Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2822

Search results for: biogas plant

2552 Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Wild Herb Urginea wightii

Authors: S. K. Hemalata, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari

Abstract:

The present work focusses on anti-inflammatory action of Urginea wightii in-vitro. Urginea wightii is a member of Hyacinthaceae and considered to be wonder plant because of its varied important medicinal properties. The plant is endemic to India, Africa, and Mediterranian regions. Presence of alkaloids, flavonoid-glycosides especially flavonone derivatives are responsible for the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii. In present research work, anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bulb powder was tested on Male Wistar Rats. In these test animals, inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan as the irritant to induce paw edema in Wistar rats. Inflammation of Paw edema was treated with both plant extract and Pyrox gel a known synthetic anti-inflammatory drug through external application. The result indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii extract was almost similar to the synthetic Pyrox gel. This disproves the modern world's scepticism towards the herbal medicines and encourages to rely on natural plant extracts.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid-glycosides, Pyrox gel, Urginia wightii

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2551 Life Prediction of Condenser Tubes Applying Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Algorithms

Authors: A. Majidian

Abstract:

The life prediction of thermal power plant components is necessary to prevent the unexpected outages, optimize maintenance tasks in periodic overhauls and plan inspection tasks with their schedules. One of the main critical components in a power plant is condenser because its failure can affect many other components which are positioned in downstream of condenser. This paper deals with factors affecting life of condenser. Failure rates dependency vs. these factors has been investigated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic algorithms. These algorithms have shown their capabilities as dynamic tools to evaluate life prediction of power plant equipments.

Keywords: life prediction, condenser tube, neural network, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2550 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, Candida species, biosystems engineering

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2549 Influence of Salicylic Acid Seed Priming on Catalase and Peroxidase in Zea mays L. Plant (Var- Sc.704) under Water Stress Condition and Different Irrigation Regimes

Authors: Arash Azarpanah, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Shorangiz Javanmardi

Abstract:

Abiotic stresses are the principle threat to plant growth and crop productivity all over the world. In order to improve the germination of corn seeds in drought stress conditions, effect of seed priming by various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0.8 and 0.2 mM) on activities of catalase and peroxidase in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) was evaluated at Agriculture Research Center located in Arsenjan city in Iran, during summer 2013. A farm research was done in RCBD as factorial with three replications. We considered four irrigation was carried out once the cumulative evaporation from Pan Class A come to 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm. Results illustrated that drought stress significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase and also treatment with salicylic acid significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. In addition, treatment with salicylic acid enhances drought tolerance in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: catalase, corn, salicylic acid, water deficits stress, cumulative evaporation, Pan Class A

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2548 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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2547 Concrete Recycling in Egypt for Construction Applications: A Technical and Financial Feasibility Model

Authors: Omar Farahat Hassanein, A. Samer Ezeldin

Abstract:

The construction industry is a very dynamic field. Every day new technologies and methods are developing to fasten the process and increase its efficiency. Hence, if a project uses fewer resources, it will be more efficient. This paper examines the recycling of concrete construction and demolition (C&D) waste to reuse it as aggregates in on-site applications for construction projects in Egypt and possibly in the Middle East. The study focuses on a stationary plant setting. The machinery set-up used in the plant is analyzed technically and financially. The findings are gathered and grouped to obtain a comprehensive cost-benefit financial model to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing and operating a concrete recycling plant. Furthermore, a detailed business plan including the time and hierarchy is proposed.

Keywords: construction wastes, recycling, sustainability, financial model, concrete recycling, concrete life cycle

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2546 Carbon Footprint Reduction Using Cleaner Production Strategies in a Otoshimi Producing Plant

Authors: Razuana Rahim, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abstract:

In this work, a study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Cleaner Production (CP) strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emission (CO2) in a plant that produces Otoshimi. CP strategy is meant to reduce CO2 emission while taking into consideration the economic aspect. For this purpose, a CP audit was conducted and the information obtained were analyzed and major contributors of CO2 emission inside the boundary of the production plant was identified. Electricity, water and fuel consumption and generation of solid waste and wastewater were identified as the main contributors. Total CO2 emission generated was 0.27 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, where 68% was contributed by electricity consumption. Subsequently, a total of three CP options were generated and implementations of these options are expected to reduce the CO2 emission from electricity consumption to 0.16 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, a reduction of about 14%. The study proves that CP strategy can be implemented even without any investment to reduce CO2 for a plant that produces Otoshimi.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emission, cleaner production audit, cleaner production options, otoshimi production

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2545 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Indian Sundarban, mangroves, phytoremediation, trace elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2544 Growth and Yield Response of Solanum retroflexum to Different Level of Salinity

Authors: Fhatuwani Herman Nndwambi, P. W. Mashela

Abstract:

Salinity is a major constraint limiting crop productivity. It has been predicted that by the year 2050, more than 50% of the arable land will be affected by salinity. Two similar salinity experiments were conducted in two seasons under greenhouse condition. Six levels of salinity plus control (viz; control, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 % NaCl and CaCl2 at 3:1 ratio) were applied in a form of irrigation water in a single factor experiment arranged in a complete block design with 20 replications. Plant growth and yield were negatively affected by salinity treatments especially at the high levels of salinity. For example, our results suggest that the 32 and 64% of NaCl and CaCl2 treatment were too much for the plant to withstand as determined by reduced dry shoot mass, stem diameter and plant height in both seasons. On the other hand, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased with an increased level of salinity.

Keywords: growth, salinity, season, yield

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2543 Interaction of between Cd and Zn in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Plant for Phytoextraction Method

Authors: S. Adiloğlu, K. Bellitürk, Y. Solmaz, A. Adiloğlu

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to remediation of the cadmium (Cd) pollution in agricultural soils by using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant. For this purpose, a pot experiment was done in greenhouse conditions. Cadmium (100 mg/kg) as CdSO4.8H2O forms was applied to each pot and incubated during 30 days. Then Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelate was applied to each pot at five doses (0, 3, 6, 8 and 10 mmol/kg) 20 days before harvesting time of the barley plants. The plants were harvested after two months planting. According to the pot experiment results, Cd and Zn amounts of barley plant increased with increasing EDTA application and Zn and Cd contents of barley 20,13 and 1,35 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 58,61 and 113,24 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. On the other hand, Cd and Zn concentrations of experiment soil increased with EDTA application to the soil samples. Zinc and Cd concentrations of soil 0,31 and 0,021 mg/kg for 0 mmol /kg EDTA; 2,39 and 67,40 mg/kg for 10 mmol/kg EDTA doses, respectively. These increases were found to be statistically significant at the level of 1 %. According to the results of the pot experiment, some heavy metal especially Cd pollution of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plant province can be remediated by the phytoextraction method.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., cadmium, zinc, phytoextraction, soil pollution

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2542 Exploitation of Endophytes for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Authors: N. P. Eswara Reddy, S. Thahir Basha

Abstract:

Here, we report the success stories of potential leaf, seed and root endophytes against soil borne as well as foliar plant pathogens which are nutritionally adequate and safe for consumption. Endophytes are the microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants are a robust source of potential biocontrol agents and it is presumed that the survival ability of endophytes may be better when compared to phylloplane microflora. Of all the 68 putative leaf endophytes, the endophytes viz., EB9 (100%), and EB35 (100%) which were superior in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were identified as Brevundimonas bullata (EB09) and Bacillus thuringiensis (EB35) and further delayed in ripening of mango fruits up to 21 days. As a part, the seed endophyte GSE-4 was identified as Archoromobacter spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut and the root endophyte REB-8 against Rhizoctonia bataticola causing dry root rot of chickpea was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Both recorded least percent disease incidence (PDI) and increased plant growth promotion, respectively. Further, the novel Bacillus subtilis (SEB-2) against Macrophomina pahseolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower provides an ample scope for exploring the endophytes at large scale. The talc-based formulations of these endophytes developed can be commercialized after toxicological studies. At the bottom line these unexplored endophytes are the need of the hour against aggressive plant pathogens and to maintain the quality and abundance of food and feed and also to fetch marginal economy to the farmers will be discussed.

Keywords: endophytes, plant pathogens, commercialization, abundance of food

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2541 Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas

Authors: U. Schmidt, D. Dannehl, I. Schuch, J. Suhl, T. Rocksch, R. Salazar-Moreno, E. Fitz-Rodrigues, A. Rojano Aquilar, I. Lopez Cruz, G. Navas Gomez, R. A. Abraham, L. C. Irineo, N. G. Gilberto

Abstract:

The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.

Keywords: semi closed, greenhouses, urban farming, solar heat collector, closed water cycles, aquaponics

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2540 A Qualitative Description of the Dynamics in the Interactions between Three Populations: Pollinators, Plants, and Herbivores

Authors: Miriam Sosa-Díaz, Faustino Sánchez-Garduño

Abstract:

In population dynamics the study of both, the abundance and the spatial distribution of the populations in a given habitat, is a fundamental issue a From ecological point of view, the determination of the factors influencing such changes involves important problems. In this paper a mathematical model to describe the temporal dynamic and the spatiotemporal dynamic of the interaction of three populations (pollinators, plants and herbivores) is presented. The study we present is carried out by stages: 1. The temporal dynamics and 2. The spatio-temporal dynamics. In turn, each of these stages is developed by considering three cases which correspond to the dynamics of each type of interaction. For instance, for stage 1, we consider three ODE nonlinear systems describing the pollinator-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator-herbivore, interactions, respectively. In each of these systems different types of dynamical behaviors are reported. Namely, transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations, existence of a limit cycle, existence of a heteroclinic orbit, etc. For the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two mathematical models a novel factor are introduced. This consists in considering that both, the pollinators and the herbivores, move towards those places of the habitat where the plant population density is high. In mathematical terms, this means that the diffusive part of the pollinators and herbivores equations depend on the plant population density. The analysis of this part is presented by considering pairs of populations, i. e., the pollinator-plant and plant-herbivore interactions and at the end the two mathematical model is presented, these models consist of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of reaction-diffusion type. These are defined on a rectangular domain with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. We focused in the role played by the density dependent diffusion term into the coexistence of the populations. For both, the temporal and spatio-temporal dynamics, a several of numerical simulations are included.

Keywords: bifurcation, heteroclinic orbits, steady state, traveling wave

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2539 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: spinach, salinity, osmolyte, cytotoxic

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2538 Antagonistic Effect of Indigenous Plant Extracts toward Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Ali Hassan, Umm-e- Rubab, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Insecticidal property of plant extracts was assessed toward dusky bug of cotton. Plant extracts consisted of bari pata (Ziziphus jajuba), Ak (Calotropis gigantean), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Bakine (Melia azedarach),Kanar (Nerium oleander),Kurtuma (Mitragyna speciosa) and one Control was also included with distilled water treatment. Forced feeding experiment was used to determine the antibiotic effect of bug plant extracts on dusky bug whereas Multi-choice experiment to determine the antixenosis/ repellent property of botanicals. It is evident from the results that mortality and antibiosis percentage of dusky bug due to the use of botanicals ranged from 15-95% and 20-87.3% respectively that was maximum in tobacoo extract followed by bakain and kurtama, minimum was on Ak, kanair and bakain extract. Non preference ranged from 14.28 to 85.7 where maximum non preference of dusky bug was found on bakain and kurtama followed by ak and kanair however minimum was on Bari pata extract. It was further found that local plant extract possessed insecticidal property toward dusky bug as well as also possesses repellency effect toward dusky bug, thus should be included in integrated pest management program of cotton in order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides it is compulsory to adopt eco-friendly methods of insect pest management.

Keywords: botanical extract, insecticidal and repellency activity, Gossypium hirsutum, oxycarenus laetus

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2537 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan

Abstract:

The most important process of the water treatment plant process is the coagulation using alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL), and the value of usage per day is a hundred thousand baht. Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL are the most important factors to be prescribed. Water production is economical and valuable. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for prediction chemical dose used to coagulation such as alum and PACL, which input data consists of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of Bangkhen water treatment plant (BKWTP) Metropolitan Waterworks Authority. The data collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 cover changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN is divided into three groups training set, test set, and validation set, which the best model performance with a coefficient of determination and mean absolute error of alum are 0.73, 3.18, and PACL is 0.59, 3.21 respectively.

Keywords: soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network

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2536 Ethnobotanical Survey of Vegetable Plants Traditionally Used in Kalasin Thailand

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Chuthalak Thammaso

Abstract:

Use of plants grown in local area for edible has a long tradition in different culture. The indigenous knowledge such as usage of plants as vegetables by local people is risk to disappear when no records are done. In order to conserve and transfer this valuable heritage to the new generation, ethnobotanical study should be investigated and documented. The survey of vegetable plants traditionally used was carried out in the year 2012. Information was accumulated via questionnaires and oral interviewing from 100 people living in 36 villages of 9 districts in Amphoe Huai Mek, Kalasin, Thailand. Local plant names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. Each mentioned plant species were collected and voucher specimens were prepared. A total of 55 vegetable plant species belonging to 34 families and 54 genera were identified. The plant habits were tree, shrub, herb, climber, and shrubby fern at 21.82%, 18.18%, 38.18%, 20.00% and 1.82% respectively. The most encountered vegetable plant families were Leguminosae (20%), Cucurbitaceae (7.27%), Apiaceae (5.45%), whereas families with 3.64% uses were Araceae, Bignoniaceae, Lamiaceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. The most common consumptions were fresh or brief boiled young shoot or young leaf as side dishes of ‘jaeo, laab, namprik, pon’ or curries. Most locally known vegetables included 45% of the studied plants which grow along road side, backyard garden, hedgerow, open forest and rice field.

Keywords: vegetable plants, ethnobotanical survey, Kalasin, Thailand

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2535 In vitro Callus Production from Lantana Camara: A Step towards Biotransformation Studies

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture practices are presented nowadays as the most promising substitute to a whole plant in the terms of secondary metabolites production. They offer the advantages of high production, tunability and they have less effect on plant ecosystems. Lantana camara is a weed, which is common all over the world as an ornamental plant. Weeds can adapt to any type of soil and climate due to their rich cellular machinery for secondary metabolites’ production. This characteristic is found in Lantana camara as a plant of very rich diversity of secondary metabolites with no dominant class of compounds. Aim: This trait has encouraged the author to develop tissue culture experiments for Lantana camara to be a platform for production and manipulation of secondary metabolites through biotransformation. Methodology: The plant was collected in its flowering stage in September 2014, from which explants were prepared from shoot tip, auxiliary bud and leaf. Different types of culture media were tried as well as four phytohormones and their combinations; NAA, 2,4-D, BAP and kinetin. Explants were grown in dark or in 12 hours dark and light cycles at 25°C. A metabolic profile for the produced callus was made and then compared to the whole plant profile. The metabolic profile was made using GC-MS for volatile constituents (extracted by n-hexane) and by HPLC-MS and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for non-volatile constituents (extracted by ethanol and water). Results: The best conditions for the callus induction was achieved using MS media supplied with 30 gm sucrose and NAA/BAP (1:0.2 mg/L). Initiation of callus was favoured by incubation in dark for 20 day. The callus produced under these conditions showed yellow colour, which changed to brownish after 30 days. The rate of callus growth was high, expressed in the callus diameter, which reached to 1.15±0.2 cm in 30 days; however, the induction of callus delayed for 15 days. The metabolic profile for both volatile and non-volatile constituents of callus showed more simple background metabolites than the whole plant with two new (unresolved) peaks in the callus’ nonvolatile constituents’ chromatogram. Conclusion: Lantana camara callus production can be itself a source of new secondary metabolites and could be used for biotransformation studies due to its simple metabolic background, which allow easy identification of newly formed metabolites. The callus production gathered the simple metabolic background with the rich cellular secondary metabolite machinery of the plant, which could be elicited to produce valuable medicinally active products.

Keywords: capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, metabolic profile, plant tissue culture

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2534 Standardization of Propagation Techniques for Celastrus paniculata: An Endangered Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

Authors: Raviraja Shetty G., K. G. Poojitha

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mudigere to study the effect of different growth regulators on seed germination and vegetative propagation by cuttings of Celastrus paniculata an endangered medicinal plant. The extracted seeds are subjected to 11 different pre-soaking treatments which include control, GA3 at 300, 350, 400ppm, KNO3 at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, H2SO4 at 0.5%, 1.0% and HCl 0.5%,1.0% for 100 seeds per treatment. Among the different germination inducing treatments, seeds treated with gibberellins responded well with high seed germination and vigorous seedling growth. The seeds treated with GA3 400 ppm recorded maximum germination and growth parameters like rate of germination, shoot length, root length, plant vigour, fresh and dry weight of which was followed GA3 350 ppm. The commencement of germination and 50 per cent germination was also earlier in the same treatment. The cuttings of C. paniculata took more time for root initiation up to four months and sprouting percent was moderate as compared to other easy to root species. Among different treatments, IBA 2000 ppm was found to be the best, which recorded the maximum shoot and also root parameters. The results of present investigation will be helpful for conservation of this endangered medicinal plant through propagation

Keywords: conservation, germination, growth, germination, propagation

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2533 Consumption Habits of Low-Fat Plant Sterol-Enriched Yoghurt Enriched with Phytosterols

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, A. C. Sousa Pereira, M. C. Castilho, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The increasing interest in plant sterol enriched foods is due to the fact that they reduce blood cholesterol concentrations without adverse side effects. In this context, enriched foods with phytosterols may be helpful in protecting population against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate in a population of Viseu, Portugal, the consumption habits low-fat, plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. For this study, 577 inquiries were made and the sample was randomly selected for people shopping in various supermarkets. The preliminary results showed that the biggest consumers of these products were women aged 45 to 65 years old. Most of the people who claimed to buy these products consumed them once a day. Also, most of the consumers under antidyslipidemic therapeutics noticed positive effects on hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: consumption habits, fermented milk, functional foods, low fat, phytosterols

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2532 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

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2531 Solution to Increase the Produced Power in Micro-Hydro Power Plant

Authors: Radu Pop, Adrian Bot, Vasile Rednic, Emil Bruj, Oana Raita, Liviu Vaida

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Our research presents a study concerning optimization of water flow capture for micro-hydro power plants in order to increase the energy production. It is known that the fish ladder whole, were the water is capture is fix, and the water flow may vary with the river flow, this means that on the fish ladder we will have different servitude flows, sometimes more than needed. We propose to demonstrate that the ‘winter intake’ from micro-hydro power plant, could be automated with an intelligent system which is capable to read some imposed data and adjust the flow in to the needed value. With this automation concept, we demonstrate that the performance of the micro-hydro power plant could increase, in some flow operating regimes, with approx. 10%.

Keywords: energy, micro-hydro, water intake, fish ladder

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2530 Effect of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria on Yield and Seed Quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under Drought Stress

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Chaudhry, Fahim Nawaz, Rana Nauman Shabbir

Abstract:

New strategies aimed at increasing the resilience of crop plants to the negative effects of climate change represent important research priorities of plant scientists. The use of soil microorganisms to alleviate abiotic stresses like drought has gained particular importance in recent past. A field experiment was planned to investigate the effect of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria on yield and seed quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under water deficit conditions. The study was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, during 4th week of November, 2013. The available seeds of Camelina sativa were inoculated with two bacterial strains (pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.) and grown under various water stress levels i.e. D0, (four irrigations), D3 (three irrigation), D2 (two irrigations), and D1 (one irrigation). The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduced the plant growth and yield, consequently reducing protein contents and oil concentration in camelina. The exposure to drought stress decreased plant height (16%), plant population (27%), number of fertile branches (41-59%), number of pods per plant (35%) and seed per pod (33%). Drought stress also exerted a negative impact on yield characteristics by reducing the 1000-seed weight (65%), final seed yield (52%), biological yield (22%) and harvest index (39%) of camelina. However, the inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. promoted the plant growth characterized by increased plant height and enhanced plant population. It was noted that inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas resulted in the maximum plant population (113.4 cm), primary branches (19 plant-1), and number of pods (664 plant-1), whereas Bacillus inoculation resulted in maximum plant height (113.4 cm), seeds per pod (15.9), 1000-seed weight (1.85 g), and seed yield (3378.8 kg ha-1). Moreover, the inoculation with Bacillus also significantly improved the quality attributes of camelina and gave 3.5% and 2.1% higher oil contents than Pseudomonas and control (no-inoculation), respectively. Similarly, the same strain also resulted in maximum protein contents (33.3%). Our results confirmed the hypothesis that inoculation of seeds with phosphorous solubilizing bacterial strains is an effective, viable and environment-friendly approach to improve yield and quality of camelina under water deficit conditions. However, further studies are suggested to investigate the physiological and molecular processes, stimulated by bacterial strains, for increasing drought tolerance in food crops.

Keywords: Camelina, drought stress, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, seed quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
2529 Modelling and Simulation of Diffusion Effect on the Glycol Dehydration Unit of a Natural Gas Plant

Authors: M. Wigwe, J. G Akpa, E. N Wami

Abstract:

Mathematical models of the absorber of a glycol dehydration facility was developed using the principles of conservation of mass and energy. Models which predict variation of the water content of gas in mole fraction, variation of gas and liquid temperatures across the parking height were developed. These models contain contributions from bulk and diffusion flows. The effect of diffusion on the process occurring in the absorber was studied in this work. The models were validated using the initial conditions in the plant data from Company W TEG unit in Nigeria. The results obtained showed that the effect of diffusion was noticed between z=0 and z=0.004 m. A deviation from plant data of 0% was observed for the gas water content at a residence time of 20 seconds, at z=0.004 m. Similarly, deviations of 1.584% and 2.844% were observed for the gas and TEG temperatures.

Keywords: separations, absorption, simulation, dehydration, water content, triethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
2528 Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Dry Weight, Flower Diameter, and Number of Flower in Plant Variabilities under Effect of Compost and Nitrogen Different Levels in Four Harvest

Authors: Amin Rezazadeh, Parisa Farahpour, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Morteza Sam Deliri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and compost different levels on qualitative and quantitative performance of Calendula officinalis L. herb, an experiment was carried out in the research field of Chalous Azad University in 2011-2012. The experiment was done in factorial form as a randomized complete block design, in three replicates. Treatments consisted of nitrogen and compost. Considered nitrogen levels consisted of N0=0, N1=50, N2=100 kg/ha and compost levels were including C0=0, C1=6, C2=12 ton/ha. Investigated characteristics consisted of flower dry weight, number of flowers in plant, flower diameter. The results showed, nitrogen and compost treatments had statistically significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on studied characteristics. Flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant characteristics has been studied in four harvest; as, the performance of these characteristics had increasing procedure from the first harvest up to the forth harvest; and, in the fourth harvest, it has reached to its` maximum level. As, up to the forth harvest, the maximum flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant obtained by C1× N2 (C1=6 ton/ha compost and N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen) treatment.

Keywords: calendula, compost, nitrogen, flavonoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2527 Selection of Lead Mobilizing Bacteria from Contaminated Soils and Their Potential in Promoting Plant Growth through Plant Growth Promoting Activity

Authors: Maria Manzoor, Iram Gul, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The strains were investigated for lead resistance and their effect on Pb solubility and PGPR activity. Incubation experiments were carried for inoculated and unoculated soil containing different levels of Pb. Results revealed that few stains (BTM-4, BTM-11, BTM-14) were able to tolerate Pb up to 600 mg L-1, whereas five strains (BTM-3, BTM-6, BTM-10, BTM-21 and BTM-24) showed significant increase in solubility of Pb when compared to all other strains and control. The CaCl2 extractable Pb was increased by 13.6, 6.8, 4.4 and 2.4 folds compared to un-inoculated control soil at increased soil Pb concentration (500, 1000, 1500 and 200 mg kg-1, respectively). The selected bacterial strains (11) were further investigated for plant growth promotion activity through PGPR assays including. Germination and root elongation assays were also conducted under elevated metal concentration in controlled conditions to elucidate the effects of microbial strains upon plant growth and development. The results showed that all the strains tested in this study, produced significantly varying concentrations of IAA, siderophores and gibberellic acid along with ability to phosphorus solubilization index (PSI). The results of germination and root elongation assay further confirmed the beneficial role of the microbial strains in elevating metal stress through PGPR activity. Among all tested strains, BTM-10 significantly improved plant growth. 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in root and shoot length was observed when compared to control. Which may be attributed to presence of important plant growth promoting enzymes (IAA 74.6 μg/ml; GA 19.23 μg/ml; Sidrophore units 49% and PSI 1.3 cm). The outcome of this study indicates that these Pb tolerant and solubilizing strains may have the potential for plant growth promotion under metal stress and can be used as mediator when coupled with heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.

Keywords: Pb resistant bacteria, Pb mobilizing bacteria, Phytoextraction of Pb, PGPR activity of bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2526 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2525 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2524 Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

Authors: S. M. Jogdand, D. D. Jagtap, N. R. Dalal

Abstract:

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.

Keywords: sweet orange, fertigation, irrigation, interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2523 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Derris scandens, phytochemical, antioxident, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 145