12-23 months, urban area and BMI <50 percentile. There was a difference between normal and the wasting children; it did attain statistical significance (χ2= 35.5, p=0.00). The difference in seroconversion was also observed in relation to the gender (χ2=6.23, p=0.04), duration of breast feeding (χ2=18.6, p=0.04), history of diarrheal disease before polio vaccine administration (χ2=7.7, p=0.02), and stunting (χ2= 114, p=0.00). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that near 90% children achieve seroconversion of OPV and well protected against polio virus. There is an urgent need to focus on factors like duration of breast feeding, diarrheal diseases and malnutrition (acute and chronic) among the children as an immunization strategy.

Keywords: seroconversion, oral polio vaccine, Polio, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
7 Exploration of Probiotics and Anti-Microbial Agents in Fermented Milk from Pakistani Camel spp. Breeds

Authors: Deeba N. Baig, Ateeqa Ijaz, Saloome Rafiq

Abstract:

Camel is a religious and culturally significant animal in Asian and African regions. In Pakistan Dromedary and Bactrian are common camel breeds. Other than the transportation use, it is a pivotal source of milk and meat. The quality of its milk and meat is predominantly dependent on the geographical location and variety of vegetation available for the diet. Camel milk (CM) is highly nutritious because of its reduced cholesterol and sugar contents along with enhanced minerals and vitamins level. The absence of beta-lactoglobulin (like human milk), makes CM a safer alternative for infants and children having Cow Milk Allergy (CMA). In addition to this, it has a unique probiotic profile both in raw and fermented form. Number of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including lactococcus, lactobacillus, enterococcus, streptococcus, weissella, pediococcus and many other bacteria have been detected. From these LAB Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus are widely used commercially for fermentation purpose. CM has high therapeutic value as its effectiveness is known against various ailments like fever, arthritis, asthma, gastritis, hepatitis, Jaundice, constipation, postpartum care of women, anti-venom, dropsy etc. It also has anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, antitumor potential along with its robust efficacy in the treatment of auto-immune disorders. Recently, the role of CM has been explored in brain-gut axis for the therapeutics of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this connection, a lot of grey area was available to explore the probiotics and therapeutics latent in the CM available in Pakistan. Thus, current study was designed to explore the predominant probiotic flora and antimicrobial potential of CM from different local breeds of Pakistan. The probiotics have been identified through biochemical, physiological and ribo-typing methods. In addition to this, bacteriocins (antimicrobial-agents) were screened through PCR-based approach. Results of this study revealed that CM from different breeds of camel depicted a number of similar probiotic candidates along with the range of limited variability. However, the nucleotide sequence analysis of selected anti-listerial bacteriocins exposed least variability. As a conclusion, the CM has sufficient probiotic availability and significant anti-microbial potential.

Keywords: bacteriocins, camel milk, probiotics potential, therapeutics

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
6 Cognitive Behaviour Hypnotherapy as an Effective Intervention for Nonsuicidal Self Injury Disorder

Authors: Halima Sadia Qureshi, Urooj Sadiq, Noshi Eram Zaman

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to see how cognitive behavior hypnotherapy affected nonsuicidal self-injury. DSM 5 invites the researchers to explore the newly added condition under the chapter of conditions under further study named Nonsuicidal self-injury disorder. To date, no empirical sound intervention has been proven effective for NSSI as given in DSM 5. Nonsuicidal self-injury is defined by DSM 5 as harming one's self physically, without suicidal intention. Around 7.6% of teenagers are expected to fulfill the NSSI disorder criteria. 3 Adolescents, particularly university students, account for around 87 percent of self-harm studies. Furthermore, one of the risks associated with NSSI is an increased chance of suicide attempts, and in most cases, the cycle repeats again. 6 The emotional and psychological components of the illness might lead to suicide, either intentionally or unintentionally. 7 According to a research done at a Pakistani military hospital, over 80% of participants had no intention of committing suicide. Furthermore, it has been determined that improvements in NSSI prevention and intervention are necessary as a stand-alone strategy. The quasi-experimental study took place in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from May 2019 to April 2020 and included students aged 18 to 25 years old from several institutions and colleges in the twin cities. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition, the individuals were assessed for >2 episodes without suicidal intent using the intentional self-harm questionnaire. The Clinician Administered Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Disorder Index (CANDI) was used to assess the individual for NSSI condition. Symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to screen the participants for differential diagnosis. Mclean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) was used to rule out the BPD cases. The selected participants, n=106 from the screening sample of 600, were selected. They were further screened to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the total of n=71 were split into two groups: intervention and control. The intervention group received cognitive behavior hypnotherapy for the next three months, whereas the control group received no treatment. After the period of three months, both the groups went through the post assessment, and after the three months’ period, follow-up assessment was conducted. The groups were evaluated, and SPSS 25 was used to analyse the data. The results showed that each of the two groups had 30 (50 percent) of the 60 participants. There were 41 males (68 percent) and 19 girls (32 percent) in all. The bulk of the participants were between the ages of 21 and 23. (48 percent). Self-harm events were reported by 48 (80 percent) of the pupils, and suicide ideation was found in 6 (ten percent). In terms of pre- and post-intervention values (d=4.90), post-intervention and follow-up assessment values (d=0.32), and pre-intervention and follow-up values (d=5.42), the study's effect size was good. The comparison of treatment and no-treatment groups revealed that treatment was more successful than no-treatment, F (1, 58) = 53.16, p.001. The results reveal that the treatment manual of CBH is effective for Nonsuicidal self-injury disorder.

Keywords: NSSI, nonsuicidal self injury disorder, self-harm, self-injury, Cognitive behaviour hypnotherapy, CBH

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
5 Medical Ethics in the Hospital: Towards Quality Ethics Consultation

Authors: Dina Siniora, Jasia Baig

Abstract:

During the past few decades, the healthcare system has undergone profound changes in their healthcare decision-making competencies and moral aptitudes due to the vast advancement in technology, clinical skills, and scientific knowledge. Healthcare decision-making deals with morally contentious dilemmas ranging from illness, life and death judgments that require sensitivity and awareness towards the patient’s preferences while taking into consideration medicine’s abilities and boundaries. As the ever-evolving field of medicine continues to become more scientifically and morally multifarious; physicians and the hospital administrators increasingly rely on ethics committees to resolve problems that arise in everyday patient care. The role and latitude of responsibilities of ethics committees which includes being dispute intermediaries, moral analysts, policy educators, counselors, advocates, and reviewers; suggest the importance and effectiveness of a fully integrated committee. Despite achievements on Integrated Ethics and progress in standards and competencies, there is an imminent necessity for further improvement in quality within ethics consultation services in areas of credentialing, professionalism and standards of quality, as well as the quality of healthcare throughout the system. These concerns can be resolved first by collecting data about particular quality gaps and comprehend the level to which ethics committees are consistent with newly published ASBH quality standards. Policymakers should pursue improvement strategies that target both academic bioethics community and major stakeholders at hospitals, who directly influence ethics committees. This broader approach oriented towards education and intervention outcome in conjunction with preventive ethics to address disparities in quality on a systematic level. Adopting tools for improving competencies and processes within ethics consultation by implementing a credentialing process, upholding normative significance for the ASBH core competencies, advocating for professional Code of Ethics, and further clarifying the internal structures will improve productivity, patient satisfaction, and institutional integrity. This cannot be systemically achieved without a written certification exam for HCEC practitioners, credentialing and privileging HCEC practitioners at the hospital level, and accrediting HCEC services at the institutional level.

Keywords: ethics consultation, hospital, medical ethics, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
4 Mapping Potential Soil Salinization Using Rule Based Object Oriented Image Analysis

Authors: Zermina Q., Wasif Y., Naeem S., Urooj S., Sajid R. A.

Abstract:

Land degradation, a leading environemtnal problem and a decrease in the quality of land has become a major global issue, caused by human activities. By land degradation, more than half of the world’s drylands are affected. The worldwide scope of main saline soils is approximately 955 M ha, whereas inferior salinization affected approximately 77 M ha. In irrigated areas, a total of 58% of these soils is found. As most of the vegetation types requires fertile soil for their growth and quality production, salinity causes serious problem to the production of these vegetation types and agriculture demands. This research aims to identify the salt affected areas in the selected part of Indus Delta, Sindh province, Pakistan. This particular mangroves dominating coastal belt is important to the local community for their crop growth. Object based image analysis approach has been adopted on Landsat TM imagery of year 2011 by incorporating different mathematical band ratios, thermal radiance and salinity index. Accuracy assessment of developed salinity landcover map was performed using Erdas Imagine Accuracy Assessment Utility. Rain factor was also considered before acquiring satellite imagery and conducting field survey, as wet soil can greatly affect the condition of saline soil of the area. Dry season considered best for the remote sensing based observation and monitoring of the saline soil. These areas were trained with the ground truth data w.r.t pH and electric condutivity of the soil samples. The results were obtained from the object based image analysis of Keti bunder and Kharo chan shows most of the region under low saline soil.Total salt affected soil was measured to be 46,581.7 ha in Keti Bunder, which represents 57.81 % of the total area of 80,566.49 ha. High Saline Area was about 7,944.68 ha (9.86%). Medium Saline Area was about 17,937.26 ha (22.26 %) and low Saline Area was about 20,699.77 ha (25.69%). Where as total salt affected soil was measured to be 52,821.87 ha in Kharo Chann, which represents 55.87 % of the total area of 94,543.54 ha. High Saline Area was about 5,486.55 ha (5.80 %). Medium Saline Area was about 13,354.72 ha (14.13 %) and low Saline Area was about 33980.61 ha (35.94 %). These results show that the area is low to medium saline in nature. Accuracy of the soil salinity map was found to be 83 % with the Kappa co-efficient of 0.77. From this research, it was evident that this area as a whole falls under the category of low to medium saline area and being close to coastal area, mangrove forest can flourish. As Mangroves are salt tolerant plant so this area is consider heaven for mangrove plantation. It would ultimately benefit both the local community and the environment. Increase in mangrove forest control the problem of soil salinity and prevent sea water to intrude more into coastal area. So deforestation of mangrove should be regularly monitored.

Keywords: indus delta, object based image analysis, soil salinity, thematic mapper

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
3 Understanding the Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 in Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages and Implication in Atherosclerosis Progression

Authors: Anjali Roy, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid rich plaque enriched with necrotic core, modified lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, leucocytes and macrophages. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Foam cells are the fat-laden macrophages in the initial stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. Foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression remain largely unknown. Dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism, we studied the role of nitric oxide synthase 1(NOS1)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Using confocal microscopy, we found that incubation of macrophages with NOS1 inhibitor, TRIM (1-(2-Trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole) or L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) prior to LDL treatment significantly reduces the LDL uptake by BMDM. Further, addition of NO donor (DEA NONOate) in NOS1 inhibitor treated macrophages recovers the LDL uptake. Our data strongly suggest that NOS1 derived NO regulates LDL uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. Moreover, we also checked proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through real time PCR in BMDM treated with LDL and copper oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in presences and absences of inhibitor. Normal LDL does not evoke cytokine expression whereas OxLDL induced proinflammatory cytokine expression which significantly reduced in presences of NOS1 inhibitor. Rapid NOS-1-derived NO and its stable derivative formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in endothelial cells, leading to endothelial vascular wall lining disruption and dysfunctioning. This study highlights the role of NOS1 as critical players of foam cell formation and would reveal much about the key molecular proteins involved in atherosclerosis. Thus, targeting NOS1 would be a useful strategy in reducing LDL uptake by macrophages at early stage of disease and hence dampening the atherosclerosis progression.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, NOS1, inflammation, oxidized LDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2 Price Control: A Comprehensive Step to Control Corruption in the Society

Authors: Muhammad Zia Ullah Baig, Atiq Uz Zama

Abstract:

The motivation of the project is to facilitate the governance body, as well as the common man in his/her daily life consuming product rates, to easily monitor the expense, to control the budget with the help of single SMS (message), e-mail facility, and to manage governance body by task management system. The system will also be capable of finding irregularities being done by the concerned department in mitigating the complaints generated by the customer and also provide a solution to overcome problems. We are building a system that easily controls the price control system of any country, we will feeling proud to give this system free of cost to Indian Government also. The system is able to easily manage and control the price control department of government all over the country. Price control department run in different cities under City District Government, so the system easily run in different cities with different SMS Code and decentralize Database ensure the non-functional requirement of system (scalability, reliability, availability, security, safety). The customer request for the government official price list with respect to his/her city SMS code (price list of all city available on website or application), the server will forward the price list through a SMS, if the product is not available according to the price list the customer generate a complaint through an SMS or using website/smartphone application, complaint is registered in complaint database and forward to inspection department when the complaint is entertained, the inspection department will forward a message about the complaint to customer. Inspection department physically checks the seller who does not follow the price list, but the major issue of the system is corruption, may be inspection officer will take a bribe and resolve the complaint (complaint is fake) in that case the customer will not use the system. The major issue of the system is to distinguish the fake and real complain and fight for corruption in the department. To counter the corruption, our strategy is to rank the complain if the same type of complaint is generated the complaint is in high rank and the higher authority will also notify about that complain, now the higher authority of department have reviewed the complaint and its history, the officer who resolve that complaint in past and the action against the complaint, these data will help in decision-making process, if the complaint was resolved because the officer takes bribe, the higher authority will take action against that officer. When the price of any good is decided the market/former representative is also there, with the mutual understanding of both party the price is decided, the system facilitate the decision-making process. The system shows the price history of any goods, inflation rate, available supply, demand, and the gap between supply and demand, these data will help to allot for the decision-making process.

Keywords: price control, goods, government, inspection, department, customer, employees

Procedia PDF Downloads 333