Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2225

Search results for: occupational diseases

2225 Occupational Diseases in the Automotive Industry in Czechia

Authors: J. Jarolímek, P. Urban, P. Pavlínek, D. Dzúrová

Abstract:

The industry constitutes a dominant economic sector in Czechia. The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in terms of gross value added and the number of employees. The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry in Czechia during the 2001-2014 period. Whereas the occurrence of OD in other sectors has generally been decreasing, it has been increasing in the automotive industry, including growing spatial discrepancies. Data on OD cases were retrieved from the National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with a focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by an assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. The employees older than 40 years had nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence compared with employees younger than 40 years (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.05-2.85). The OD occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR 3.01; 95 % CI: 2.55-3.55). The OD incidence rate was increasing with the size of the company. An association between the OD incidence and the unemployment rate was not confirmed.

Keywords: occupational diseases, automotive industry, health geography, unemployment

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2224 Ceramic Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectations in Turkey

Authors: Erol Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze ceramic employees’ occupational health and safety training expectations. To that general objective, the study tries to examine whether occupational health and safety training expectations of ceramic employees meaningfully differentiate depending on demographic features and professional, social and economic conditions. For this purpose, the research data was collected through “Questionnaire of Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectation” (QSOHSTE) consisting of 25 open and close-ended questions developed by the researcher on the base of the literature review. QSOHSTE was applied to 125 ceramic employees working in Kutahya, Turkey. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed via SPSS 21. The findings, obtained from the study, revealed that employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements is generally high-level. These findings also reveals that employees have various expectations about occupational health and safety training. These expectations are increasing sensitivity towards occupational health and safety training about the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, contributing occupational health and safety training in establishing healthy and safe working environment, requiring occupational health and safety training before starting work, in case of changing working equipment and new technological applications, necessity of measurement and evaluation after occupational health and safety training. Besides these findings, employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements also varies in terms of educational level, professional seniority, income level and perception of economic condition.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, occupational training, occupational expectation, professional seniority

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2223 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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2222 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek

Abstract:

Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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2221 Significance of Occupational Safety for Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nilgün Katrancı, Pınar Göv

Abstract:

The privatization of public services has intensified and extended the delivery of healthcare services at hospitals, which leads to an increase in health and safety risks for healthcare professionals. More efficient and effective delivery of healthcare services can be realized through the provision of occupational safety of healthcare professionals. However, healthcare professionals are exposed to more dangers, accidents, and diseases because of such reasons as present working conditions, hospital infections, lack of ergonomic design, medication, wastes, excessive work load, negligent attitudes of workers, violence, psychological risks, etc. Unsafe working conditions cause fear, injury and wearing impacts in healthcare professionals in many countries. Thus, it is emphasized that the protection of the health of healthcare professionals is important to have educated, healthy workers and adequate workforce. Occupational health and safety measures applied in health facilities are aimed at protecting workers and providing the safety of services and facilities. All activities to be undertaken at hospitals with regard to occupational safety in accordance with these goals will help to reduce costs and provide continuous services. At the same time, a safe working environment will increase worker satisfaction and motivation, sense of institutional belonging and indirectly patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, the control and correction of occupational safety activities are also as important as the implementation. Occupational health and safety practices in the facilities will also lead to positive developments for national economy and society. This study emphasizes that approaching occupational safety practices for healthcare professionals in a sensitive manner is important for enabling healthcare professionals to do more productive works in terms of physical, social and psychological aspects, maintaining the continuity of healthcare services and social and economic contributions.

Keywords: health facilities, healthcare professional, occupational health, occupational safety

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2220 Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach

Authors: Duygu Çelgin

Abstract:

Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.

Keywords: occupational health and safety in Turkey, OHS servicing in Turkey, safety experts, OHS support

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2219 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: occupational stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship, behavior

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2218 Investigation of Occupational Health and Safety of Bakeries in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Bulut Mert

Abstract:

The baking industry is prone to occupational health challenges like other industries. Workers in bakeries face many hazards in their work environment; hazards have the potential for causing injury, illness or work accidents. Most of these hazards are preventable and arise from the neglect of occupational safety measures. Some bakeries in Izmır Turkey was evaluated according to occupational health and safety. First of all, the production process was evaluated. The survey was administered to a total of 50 employees. The survey consisted of two sections. The first one comprised only demographic questions and items related to job characteristics. The remaining section was assessing the satisfaction and confidence about occupational health and safety in terms of employees consist of a 10-item questionnaire by using HSE (2010) survey with some modifications. Also, hazards, risks and control measures in the bakeries were determined. Risk assessment has been done by the use of '5x5 Risk Assessment Table' for this purpose.

Keywords: bakeries, occupational health and safety, hazards, risks, risk assessment

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2217 Assessment of Occupational Health and Safety Conditions of Health Care Workers in Barangay Health Centers in a Selected City in Metro Manila

Authors: Deinzel R. Uezono, Vivien Fe F. Fadrilan-Camacho, Bianca Margarita L. Medina, Antonio Domingo R. Reario, Trisha M. Salcedo, Luke Wesley P. Borromeo

Abstract:

The environment of health care workers is considered one of the most hazardous settings due to the nature of their work. In developing countries especially, the Philippines, this continues to be overlooked in terms of programs and services on occupational health and safety (OHS). One possible reason for this is the existing information gap on OHS which limits data comparability and impairs effective monitoring and assessment of interventions. To address this gap, there is a need to determine the current conditions of Filipino health care workers in their workplace. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the occupational health and safety conditions of health care workers in barangay health centers in a selected city in Metro Manila, Philippines by: (1) determining the hazards present in the workplace; (2) determining the most common self-reported medical problems; and (3) describing the elements of an OHS system based on the six building blocks of health system. Assessment was done through walkthrough survey, self-administered questionnaire, and key informant interview. Data analysis was done using Epi Info 7 and NVivo 11. Results revealed different health hazards present in the workplace particularly biological hazards (exposure to sick patients and infectious specimens), physical hazards (inadequate space and/or lighting), chemical hazards (toxic reagents and flammable chemicals), and ergonomic hazards (activities requiring repetitive motion and awkward posture). Additionally, safety hazards (improper capping of syringe and lack of fire safety provisions) were also observed. Meanwhile, the most commonly self-reported chronic diseases among health care workers (N=336) were hypertension (20.24%, n=68) and diabetes (12.50%, n=42). Top commonly self-reported symptoms were colds (66.07%, n=222), coughs (63.10%, n=212), headache (55.65%, n=187), and muscle pain (50.60%, n=170) while other diseases were influenza (16.96%, n=57) and UTI (15.48%, n=52). In terms of the elements of the OHS system, a general policy on occupational health and safety was found to be lacking and in effect, an absence of health and safety committee overseeing the implementing and monitoring of the policy. No separate budget specific for OHS programs and services was also found to be a limitation. As a result, no OHS personnel and trainings/seminar were identified. No established information system for OHS was in place. In conclusion, health and safety hazards were observed to be present across the barangay health centers visited in a selected city in Metro Manila. Medical conditions identified as most commonly self-reported were hypertension and diabetes for chronic diseases; colds, coughs, headache, and muscle pain for medical symptoms; and influenza and UTI for other diseases. As for the elements of the occupational health and safety system, there was a lack in the general components of the six building blocks of the health system.

Keywords: health hazards, occupational health and safety, occupational health and safety system, safety hazards

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2216 The Risk of Occupational Health in the Shipbuilding Industry in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rashel Sheikh

Abstract:

The shipbuilding industry in Bangladesh had become a fast-growing industry in recent years when it began to export newly built ships. The various activities of shipbuilding industries in their limited, confined spaces added occupational worker exposures to chemicals, dusts, and metal fumes. The aim of this literature search is to identify the potential sources of occupational health hazards in shipyards and to promote the regulation of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the workers. In shipyards, occupational workers are involved in various activities, such as the manufacture, repair, maintenance, dismantling of boats and ships, building small ocean-going vessels and ferries. The occupational workers in the shipbuilding industry suffer from a number of hazardous issues, such as asthma, dermatitis, hearing deficits, and musculoskeletal disorders. The use of modern technologies, such as underwater plasma welding, electron beam welding, and friction stir welding and laser cutting and welding, and appropriate PPE (i.e., long-sleeved shirt and long pants, shoes plus socks, safety masks, chemical resistant gloves, eyewear, face shield, and respirators) can help reduce the occupational exposure to environmental hazards created by different activities in the shipyards. However, most shipyards in Bangladesh use traditional methods, e.g., flame cutting and arc, that add hazardous waste and pollutants to the environment in and around the shipyard. The safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyard workplace are very important. It is the primary responsibility of employers to ensure the safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyards. Employers must use advanced technologies and supply adequate and appropriate PPE for the workers. There are a number of accidents and illnesses that happen daily in the shipyard industries in Bangladesh due to the negligence and lack of adequate technologies and appropriate PPE. In addition, there are no specific regulations and implementations available to use the PPE. It is essential to have PPE regulations and strict enforcement for the adoption of PPE in the shipbuilding industries in Bangladesh. Along with the adoption of PPE with regular health examinations, health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases are also important and require reinforcement. Monitoring health and safety hazards in shipyards are essential to enhance worker protection, and ensure worker safety, and mitigate workplace injuries and illnesses.

Keywords: shipbuilding Industries, health education, occupational health hazards, personal protective equipment, shipyard workers, occupational workers, shipyards

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2215 Relationship of Religious Coping with Occupational Stress and the Quality of Working Life of Midwives in Maternity Hospitals in Zahedan

Authors: Fatemeh Roostaee, Zahra Nikmanesh

Abstract:

This study was done to investigate the role of religious coping components on occupational stress and the quality of working life of midwives. The method of study was descriptive-correlation. The sample was comprised of all midwives in maternity hospitals in Zahedan during 1393. Participants were selected through applying census method. The instruments of data collection were three questionnaires: the quality of working life, occupational stress, and religious opposition. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and step by step regression analysis methods were used. The results showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the component of religious activities (r=-0/454) and occupational stress, and regression analysis was also shown that the variable of religious activities has been explained 45% of occupational stress variable changes. The Pearson correlation test showed that there isn't any significant relationship between religious opposition components and the quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to present essential trainings on (the field of) strengthening compatibility strategies and religious activities to reduce occupational stress.

Keywords: the quality of working life, occupational stress, religious, midwife

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2214 Prevalence of Occupational Asthma Diagnosed by Specific Challenge Test in 5 Different Working Environments in Thailand

Authors: Sawang Saenghirunvattana, Chao Saenghirunvattana, Maria Christina Gonzales, Wilai Srimuk, Chitchamai Siangpro, Kritsana Sutthisri

Abstract:

Introduction: Thailand is one of the fastest growing countries in Asia. It has emerged from agricultural to industrialized economy. Work places have shifted from farms to factories, offices and streets were employees are exposed to certain chemicals and pollutants causing occupational diseases particularly asthma. Work-related diseases are major concern and many studies have been published to demonstrate certain professions and their exposures that elevate the risk of asthma. Workers who exhibit coughing, wheezing and difficulty of breathing are brought to a health care setting where Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) is performed and based from results, they are then diagnosed of asthma. These patients, known to have occupational asthma eventually get well when removed from the exposure of the environment. Our study, focused on performing PFT or specific challenge test in diagnosing workers of occupational asthma with them executing the test within their workplace, maintaining the environment and their daily exposure to certain levels of chemicals and pollutants. This has provided us with an understanding and reliable diagnosis of occupational asthma. Objective: To identify the prevalence of Thai workers who develop asthma caused by exposure to pollutants and chemicals from their working environment by conducting interview and performing PFT or specific challenge test in their work places. Materials and Methods: This study was performed from January-March 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. The percentage of abnormal symptoms of 940 workers in 5 different areas (factories of plastic, fertilizer, animal food, office and streets) were collected through a questionnaire. The demographic information, occupational history, and the state of health were determined using a questionnaire and checklists. PFT was executed in their work places and results were measured and evaluated. Results: Pulmonary Function test was performed by 940 participants. The specific challenge test was done in factories of plastic, fertilizer, animal food, office environment and on the streets of Thailand. Of the 100 participants working in the plastic industry, 65% complained of having respiratory symptoms. None of them had an abnormal PFT. From the participants who worked with fertilizers and are exposed to sulfur dioxide, out of 200 participants, 20% complained of having symptoms and 8% had abnormal PFT. The 300 subjects working with animal food reported that 45% complained of respiratory symptoms and 15% had abnormal PFT results. From the office environment where there is indoor pollution, Out of 140 subjects, 7% had symptoms and 4% had abnormal PFT. The 200 workers exposed to traffic pollution, 24% reported respiratory symptoms and 12% had abnormal PFT. Conclusion: We were able to identify and diagnose participants of occupational asthma through their abnormal lung function test done at their work places. The chemical agents and exposures were determined therefore effective management of workers with occupational asthma were advised to avoid further exposure for better chances of recovery. Further studies identifying the risk factors and causative agents of asthma in workplaces should be developed to encourage interventional strategies and programs that will prevent occupation related diseases particularly asthma.

Keywords: occupational asthma, pulmonary function test, specific challenge test, Thailand

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2213 Occupational Stress in Nurses of a Maternity Ward in Lubango, Angola

Authors: Lídia Chienda, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

Angola is known for the low quality of maternal health services, registering one of the highest maternal and child mortality of Africa. Working in these health facilities may be of great challenge for health professionals. In this study, we aimed to identify the presence of occupational stress in 76 nurses working in a maternity ward in Lubango, Southern Angola. The participants completed the Health Professional Stress Questionnaire and reported a moderate and high level of stress. To these individuals, 'receiving a low salary,' 'inadequate/insufficient salary,' 'overwork or very demanding work' and 'working long hours in a row' seemed to be the main indicators of occupational stress. Moreover, there was an influence of the work overload, the remuneration earned, the career, and family conflicts in the occupational stress index. These results contributed to a better understanding of the difficulties Angolan nurses are facing and the need to implement policies that envisage the wellbeing of this population.

Keywords: Africa, maternity wards, nursing, occupational stress

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2212 MindFlow: A Collective Intelligence-Based System for Helping Stress Pattern Diagnosis

Authors: Andres Frederic

Abstract:

We present the MindFlow system supporting the detection and the diagnosis of stresses. The heart of the system is a knowledge synthesis engine allowing occupational health stakeholders (psychologists, occupational therapists and human resource managers) to formulate queries related to stress and responding to users requests by recommending a pattern of stress if one exists. The stress pattern diagnosis is based on expert knowledge stored in the MindFlow stress ontology including stress feature vector. The query processing may involve direct access to the MindFlow system by occupational health stakeholders, online communication between the MindFlow system and the MindFlow domain experts, or direct dialog between a occupational health stakeholder and a MindFlow domain expert. The MindFlow knowledge model is generic in the sense that it supports the needs of psychologists, occupational therapists and human resource managers. The system presented in this paper is currently under development as part of a Dutch-Japanese project and aims to assist organisation in the quick diagnosis of stress patterns.

Keywords: occupational stress, stress management, physiological measurement, accident prevention

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2211 The Gender Perspective Applied to the Analysis of Occupational Accidents

Authors: María Del Carmen Pardo Ferreira, Fernando Rodriguez Cortes, Juan Carlos Rubio Romero

Abstract:

According to the International Labor Organization, every day there is more presence of women in the labor market although inequality between women and men persists in world labor markets. In order to try to reduce this gender inequality in the work environment, the present study is proposed, which aims to analyze the occupational accidents suffered by women and occurred in Spain between 2015 and 2018. For this, the methodology used was based on a statistical analysis of the data provided by the Government of Spain. The results will allow to know in which jobs women suffer accidents, in what type of companies and the severity of the accident. Based on these results, specific intervention policies may be defined according to the needs detected in each sector.

Keywords: Injured women, Gender perspective, Occupational accidents, Occupational health and safety

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2210 Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Risk Assessment for Rocket Static Test

Authors: Phontip Kanlahasuth

Abstract:

This paper presents the environmental safety and occupational health risk assessment of rocket static test by assessing risk level from probability and severity and then appropriately applying the risk control measures. Before the environmental safety and occupational health measures are applied, the serious hazards level is 31%, medium level is 24% and low level is 45%. Once risk control measures are practically implemented, the serious hazard level can be diminished, medium level is 38%, low level is 45% and eliminated level is 17%. It is clearly shown that the environmental safety and occupational health measures can significantly reduce the risk level.

Keywords: rocket static test, hazard, risk, risk assessment, risk analysis, environment, safety, occupational health, acceptable risk, probability, severity, risk level

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2209 The Relationship between Personal, Psycho-Social and Occupational Risk Factors with Low Back Pain Severity in Industrial Workers

Authors: Omid Giahi, Ebrahim Darvishi, Mahdi Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Introduction: Occupational low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in which a lot of risk factors are involved that. The present study focuses on the relation between personal, psycho-social and occupational risk factors and LBP severity in industrial workers. Materials and Methods: This research was a case-control study which was conducted in Kurdistan province. 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 39.9 ± 10.45) with LBP were selected as the case group, and 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 37.2 ± 8.5) without LBP were assigned into the control group. All participants were selected from various industrial units, and they had similar occupational conditions. The required data including demographic information (BMI, smoking, alcohol, and family history), occupational (posture, mental workload (MWL), force, vibration and repetition), and psychosocial factors (stress, occupational satisfaction and security) of the participants were collected via consultation with occupational medicine specialists, interview, and the related questionnaires and also the NASA-TLX software and REBA worksheet. Chi-square test, logistic regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. For analysis of data, IBM Statistics SPSS 24 and Mplus6 software have been used. Results: 114 (77%) of the individuals were male and 86 were (23%) female. Mean Career length of the Case Group and Control Group were 10.90 ± 5.92, 9.22 ± 4.24, respectively. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant correlation between the Posture, Smoking, Stress, Satisfaction, and MWL with occupational LBP. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 2.7 (1.27-2.24) and 2.5 (2.26-5.17) and 3.22 (2.47-3.24) for Stress, MWL, and Posture, respectively. Also, the SEM analysis of the personal, psycho-social and occupational factors with LBP revealed that there was a significant correlation. Conclusion: All three broad categories of risk factors simultaneously increase the risk of occupational LBP in the workplace. But, the risks of Posture, Stress, and MWL have a major role in LBP severity. Therefore, prevention strategies for persons in jobs with high risks for LBP are required to decrease the risk of occupational LBP.

Keywords: industrial workers occupational, low back pain, occupational risk factors, psychosocial factors

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2208 Elimination of Occupational Segregation By Sex: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Mutiat Temitayo James, Oladapo Olakunle James, Kabiru Oyetunde

Abstract:

This paper examines occupational segregation by sex and sought to justify a case for its elimination or not. In doing this, we found that occupations are categorised among men and women in all parts of the world and this, in turn, affects the labour force participation rate of men and women in different sectors and aspects of the labour market. Data from the previous study shows that women are the most discriminated against as regards occupational segregation as many high profile jobs are regarded as men’s job and women relegated to the background. This has brought about low productivity for women and inequity in the labour market which can hinder the productivity levels of participants. It was however recommended that occupational segregation should be eliminated totally so that men and women alike can choose occupations of their choice irrespective of what gender the society ascribe to such occupation.

Keywords: occupation, gender, gender equality, labour market, segregation, discrimination

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2207 Occupational Stress and Lipid Profile among Drivers in Ismailia City, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Adel Mishriky, Rasha Farouk, Essam Abdallah, Sarah Hussein

Abstract:

Background: Occupational stress plays a crucial role in professional drivers' health. They are exposed to high workloads, low physical activity, high demand and low decisions as well as poor lifestyle factors including poor diet, sedentary work, and smoking. Dyslipidemia is a well-established modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Occupational stress and other forms of chronic stress have been associated with raised levels of atherogenic lipids. Although stress management has some evidence in improving lipid profile, the association between occupational stress and dyslipidemia is not clear. Objectives: To assess the relational between occupational stress and lipid profile among professional drivers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted at a large company in Ismailia City, Egypt, where, 131 professional drivers divided into 44 car drivers, 43 bus drivers, and 44 truck drivers were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Occupational stress index (OSI), non-occupational risk factors of dyslipidemia were assessed using interview structured questionnaire. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile were measured. Results: The mean of total OSI score was 79.98 ± 6.14. The total OSI score is highest among truck drivers (82.16 ± 4.62), then bus drivers (80.26 ± 6.02) and lowest among car drivers (77.55 ± 6.79) with statistically significant. Eighty percent had Dyslipidemia. The duration of driving hours per day, exposure to passive smoking and increased BMI were the risk factors. No statistical significance between Total OSI score and dyslipidemia. Using, logistic regression analysis, occupational stress, duration of driving hours per day, and BMI were positive significant predictors for dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Professional drivers are exposed to occupational stress. A high proportion of drivers have dyslipidemia. Total OSI score doesn't have statistically significant relation with dyslipidemia.

Keywords: body mass index, dyslipidaemia, occupational stress, professional drivers

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2206 The Effect of Occupational Calling and Social Support on the Anxiety of Navies Who Are Sent Overseas

Authors: Yonguk L. Park, Jeonghoon Seol

Abstract:

The Republic of Korea is facing a special situation as it is the only divided country in the world. Even though Korea is facing such unstable circumstances in terms of a foreign diplomacy situation, Korea is one of the countries who, in concern for world peace, have been sending troops overseas. The troops spend more than a year at sea and may suffer from different types of psychological disorders. The purpose of this study is to try to find factors that promote psychological well-being of troops and improve their psychological health. We investigated the effect of dispatch sailors’ occupational calling and social support on anxiety before they are sent overseas and also examined the interaction between occupational calling and social support on anxiety. One hundred thirty-eight dispatched sailors participated in this study, wherein they completed the Korean calling scale, multifaceted social support scale, and anxiety scale –Y form. We analyzed the data using hierarchical regression. The results showed that after controlling gender, marital status, and the previous experiences of dispatch, those who have a higher level of occupational calling and perceived social support experienced a low level of anxiety before they are sent (β = -.276, β = -.395). Furthermore, we examined the interaction effect. If the troops’ perceived social support is high, they experience a low level of anxiety—even if they have a low level of occupational calling. This study confirms that both occupational calling and social support reduce the level of anxiety of the troops. The research provides meaningful information in understanding those who serve in the Navy’s distinctive situations and contributes to improving their psychological well-being. We suggest that sailors undergo training to have a higher occupational calling and healthy relationships with friends, families, and co-workers who provide emotional and social support.

Keywords: navy, occupational calling, social support, anxiety

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2205 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

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2204 Guide to the Development of the Intensive English Program for Graduate Students

Authors: Piyawan Sunasuan, Thiranan Pansuppawat, Mananya Manaratchasak, Maream Nillapun

Abstract:

This research aims to guide the development of the intensive English program for graduate students. The objectives are 1) to study the English skills in which needed for the graduate students and 2) to study the potential of the current course with the expected proficiency level. The samples are 46 graduate students enrolled in the ENG 102 and ENG 103 courses of the school year of 2019/2020 in semester one from the Silpakorn University, Sanamchandra Palace Campus, and two teachers. The researchers use 1) student survey, 2) teacher interview, and 3) focus group discussion among selected students. The data is analyzed by calculating the mean (x̅), the standard deviation, and document analysis. The findings show that nine skills are in the need of the course development; 1) academic writing 2) occupational purpose writing 3) communicative reading 4) occupational purpose reading 5) academic speaking 6) occupational purpose speaking 7) occupational purpose listening 8) academic listening and 9) communicative listening. The current course does not meet the expectation on a high level but has potential.

Keywords: English for academic purposes, English for communication, English for occupational purposes, intensive English

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2203 Proposed Organizational Development Interventions in Managing Occupational Stressors for Business Schools in Batangas City

Authors: Marlon P. Perez

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The study intended to determine the level of occupational stress that was experienced by faculty members of private and public business schools in Batangas City with the end in view of proposing organizational development interventions in managing occupational stressors. Stressors such as factors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, relationships at work, career development and organizational structure and climate were used as determinants of occupational stress level. Descriptive method of research was used as its research design. There were only 64 full-time faculty members coming from private and public business schools in Batangas City – University of Batangas, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas, Golden Gate Colleges, Batangas State University and Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas. Survey questionnaire was used as data gathering instrument. It was found out that all occupational stressors were assessed stressful when grouped according to its classification of tertiary schools while response of subject respondents differs on their assessment of occupational stressors. Age variable has become significantly related to respondents’ assessments on factors intrinsic to the job and career development; however, it was not significantly related to role in the organization, relationships at work and organizational structure and climate. On the other hand, gender, marital status, highest educational attainment, employment status, length of service, area of specialization and classification of tertiary school were revealed to be not significantly related to all occupational stressors. Various organizational development interventions have been proposed to manage the occupational stressors that are experienced by business faculty members in the institution.

Keywords: occupational stress, business school, organizational development, intervention, stressors, faculty members, assessment, manage

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2202 Importance of Occupational Safety and Health in Dam Construction Site

Authors: Naci Büyükkaraciğan, Yildirim Akyol

Abstract:

Large plants that covering the back and accumulate water of a river valley for energy production, drinking, irrigation water supply, economic benefits that serve many purposes, such as regulation of flood protection, are called dams. Place, in which unites in order to achieve an optimum balance between manpower for Lowest cost and economic as belonging to that structure to create machines, materials and construction of the project, is called as the site. Dam construction sites are combined sites in together in many businesses. Therefore, there can be found in the many workers and machines are many accidents in this type of construction sites. The necessity of systematic and scientific studies due to various reasons arises in order to be protected from conditions that could damage the health, During the execution of the work on construction sites. Occupational health and safety of the study, called the case, also in the European Union has begun to be addressed by weight since the 1980s. In particular, issued in 1989 89/391/EEC on occupational health and safety directive, occupational health and adopted the Directive within the framework of the security field, and then exposed to a large number of individual directive within this framework on the basis of the directive. Turkey's Law No. 6331 entered into force in June 2012 on the subject. In this study, measures related to the construction site of the dam should be taken with occupational safety and health have been examined and tried to put forward recommendations on the subject.

Keywords: civil engineering, dam, occupational safety and health, site organizations

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2201 Effects of Occupational Therapy on Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Sedef Şahin, Meral Huri

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Cerebral Palsy (CP) represents the most frequent cause of physical disability in children with a rate of 2,9 per 1000 live births. The activity-focused intervention is known to improve function and reduce activity limitations and barriers to participation of children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of occupational therapy on level of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction in children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Twenty-two children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (mean age: 9,3 ± 2.1years; Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS) level from I to V (I = 54%, II = 23%, III = 14%, IV= 9%, V= 0%), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level from I to V (I = 40%, II = 32%, III = 14%, IV= 10%, V= 4%), were assigned to occupational therapy program for 6 weeks.Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for intensity of the fatigue they experienced at the time on a 10 point Likert scale (1-10).Activity performance and satisfaction were measured with Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM).A client-centered occupational therapy intervention was designed according to results of COPM. The results were compared with nonparametric Wilcoxon test before and after the intervention. Thirteen of the children were right-handed, whereas nine of the children were left handed.Six weeks of intervention showed statistically significant differences in level of fatigue, compared to first assessment(p<0,05). The mean score of first and the second activity performance scores were 4.51 ± 1.70 and 7.35 ± 2.51 respectively. Statistically significant difference between performance scores were found (p<0.01). The mean scores of first and second activity satisfaction scores were of 2.30± 1.05 and 5.51 ± 2.26 respectively. Statistically significant difference between satisfaction assessments were found (p<0.01). Occupational therapy is an evidence-based approach and occupational therapy interventions implemented by therapists were clinically effective on severity of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction if implemented individually during 6 weeks.

Keywords: activity performance, cerebral palsy, fatigue, occupational therapy

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2200 Attitude, Practice, and Prevalence of Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Lagos State

Authors: O. J. Makinde, O. A. Abiola

Abstract:

Background: Hazards and injuries are two common phenomena that have been associated with the building construction profession. Apart from injuries, deaths from injuries sustained at work have been high in this profession. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the attitude, practice, and prevalence of injuries among this group of workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 285 respondents. The sampling was multi-staged. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit information such as socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, attitude and practice of occupational safety and prevalence of injuries among the workers. The data were analyzed using epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Result: The modal age group is 25-34yrs which made up 40% of the respondents. Most of the respondents were male (86.3%). Most of the respondent (52.3%) have their highest educational level as the secondary school. Most of the respondents (64.9%) had a poor attitude to occupational safety while 91.6% had poor occupational safety practices. The prevalence of occupational injury was very high (64.9%). Particles in the eyes have the highest prevalence (52.3%) while electric shock has the least prevalence (19.6%).None of the respondent working at a height used safety belt while working. Conclusion: Attitude and practice of occupational safety are poor among this group of workers and prevalence of injuries was high.

Keywords: building, construction, Hazard, injury, workers

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2199 Knowledge and Preventive Practice of Occupational Health Hazards among Nurses Working in Various Hospitals in Kathmandu

Authors: Sabita Karki

Abstract:

Occupational health hazards are recognized as global problems for health care workers, it is quiet high in developing countries. It is increasing day by day due to change in science and technology. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of occupational health hazards among the nurses. A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out among 339 nurses working in three different teaching hospitals of the Kathmandu from February 28, 2016 to March 28, 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The study findings revealed that out of 339 samples of all 80.5% were below 30 years; 51.6% were married; 57.5% were graduates and above; 91.4% respondents were working as staff nurse; 56.9% were working in general ward; 56.9% have work experience of 1 to 5 years; 79.1% respondents were immunized against HBV; only 8.6% have received training/ in-service education related to OHH and 35.4% respondents have experienced health hazards. The mean knowledge score was 26.7 (SD=7.3). The level of knowledge of occupational health hazards among the nurses was 68.1% (adequate knowledge). The knowledge was statistically significant with education OR = 0.288, CI: 0.17-0.46 and p value 0.00 and immunization against HBV OR= 1.762, CI: 0.97-0.17 and p value 0.05. The mean practice score was 7.6 (SD= 3.1). The level of practice on prevention of OHH was 74.6% (poor practice). The practice was statistically significant with age having OR=0.47, CI: 0.26-0.83 and p value 0.01; designation OR= 0.32, CI: 0.14-0.70 and p value 0.004; working department OR=0.61, CI: 0.36-1.02 and p value 0.05; work experience OR=0.562, CI: 0.33-0.94 and p value 0.02; previous in-service education/ training OR=2.25; CI: 1.02-4.92 and p value 0.04. There was no association between knowledge and practice on prevention of occupational health hazards which is not statistically significant. Overall, nurses working in various teaching hospitals of Kathmandu had adequate knowledge and poor practice of occupational health hazards. Training and in-service education and availability of adequate personal protective equipments for nurses are needed to encourage them adhere to practice.

Keywords: occupational health hazard, nurses, knowledge, preventive practice

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2198 Sources of Occupational Stress among Teachers in Command Secondary Schools of Nigerian Army

Authors: Mary Esere, Mogbekeloluwa Fakokunde, Adetoun Idowu

Abstract:

Background: Working in a military setting could elicit some amount of stressful doses into ones system because of the attendant peculiar characteristics found in the military environment. Thus, this study was carried out to find out the sources of occupational stress among teachers in various Command Secondary Schools within 2 Division of Nigerian Army. Method: The study employed a survey method. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the schools in the Division. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study. Sources of Teachers’ Occupational Stress Questionnaire (STOSQ) was administered to the respondents to collect relevant data. The t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were used to test the hypotheses. Findings: From the study, it was discovered that teachers in this setting do experience occupational stress. Their major sources of stress bother on issues relating to salaries and allowances and staff welfare concerns. The findings also revealed that there were no significant differences in the sources of occupational stress among the teachers in respect to gender and marital status. Discussion: Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Appropriate Superior Authority (ASA) should reconstitute the proscribed Armed Forces Schools Management Board (AFSMB) where issues, such as staff salaries and welfare concerns for teachers working in the schools under the three services (Army, Navy, Airforce) will always be addressed. This will go a long way in enhancing the psychological well-being of the teachers.

Keywords: Nigerian army, occupational stress, sources, teachers

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2197 Estimation of Morbidity Level of Industrial Labour Conditions at Zestafoni Ferroalloy Plant

Authors: M. Turmanauli, T. Todua, O. Gvaberidze, R. Javakhadze, N. Chkhaidze, N. Khatiashvili

Abstract:

Background: Mining process has the significant influence on human health and quality of life. In recent years the events in Georgia were reflected on the industry working process, especially minimal requirements of labor safety, hygiene standards of workplace and the regime of work and rest are not observed. This situation is often caused by the lack of responsibility, awareness, and knowledge both of workers and employers. The control of working conditions and its protection has been worsened in many of industries. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of the current situation the prospective epidemiological study by face to face interview method was conducted at Georgian “Manganese Zestafoni Ferroalloy Plant” in 2011-2013. 65.7% of employees (1428 bulletin) were surveyed and the incidence rates of temporary disability days were studied. Results: The average length of a temporary disability single accident was studied taking into consideration as sex groups as well as the whole cohort. According to the classes of harmfulness the following results were received: Class 2.0-10.3%; 3.1-12.4%; 3.2-35.1%; 3.3-12.1%; 3.4-17.6%; 4.0-12.5%. Among the employees 47.5% and 83.1% were tobacco and alcohol consumers respectively. According to the age groups and years of work on the base of previous experience ≥50 ages and ≥21 years of work data prevalence respectively. The obtained data revealed increased morbidity rate according to age and years of work. It was found that the bone and articulate system and connective tissue diseases, aggravation of chronic respiratory diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension and cerebral blood discirculation were the leading among the other diseases. High prevalence of morbidity observed in the workplace with not satisfactory labor conditions from the hygienic point of view. Conclusion: According to received data the causes of morbidity are the followings: unsafety labor conditions; incomplete of preventive medical examinations (preliminary and periodic); lack of access to appropriate health care services; derangement of gathering, recording, and analysis of morbidity data. This epidemiological study was conducted at the JSC “Manganese Ferro Alloy Plant” according to State program “ Prevention of Occupational Diseases” (Program code is 35 03 02 05).

Keywords: occupational health, mining process, morbidity level, cerebral blood discirculation

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2196 Referrals to Occupational Therapy Driving Assessors: A Qualitative Study of General Practitioners

Authors: Mary Butler

Abstract:

Background: Screening programmes for older drivers in Europe (though not the UK), and in many states in the US and in Australia are based on medical assessment of fitness to drive. These programmes require physicians (including general practitioners) to carry out an assessment of fitness to drive in their offices. In 2006, New Zealand changed from doing on-road driving tests with all older drivers from the age of 80, to a screening programme that uses medical assessment of fitness to drive only. Aim: This study set out to understand the experience of New Zealand GPs as they manage the process of medical assessment of fitness to drive assessments for older people. In particular, it aimed to establish how GPs understand the role of specialist driving assessment and rehabilitation carried out by occupational therapists. Design and setting: The study used an interpretive descriptive approach to analyze data from ten interviews with GPs in New Zealand. Results: The results indicated that GPs lack understanding about how occupational therapists can assist their patients, and tend to refer only when there is a disagreement with the patient. Conclusion: There are problems with the medical assessment of fitness to drive carried out by GPs, and there is a need for a more comprehensive community approach to driving cessation. Patients, families and the multidisciplinary team all have a role in deciding when driving cessation should occur. Occupational therapists have a particular responsibility for strategic leadership in this area of practice.

Keywords: assessment, driving, older people, occupational therapy

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