Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16432

Search results for: diagnostic investigation process

16432 Mining Diagnostic Investigation Process

Authors: Sohail Imran, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

In complex healthcare diagnostic investigation process, medical practitioners have to focus on ways to standardize their processes to perform high quality care and optimize the time and costs. Process mining techniques can be applied to extract process related knowledge from data without considering causal and dynamic dependencies in business domain and processes. The application of process mining is effective in diagnostic investigation. It is very helpful where a treatment gives no dispositive evidence favoring it. In this paper, we applied process mining to discover important process flow of diagnostic investigation for hepatitis patients. This approach has some benefits which can enhance the quality and efficiency of diagnostic investigation processes.

Keywords: process mining, healthcare, diagnostic investigation process, process flow

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16431 Importance of New Policies of Process Management for Internet of Things Based on Forensic Investigation

Authors: Venkata Venugopal Rao Gudlur

Abstract:

The Proposed Policies referred to as “SOP”, on the Internet of Things (IoT) based Forensic Investigation into Process Management is the latest revolution to save time and quick solution for investigators. The forensic investigation process has been developed over many years from time to time it has been given the required information with no policies in investigation processes. This research reveals that the current IoT based forensic investigation into Process Management based is more connected to devices which is the latest revolution and policies. All future development in real-time information on gathering monitoring is evolved with smart sensor-based technologies connected directly to IoT. This paper present conceptual framework on process management. The smart devices are leading the way in terms of automated forensic models and frameworks established by different scholars. These models and frameworks were mostly focused on offering a roadmap for performing forensic operations with no policies in place. These initiatives would bring a tremendous benefit to process management and IoT forensic investigators proposing policies. The forensic investigation process may enhance more security and reduced data losses and vulnerabilities.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Process Management, Forensic Investigation, M2M Framework

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16430 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal

Abstract:

Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

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16429 Automated Process Quality Monitoring and Diagnostics for Large-Scale Measurement Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

Abstract:

Continuous monitoring of industrial plants is one of necessary tasks when it comes to ensuring high-quality final products. In terms of monitoring and diagnosis, it is quite critical and important to detect some incipient abnormal events of manufacturing processes in order to improve safety and reliability of operations involved and to reduce related losses. In this work a new multivariate statistical online diagnostic method is presented using a case study. For building some reference models an empirical discriminant model is constructed based on various past operation runs. When a fault is detected on-line, an on-line diagnostic module is initiated. Finally, the status of the current operating conditions is compared with the reference model to make a diagnostic decision. The performance of the presented framework is evaluated using a dataset from complex industrial processes. It has been shown that the proposed diagnostic method outperforms other techniques especially in terms of incipient detection of any faults occurred.

Keywords: data mining, empirical model, on-line diagnostics, process fault, process monitoring

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16428 Diagnosis of Logistics Processes: Bibliometric Review and Analysis

Authors: S. F. Bayona, J. Nunez, D. Paez

Abstract:

The diagnostic processes have been consolidated as fundamental tools in the adequate knowledge of organizations and their processes. The diagnosis is related to the interpretation of the data, findings and the relevant information, to determine problems, causes, or the simple state and behavior of a process, without including a solution to the problems detected. The objective of this work is to identify the necessary stages to diagnose the logistic processes in a metalworking company, from the literary revision of different disciplines. A total of 62 articles were chosen to identify, through bibliometric analysis, the most cited articles, as well as the most frequent authors and journals. The results allowed to identify the two fundamental stages in the diagnostic process: a primary phase (general) based on the logical subjectivity of the knowledge of the person who evaluates, and the secondary phase (specific), related to the interpretation of the results, findings or data. Also, two phases were identified, one related to the definition of the scope of the actions to be developed and the other, as an initial description of what was observed in the process.

Keywords: business, diagnostic, management, process

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16427 A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fahad Alanazi, Andrew Jones

Abstract:

Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper, we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.

Keywords: digital forensics, process, metadata, Traceback, Sauid Arabia

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16426 FEM Investigation of Inhomogeneous Wall Thickness Backward Extrusion for Aerosol Can Manufacturing

Authors: Jemal Ebrahim Dessie, Zsolt Lukacs

Abstract:

The wall of the aerosol can is extruded from the backward extrusion process. Necking is another forming process stage developed on the can shoulder after the backward extrusion process. Due to the thinner thickness of the wall, buckling is the critical challenge for current pure aluminum aerosol can industries. Design and investigation of extrusion with inhomogeneous wall thickness could be the best solution for reducing and optimization of neck retraction numbers. FEM simulation of inhomogeneous wall thickness has been simulated through this investigation. From axisymmetric Deform-2D backward extrusion, an aerosol can with a thickness of 0.4 mm at the top and 0.33 mm at the bottom of the aerosol can have been developed. As the result, it can optimize the number of retractions of the necking process and manufacture defect-free aerosol can shoulder due to the necking process.

Keywords: aerosol can, backward extrusion, Deform-2D, necking

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16425 Diagnostic Assessment for Mastery Learning of Engineering Students with a Bayesian Network Model

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Yingchen Yang

Abstract:

In this study, a diagnostic assessment model for Mastery Engineering Learning was established based on a group of undergraduate students who studied in an engineering course. A diagnostic assessment model can examine both students' learning process and report achievement results. One very unique characteristic is that the diagnostic assessment model can recognize the errors and anything blocking students in their learning processes. The feedback is provided to help students to know how to solve the learning problems with alternative strategies and help the instructor to find alternative pedagogical strategies in the instructional designs. Dynamics is a core course in which is a common course being shared by several engineering programs. This course is a very challenging for engineering students to solve the problems. Thus knowledge acquisition and problem-solving skills are crucial for student success. Therefore, developing an effective and valid assessment model for student learning are of great importance. Diagnostic assessment is such a model which can provide effective feedback for both students and instructor in the mastery of engineering learning.

Keywords: diagnostic assessment, mastery learning, engineering, bayesian network model, learning processes

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16424 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi

Abstract:

Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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16423 The Analysis of Gizmos Online Program as Mathematics Diagnostic Program: A Story from an Indonesian Private School

Authors: Shofiayuningtyas Luftiani

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Some private schools in Indonesia started integrating the online program Gizmos in the teaching-learning process. Gizmos was developed to supplement the existing curriculum by integrating it into the instructional programs. The program has some features using an inquiry-based simulation, in which students conduct exploration by using a worksheet while teachers use the teacher guidelines to direct and assess students’ performance In this study, the discussion about Gizmos highlights its features as the assessment media of mathematics learning for secondary school students. The discussion is based on the case study and literature review from the Indonesian context. The purpose of applying Gizmos as an assessment media refers to the diagnostic assessment. As a part of the diagnostic assessment, the teachers review the student exploration sheet, analyze particularly in the students’ difficulties and consider findings in planning future learning process. This assessment becomes important since the teacher needs the data about students’ persistent weaknesses. Additionally, this program also helps to build student’ understanding by its interactive simulation. Currently, the assessment over-emphasizes the students’ answers in the worksheet based on the provided answer keys while students perform their skill in translating the question, doing the simulation and answering the question. Whereas, the assessment should involve the multiple perspectives and sources of students’ performance since teacher should adjust the instructional programs with the complexity of students’ learning needs and styles. Consequently, the approach to improving the assessment components is selected to challenge the current assessment. The purpose of this challenge is to involve not only the cognitive diagnosis but also the analysis of skills and error. Concerning the selected setting for this diagnostic assessment that develops the combination of cognitive diagnosis, skills analysis and error analysis, the teachers should create an assessment rubric. The rubric plays the important role as the guide to provide a set of criteria for the assessment. Without the precise rubric, the teacher potentially ineffectively documents and follows up the data about students at risk of failure. Furthermore, the teachers who employ the program of Gizmos as the diagnostic assessment might encounter some obstacles. Based on the condition of assessment in the selected setting, the obstacles involve the time constrain, the reluctance of higher teaching burden and the students’ behavior. Consequently, the teacher who chooses the Gizmos with those approaches has to plan, implement and evaluate the assessment. The main point of this assessment is not in the result of students’ worksheet. However, the diagnostic assessment has the two-stage process; the process to prompt and effectively follow-up both individual weaknesses and those of the learning process. Ultimately, the discussion of Gizmos as the media of the diagnostic assessment refers to the effort to improve the mathematical learning process.

Keywords: diagnostic assessment, error analysis, Gizmos online program, skills analysis

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16422 Computed Tomography Guided Bone Biopsies: Experience at an Australian Metropolitan Hospital

Authors: K. Hinde, R. Bookun, P. Tran

Abstract:

Percutaneous CT guided biopsies provide a fast, minimally invasive, cost effective and safe method for obtaining tissue for histopathology and culture. Standards for diagnostic yield vary depending on whether the tissue is being obtained for histopathology or culture. We present a retrospective audit from Western Health in Melbourne Australia over a 12-month period which aimed to determine the diagnostic yield, technical success and complication rate for CT guided bone biopsies and identify factors affecting these results. The digital imaging storage program (Synapse Picture Archiving and Communication System – Fujifilm Australia) was analysed with key word searches from October 2015 to October 2016. Nineteen CT guided bone biopsies were performed during this time. The most common referring unit was oncology, work up imaging included CT, MRI, bone scan and PET scan. The complication rate was 0%, overall diagnostic yield was 74% with a technical success of 95%. When performing biopsies for histologic analysis diagnostic yield was 85% and when performing biopsies for bacterial culture diagnostic yield was 60%. There was no significant relationship identified between size of lesion, distance of lesion to skin, lesion appearance on CT, the number of samples taken or gauge of needle to diagnostic yield or technical success. CT guided bone biopsy at Western Health meets the standard reported at other major clinical centres for technical success and safety. It is a useful investigation in identification of primary malignancy in distal bone metastases.

Keywords: bone biopsy, computed tomography, core biopsy, histopathology

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16421 Intelligent Diagnostic System of the Onboard Measuring Devices

Authors: Kyaw Zin Htut

Abstract:

In this article, the synthesis of the efficiency of intelligent diagnostic system in the aircraft measuring devices is described. The technology developments of the diagnostic system are considered based on the model errors of the gyro instruments, which are used to measure the parameters of the aircraft. The synthesis of the diagnostic intelligent system is considered on the example of the problem of assessment and forecasting errors of the gyroscope devices on the onboard aircraft. The result of the system is to detect of faults of the aircraft measuring devices as well as the analysis of the measuring equipment to improve the efficiency of its work.

Keywords: diagnostic, dynamic system, errors of gyro instruments, model errors, assessment, prognosis

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16420 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo

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Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same farmers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: capacity building, extension agents, dissemination, information/technologies

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16419 A Study of EFL Learners with Different Goal Orientations in Response to Cognitive Diagnostic Reading Feedback

Authors: Yuxuan Tang

Abstract:

Cognitive diagnostic assessment has received much attention in second language education, and assessment for it can provide pedagogically useful feedback for language learners. However, there is a lack of research on how students interpret and use cognitive diagnostic feedback. Thus the present study aims to adopt a mixed-method approach mainly to explore the relationship between the goal-orientation and students' response to cognitive diagnostic feedback. Almost 200 Chinese undergraduates from two universities in Xi'an, China, will be invited to do a cognitive diagnostic reading test, and each student will receive specialized cognitive diagnostic feedback, comprising of students' reading attributes mastery level generated by applying a well-selected cognitive diagnostic model, students' perceived reading ability assessed by a self-assessing questionnaire and students’ level position in the whole class. And a goal-orientation questionnaire and a self-generated questionnaire on the perception of feedback will be given to students the moment they receive feedback. In addition, interviews of students will be conducted on their future plans to see whether they have awareness of carrying out studying plans. The study aims to find a new perspective towards how students use and interpret cognitive diagnostic feedback in terms of their different goal-orientation (self-based, task-based, and other-based goals) by applying the newest goal orientation model, which is an important construct of motivation in psychology, seldom researched under language learning area. And the study is expected to provide evidence on how diagnostic feedback promotes students' learning under the educational belief of assessment for learning. Practically speaking, according to the personalized diagnostic feedback, students can take remedial self-learning more purposefully, and teachers can target students' weaknesses to adjust teaching methods and carry out tailored teaching.

Keywords: assessment for learning, cognitive diagnostic assessment, goal-orientation, personalized feedback

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16418 Development of Elementary Literacy in the Czech Republic

Authors: Iva Košek Bartošová

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There is great attention being paid in the field of development of first reading, thus early literacy skills in the Czech Republic. Yet inconclusive results of PISA and PIRLS force us to think over the teacher´s work, his/her roles in the education process and methods and forms used in lessons. There is also a significant importance to monitor the family environment and the pupil, themselves. The aim of the publishing output is to focus on one side dealing with methods of practicing reading technique and their results in the process of comprehension. In the first part of the contribution there are the goals of development of reading literacy and the methods used in reading practice in some EU countries and a follow-up comparison of research implemented by the help of modern technology of an eye tracker device in the year 2015 and a research conducted at the Institute of Education and Psychological Counselling of the Czech Republic in the year 2011/12. These are the results of a diagnostic test of reading in first classes of primary schools, taught by the genetic method and analytic-synthetic method. The results show that in the first stage of practice there are no statistically significant differences between any researched subjects taught by different methods of reading practice (with the use of several diagnostic texts focused on reading technique and its comprehension). Different results are shown at the end of Grade One and during Grade Two of primary school.

Keywords: elementary literacy, eye tracker device, diagnostic reading tests, reading teaching method

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16417 Investigation of a Hybrid Process: Multipoint Incremental Forming

Authors: Safa Boudhaouia, Mohamed Amen Gahbiche, Eliane Giraud, Wacef Ben Salem, Philippe Dal Santo

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Multi-point forming (MPF) and asymmetric incremental forming (ISF) are two flexible processes for sheet metal manufacturing. To take advantages of these two techniques, a hybrid process has been developed: The Multipoint Incremental Forming (MPIF). This process accumulates at once the advantages of each of these last mentioned forming techniques, which makes it a very interesting and particularly an efficient process for single, small, and medium series production. In this paper, an experimental and a numerical investigation of this technique are presented. To highlight the flexibility of this process and its capacity to manufacture standard and complex shapes, several pieces were produced by using MPIF. The forming experiments are performed on a 3-axis CNC machine. Moreover, a numerical model of the MPIF process has been implemented in ABAQUS and the analysis showed a good agreement with experimental results in terms of deformed shape. Furthermore, the use of an elastomeric interpolator allows avoiding classical local defaults like dimples, which are generally caused by the asymmetric contact and also improves the distribution of residual strain. Future works will apply this approach to other alloys used in aeronautic or automotive applications.

Keywords: incremental forming, numerical simulation, MPIF, multipoint forming

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16416 Enhancing the Interpretation of Group-Level Diagnostic Results from Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment: Application of Quantile Regression and Cluster Analysis

Authors: Wenbo Du, Xiaomei Ma

Abstract:

With the empowerment of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (CDA), various domains of language testing and assessment have been investigated to dig out more diagnostic information. What is noticeable is that most of the extant empirical CDA-based research puts much emphasis on individual-level diagnostic purpose with very few concerned about learners’ group-level performance. Even though the personalized diagnostic feedback is the unique feature that differentiates CDA from other assessment tools, group-level diagnostic information cannot be overlooked in that it might be more practical in classroom setting. Additionally, the group-level diagnostic information obtained via current CDA always results in a “flat pattern”, that is, the mastery/non-mastery of all tested skills accounts for the two highest proportion. In that case, the outcome does not bring too much benefits than the original total score. To address these issues, the present study attempts to apply cluster analysis for group classification and quantile regression analysis to pinpoint learners’ performance at different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced) thus to enhance the interpretation of the CDA results extracted from a group of EFL learners’ reading performance on a diagnostic reading test designed by PELDiaG research team from a key university in China. The results show that EM method in cluster analysis yield more appropriate classification results than that of CDA, and quantile regression analysis does picture more insightful characteristics of learners with different reading proficiencies. The findings are helpful and practical for instructors to refine EFL reading curriculum and instructional plan tailored based on the group classification results and quantile regression analysis. Meanwhile, these innovative statistical methods could also make up the deficiencies of CDA and push forward the development of language testing and assessment in the future.

Keywords: cognitive diagnostic assessment, diagnostic feedback, EFL reading, quantile regression

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16415 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański

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This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

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16414 Spatial Rank-Based High-Dimensional Monitoring through Random Projection

Authors: Chen Zhang, Nan Chen

Abstract:

High-dimensional process monitoring becomes increasingly important in many application domains, where usually the process distribution is unknown and much more complicated than the normal distribution, and the between-stream correlation can not be neglected. However, since the process dimension is generally much bigger than the reference sample size, most traditional nonparametric multivariate control charts fail in high-dimensional cases due to the curse of dimensionality. Furthermore, when the process goes out of control, the influenced variables are quite sparse compared with the whole dimension, which increases the detection difficulty. Targeting at these issues, this paper proposes a new nonparametric monitoring scheme for high-dimensional processes. This scheme first projects the high-dimensional process into several subprocesses using random projections for dimension reduction. Then, for every subprocess with the dimension much smaller than the reference sample size, a local nonparametric control chart is constructed based on the spatial rank test to detect changes in this subprocess. Finally, the results of all the local charts are fused together for decision. Furthermore, after an out-of-control (OC) alarm is triggered, a diagnostic framework is proposed. using the square-root LASSO. Numerical studies demonstrate that the chart has satisfactory detection power for sparse OC changes and robust performance for non-normally distributed data, The diagnostic framework is also effective to identify truly changed variables. Finally, a real-data example is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

Keywords: random projection, high-dimensional process control, spatial rank, sequential change detection

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16413 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup

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Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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16412 Skills and Abilities Expected from Professionals Conducting Serious Crimes Investigations: A Descriptive Study from Turkey

Authors: Burak M. Gonultas

Abstract:

Criminal investigation provides a practical contribution to this process while criminology provides a theoretical background in the apprehension of criminals arrest and clarification of crimes. However, studies on criminal investigation, which is a practical aspect of this process, are not sufficient. Every crime involves different dynamics in terms of investigation. But investigations of serious crimes are versatile and contains complex processes because of cases they are conducted. Therefore, professionals who conduct serious crime investigations differ in some aspects from others in the field. The most fundamental element of this differentiation is skills and abilities of these professionals. According to Eurostat data, Turkey is in an important position in terms of homicide rates. Therefore, in Turkey practice of serious crime investigation is specialized. The present study aims to research the skills and abilities expected from professionals in conducting an effective serious criminal investigation in Turkey and so aims to offer a number of suggestions. 25 emerged ability and skills collected from literature were asked to professionals (n=289) with semi-structured form according to 5 provinces with the highest and 2 provinces with the lowest number of serious crime cases. Three data categories were collected during experience: 1- Five most important skills and abilities, 2- The most important skills for knowledge and inquiry management and 3- Ability and skills that stand out for five stages of serious criminal investigation. The most rated skills and abilities are investigative skill (13%, n=134), planning/designing (9,2%, n=95) and interpersonal relations/communication (8,8%, n=91) in 1010 skills and abilities. While the 1st and 2nd suggest elections of these professionals, the 3rd also suggests how and what type of training will be given to these professionals. This practice differs from other studies in the area in terms of separately addressing the skills and abilities expected in stages of investigation and in terms of selected methodology.

Keywords: ability, criminal investigation, criminology, homicide, serious crimes, skill, Turkey

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16411 The Combination Of Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score (ADD-RS) With D-dimer As A Diagnostic Tool To Exclude The Diagnosis Of Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS)

Authors: Mohamed Hamada Abdelkader Fayed

Abstract:

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a screening test to exclude AAS. Methods: We conducted research for the studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD- RS)+ D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of AAS, We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane of Trials up to 31 December 2020. Results: We identified 3 studies using (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a diagnostic tool for AAS, involving 3261 patients were AAS was diagnosed in 559(17.14%) patients. Overall results showed that the pooled sensitivities were 97.6 (95% CI 0.95.6, 99.6) at (ADD-RS)≤1(low risk group) with D-dimer and 97.4(95% CI 0.95.4,, 99.4) at (ADD-RS)>1(High risk group) with D-dimer., the failure rate was 0.48% at low risk group and 4.3% at high risk group respectively. Conclusions: (ADD-RS) with D-dimer was a useful screening test with high sensitivity to exclude Acute Aortic Syndrome.

Keywords: aortic dissection detection risk score, D-dimer, acute aortic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy

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16410 Effect of Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Abdolvand, M. Riazat, H. Sohrabi, G. Faraji

Abstract:

An experimental investigation into the Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) process on AZ31 magnesium alloy is studied. Microstructures and grain size distribution of the specimens before and after TBE process are investigated by optical microscopy. Tensile and Vickers microhardness tests along extrusion direction were performed at room temperature. It is found that the average grain size is refined remarkably from the initial 33 µm down to 3.5 µm after TBE process. Also, the microhardness increased significantly to 58 HV after the process from an initial value of 36 HV.

Keywords: tube backward extrusion, AZ31, grain size distribution, grain refinement

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16409 Reducing Diagnostic Error in Australian Emergency Departments Using a Behavioural Approach

Authors: Breanna Wright, Peter Bragge

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Diagnostic error rates in healthcare are approximately 10% of cases. Diagnostic errors can cause patient harm due to inappropriate, inadequate or delayed treatment, and such errors contribute heavily to medical liability claims globally. Therefore, addressing diagnostic error is a high priority. In most cases, diagnostic errors are the result of faulty information synthesis rather than lack of knowledge. Specifically, the majority of diagnostic errors involve cognitive factors, and in particular, cognitive biases. Emergency Departments are an environment with heightened risk of diagnostic error due to time and resource pressures, a frequently chaotic environment, and patients arriving undifferentiated and with minimal context. This project aimed to develop a behavioural, evidence-informed intervention to reduce diagnostic error in Emergency Departments through co-design with emergency physicians, insurers, researchers, hospital managers, citizens and consumer representatives. The Forum Process was utilised to address this aim. This involves convening a small (4 – 6 member) expert panel to guide a focused literature and practice review; convening of a 10 – 12 person citizens panel to gather perspectives of laypeople, including those affected by misdiagnoses; and a 18 – 22 person structured stakeholder dialogue bringing together representatives of the aforementioned stakeholder groups. The process not only provides in-depth analysis of the problem and associated behaviours, but brings together expertise and insight to facilitate identification of a behaviour change intervention. Informed by the literature and practice review, the Citizens Panel focused on eliciting the values and concerns of those affected or potentially affected by diagnostic error. Citizens were comfortable with diagnostic uncertainty if doctors were honest with them. They also emphasised the importance of open communication between doctors and patients and their families. Citizens expect more consistent standards across the state and better access for both patients and their doctors to patient health information to avoid time-consuming re-taking of long patient histories and medication regimes when re-presenting at Emergency Departments and to reduce the risk of unintentional omissions. The structured Stakeholder Dialogue focused on identifying a feasible behavioural intervention to review diagnoses in Emergency Departments. This needed to consider the role of cognitive bias in medical decision-making; contextual factors (in Victoria, there is a legislated 4-hour maximum time between ED triage and discharge / hospital admission); resource availability; and the need to ensure the intervention could work in large metropolitan as well as small rural and regional ED settings across Victoria. The identified behavioural intervention will be piloted in approximately ten hospital EDs across Victoria, Australia. This presentation will detail the findings of all review and consultation activities, describe the behavioural intervention developed and present results of the pilot trial.

Keywords: behavioural intervention, cognitive bias, decision-making, diagnostic error

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16408 Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Process Investigation for Co Thin Film as a TSV Alternative Seed Layer

Authors: Sajjad Esmaeili, Robert Krause, Lukas Gerlich, Alireza Mohammadian Kia, Benjamin Uhlig

Abstract:

This investigation aims to develop the feasible and qualitative process parameters for the thin films fabrication into ultra-large through-silicon-vias (TSVs) as vertical interconnections. The focus of the study is on TSV metallization and its challenges employing new materials for the purpose of rapid signal propagation in the microsystems technology. Cobalt metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (Co-MOCVD) process enables manufacturing an adhesive and excellent conformal ultra-thin film all the way through TSVs in comparison with the conventional non-conformal physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of copper (Cu) seed layer. Therefore, this process provides a Cu seed-free layer which is capable of direct Cu electrochemical deposition (Cu-ECD) on top of it. The main challenge of this metallization module is to achieve the proper alternative seed layer with less roughness, sheet resistance and granular organic contamination (e.g. carbon) which intensify the Co corrosion under the influence of Cu electrolyte.

Keywords: Cobalt MOCVD, direct Cu electrochemical deposition (ECD), metallization technology, through-silicon-via (TSV)

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16407 Case Study Analysis for Driver's Company in the Transport Sector with the Help of Data Mining

Authors: Diana Katherine Gonzalez Galindo, David Rolando Suarez Mora

Abstract:

With this study, we used data mining as a new alternative of the solution to evaluate the comments of the customers in order to find a pattern that helps us to determine some behaviors to reduce the deactivation of the partners of the LEVEL app. In one of the greatest business created in the last times, the partners are being affected due to an internal process that compensates the customer for a bad experience, but these comments could be false towards the driver, that’s why we made an investigation to collect information to restructure this process, many partners have been disassociated due to this internal process and many of them refuse the comments given by the customer. The main methodology used in this case study is the observation, we recollect information in real time what gave us the opportunity to see the most common issues to get the most accurate solution. With this new process helped by data mining, we could get a prediction based on the behaviors of the customer and some basic data recollected such as the age, the gender, and others; this could help us in future to improve another process. This investigation gives more opportunities to the partner to keep his account active even if the customer writes a message through the app. The term is trying to avoid a recession of drivers in the future offering improving in the processes, at the same time we are in search of stablishing a strategy which benefits both the app’s managers and the associated driver.

Keywords: agent, driver, deactivation, rider

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16406 Diagnostic Accuracy Of Core Biopsy In Patients Presenting With Axillary Lymphadenopathy And Suspected Non-Breast Malignancy

Authors: Monisha Edirisooriya, Wilma Jack, Dominique Twelves, Jennifer Royds, Fiona Scott, Nicola Mason, Arran Turnbull, J. Michael Dixon

Abstract:

Introduction: Excision biopsy has been the investigation of choice for patients presenting with pathological axillary lymphadenopathy without a breast abnormality. Core biopsy of nodes can provide sufficient tissue for diagnosis and has advantages in terms of morbidity and speed of diagnosis. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of core biopsy in patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy. Methods: Between 2009 and 2019, 165 patients referred to the Edinburgh Breast Unit had a total of 179 axillary lymph node core biopsies. Results: 152 (92%) of the 165 initial core biopsies were deemed to contain adequate nodal tissue. Core biopsy correctly established malignancy in 75 of the 78 patients with haematological malignancy (96%) and in all 28 patients with metastatic carcinoma (100%) and correctly diagnosed benign changes in 49 of 57 (86%) patients with benign conditions. There were no false positives and no false negatives. In 67 (85.9%) of the 78 patients with hematological malignancy, there was sufficient material in the first core biopsy to allow the pathologist to make an actionable diagnosis and not ask for more tissue sampling prior to treatment. There were no complications of core biopsy. On follow up, none of the patients with benign cores has been shown to have malignancy in the axilla and none with lymphoma had their initial disease incorrectly classified. Conclusions: This study shows that core biopsy is now the investigation of choice for patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy even in those suspected as having lymphoma.

Keywords: core biopsy, excision biopsy, axillary lymphadenopathy, non-breast malignancy

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16405 Programming Systems in Implementation of Process Safety at Chemical Process Industry

Authors: Maryam Shayan

Abstract:

Programming frameworks have been utilized as a part of chemical industry process safety operation and configuration to enhance its effectiveness. This paper gives a brief survey and investigation of the best in class and effects of programming frameworks in process security. A study was completed by talking staff accountable for procedure wellbeing practices in the Iranian chemical process industry and diving into writing of innovation for procedure security. This article investigates the useful and operational attributes of programming frameworks for security and endeavors to sort the product as indicated by its level of effect in the administration chain of importance. The study adds to better comprehension of the parts of Information Communication Technology in procedure security, the future patterns and conceivable gaps for innovative work.

Keywords: programming frameworks, chemical industry process, process security, administration chain, information communication technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
16404 The Forensic Swing of Things: The Current Legal and Technical Challenges of IoT Forensics

Authors: Pantaleon Lutta, Mohamed Sedky, Mohamed Hassan

Abstract:

The inability of organizations to put in place management control measures for Internet of Things (IoT) complexities persists to be a risk concern. Policy makers have been left to scamper in finding measures to combat these security and privacy concerns. IoT forensics is a cumbersome process as there is no standardization of the IoT products, no or limited historical data are stored on the devices. This paper highlights why IoT forensics is a unique adventure and brought out the legal challenges encountered in the investigation process. A quadrant model is presented to study the conflicting aspects in IoT forensics. The model analyses the effectiveness of forensic investigation process versus the admissibility of the evidence integrity; taking into account the user privacy and the providers’ compliance with the laws and regulations. Our analysis concludes that a semi-automated forensic process using machine learning, could eliminate the human factor from the profiling and surveillance processes, and hence resolves the issues of data protection (privacy and confidentiality).

Keywords: cloud forensics, data protection Laws, GDPR, IoT forensics, machine Learning

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16403 Effects of Non-Diagnostic Haptic Information on Consumers' Product Judgments and Decisions

Authors: Eun Young Park, Jongwon Park

Abstract:

A physical touch of a product can provide ample diagnostic information about the product attributes and quality. However, consumers’ product judgments and purchases can be erroneously influenced by non-diagnostic haptic information. For example, consumers’ evaluations of the coffee they drink could be affected by the heaviness of a cup that is used for just serving the coffee. This important issue has received little attention in prior research. The present research contributes to the literature by identifying when and how non-diagnostic haptic information can have an influence and why such influence occurs. Specifically, five studies experimentally varied the content of non-diagnostic haptic information, such as the weight of a cup (heavy vs. light) and the texture of a cup holder (smooth vs. rough), and then assessed the impact of the manipulation on product judgments and decisions. Results show that non-diagnostic haptic information has a biasing impact on consumer judgments. For example, the heavy (vs. light) cup increases consumers’ perception of the richness of coffee in it, and the rough (vs. smooth) texture of a cup holder increases the perception of the healthfulness of fruit juice in it, which in turn increases consumers’ purchase intentions of the product. When consumers are cognitively distracted during the touch experience, the impact of the content of haptic information is no longer evident, but the valence (positive vs. negative) of the haptic experience influences product judgments. However, consumers are able to avoid the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information, if and only if they are both knowledgeable about the product category and undistracted from processing the touch experience. In sum, the nature of the influence by non-diagnostic haptic information (i.e., assimilation effect vs. contrast effect vs. null effect) is determined by the content and valence of haptic information, the relative impact of which depends on whether consumers can identify the content and source of the haptic information. Theoretically, to our best knowledge, this research is the first to document the empirical evidence of the interplay between cognitive and affective processes that determines the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information. Managerial implications are discussed.

Keywords: consumer behavior, haptic information, product judgments, touch effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 78